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* Or a tut it 

No. 9509 






I 793- I 800 







I 810 

V 1 



PREFACE, ending with Notes on Method, and Abbreviations . vii 


CORRIGENDA, ETC., to Vols. IV, V, VI . . . . . xlix 


(a) From 1793 to 1800 . . . . . . . . i 

(b) Addenda from c. 1780 to c. 1800 ...... 665 







THERE is tragic coincidence in the appearance of the present volume, 
deaUng with the revolutionary period from 1793 to 1800, at a time 
when Europe is again overshadowed by war, and divided by national, 
political, and moral issues which often reflect, in like intensity, the conflicts 
and controversies of the earlier period. 

The pictorial illustration of these burning issues was peculiarly suited 
to the savage genius of Gillray, whose prestige was at its height in England 
and on the continent. Rowlandson, on the other hand, was less active 
during these years, though many attractive prints were published after 
earlier drawings, or as re-issues of earlier plates. A new period of activity 
opened for him in 1798, when scenes of army life were a fresh inspiration. 
About the same time begins the series of whole-length caricature portraits, 
for which Robert Dighton is chiefly known, after his short-li\ed experi- 
ments in political caricature. Unfortunately the Museum collection of 
these portraits is far from complete. Much interesting work was done by 
lesser artists, under the influence of Rowlandson and Gillray, Isaac Cruik- 
shank and Woodward being especially prolific. 

The period covered is one year less than that of Volume VI, and the 
prints described are more than proportionately fewer. The reason for this 
is the very great number of political satires for the year 1784, about three 
times the average of other years, a result of the crisis of 1783-4, followed 
by a general election, when many prints were used as electioneering litera- 
ture. Many of the prints of the present volume are international propa- 
ganda, some commissioned by the Committee of Public Safety, some 
fostered by a Ministerial pension to Gillray. The struggle between Pitt 
and Fox, the leading theme of Volume VI, continues, deepened by issues 
of war and peace. 

The Department is particularly indebted to Lord Ilchester, Mr. Anthony 
de Rothschild, and Mr. Minto Wilson, who have lent valuable collections 
of caricatures for purposes of collation. The Holland House collection has 
the exceptional interest of MS. notes and identifications by the third Lord 
Holland. The Museum collection has been enriched by gifts from Mr. 
Minto Wilson and Mr. Robert Cust, while the former and Mr. Alfred 
Rubens have kindly allowed photographs to be taken of rare prints. 
Dr. George wishes to express her thanks for the help given her by Mr. E. H. 
Blakeney, Mr. W. B. Crumpe, Mr. Randall Davies, Dr. Gombrich, Mr. 
Wickham Legg, Mr. N. D. Riley, and Miss Sybil Rosenfeld. She is also 
much indebted to the Librarian of the House of Lords for giving her 
facilities for examining the Gillray collection in the Library, and to the 
staff of the Library in which she and her material are temporarily housed 
for their unwearied assistance. 

The final revision of the volume has been rendered more difficult by 
Dr. George's absence from the British Museum, and by the consequent 
lack of opportunity of reference to the Museum Library. I would ask for 
indulgence in case her habitual accuracy should have suff^ered thereby in 
any detail. 

March, 1941 A. M. HIND. 



THE method used is that of Volumes V and VI, namely that of the 
earlier volumes with certain modifications. The prints are divided into 
two categories, political and non-political ; there are many border-line cases 
and it is scarcely possible to classify these with rigid consistency. The 
political prints are arranged chronologically according to the date of pub- 
lication. Undated prints are given a conjectural date enclosed in a square 
bracket; the authentic dates of a few prints were discovered too late for 
rearrangement in proof, but are given in foot-notes. Non-political prints 
are arranged in years but grouped according to series, subject, or artist. 
The titles are given in capitals, the inscriptions on the plate and the publica- 
tion line in italics. Where there is no title an explanatory caption is given, 
unless the original title has been discovered: in both cases the heading is 
enclosed in a square bracket, in the latter case with a note of origin. The 
dimensions are those of the subject, not the plate, except when the con- 
trary is specified, the first being the upright, the second the horizontal 
measurement (reversing the order in Volumes I-IV). 

As in Volumes V and VI 'engraving' is used to include line-engraving, 
etching, and stipple-engraving ; the great majority of the prints are in fact 
etchings. The prints are numbered in continuation of the numbers in 
previous volumes. Copies or slightly altered states have the number of the 
original followed by the letter A (or A, B, &c.). No distinction is made 
between different states unless there has been some essential alteration in 
engraving or lettering. The addition of a press-mark preceded by the 
letters B.M.L. indicates that the print is in the British Museum Library, 
not in the Print Room. A few prints in other public collections have been 
described : these have no serial number but are indicated by a page refer- 
ence. As in Volumes V and VI the titles of prints described by Mr. Stephens 
in earlier volumes have been included in the text and have been indexed ; 
these are very few. 

The small subject-index is supplementary to the index of persons and 
to the cross-references in the text. It is intended to show broadly from 
year to year what were the main preoccupations of the caricaturist, and 
also, so far as possible, to give references to those subjects which are most 
sought after by students. Political events are not indexed but will be found 
under the appropriate dates and from the cross-references there given; 
since most prints are either political or personal the scope of a useful 
subject-index is relatively small. 

First proofs up to No. 9396 were corrected at the British Museum; after 
that number, plates with a B.M.L. press-mark have been corrected without 
reference to the original. 



A. de R. 






Dayot, Rev. fr. 

De Vinck 






Grego, Gillray 

Grego, Rozvlandson 


= A collection of caricatures belonging to Mr. 
Anthony de Rothschild, bound in twenty folio 
volumes, lettered I-XVIII, 'Gillray', and 'Bun- 
bury'. Typescript catalogue in the Print Room 
presented by Mr. de Rothschild. 
Catalogue of Drawings by British Artists and Artists 
of foreign origin working in Great Britain, preserved in 
the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British 
Museum. 1 898-1 907. 

Andre Blum, La Caricature Revolutionnaire {ijSg a 
1795)- Paris, 1 916. 

A. M. Broadley, Napoleon in Caricature 1795-1821. 
With an introductory essay on pictorial satire as a 
factor in Napoleonic history by J. Holland Rose. 
Two vols. 1911 [1910]. 

Francois-Louis Bruel, Histoire Adronautique par les 
Monuments Feints, Sculpte's, Dessinds et Graves des 
OriginesaiSjo. Paris, 1909. 

A collection of caricatures, mounted in twelve folio 
volumes, transferred from the B.M.L. (press-mark 
Tab. 524). See Volume V, p. viii. 
Augustin Challamel, Histoire-Musde de la Republique 
franfaise. Deux tomes. Paris, 1842. 
A collection of Kay's etchings bound in two volumes 
transferred from the B.M.L. (press-mark 1267. 
g. 1,2). 

 Thomas Pennant, SoTne Account of London, 3rd ed. 
1793, grangerized by J. C. Crowle. In Print Room. 
Armand Dayot, La Revolution franfaise, Con- 
stituante — Legislative — Convention — Directoire, 
d'apres les peintures, sculptures, gravures, me'dailles, 
objetsdu temps. Paris 1896. 

 Bibliotheque Nationale, Inventaire analytique de la 
Collection de Vinck. Tomes i, ii par F. L. Bruel, 
Paris 1909, 1914; Tome iii par M. Aubert et M. 
Roux, 1 92 1. 

= Eduard Fuchs und Hans Kraemer, Die Karikatur der 
europdischen Volker vom Althertum bis zur Neuzeit. 
Berlin, 1901. 

 Genuine Works of Mr. James Gillray. Published 
T. M'Lean, 1830 (from the original plates), 

= Lord Ronald Gower, Iconographie de la Reine Marie 
Antoinette... Paris, 1883. 

: John Grand-Carteret, Les Mceurs et la Caricature en 
France. Paris, 1888. 

• Idem, Napoleon en Images, Estampes anglaises. Paris, 

= James Gillray the Caricaturist, with the History of his 

Life and Times. Ed. T. Wright, 1873. 
= Joseph Grego, Rowlandson the Caricaturist. Two 

vols. 1880. 
= Inventaire de la Collection d'Estampes relatives a 

Vhistoire de France legude en 1863 a la Bibliotheque 



Jaime = 

Kay = 

'Kay's Caricatures* = 

L. & W. = 

Maurice and Cooper = 

MuUer = 

Paston = 

Reid = 

Renouvier = 

Rubens = 

Van Stolk = 

Weber = 

Wheeler & Broadley = 

Wright and Evans = 

Nationale par Michel Hennin, ridigd par Georges 
Duplessis. Tomeiv. Paris, 1882. 
Muse'e de la Caricature, ou Recueil des Caricatures 
les plus remarquables, publiees en France depuis 
le quatorzieme sibcle jusqu'h nos jours, calqudes et 
gravies par E. Jaime. Deux tomes. Paris, 1838. 
A Series of Original Portraits and Caricature Etchings 
by John Kay with Biographical Sketches and Illustra- 
tive Anecdotes. Ed. H. Paton. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 


Collection of Kay's etchings in book so lettered in 

Print Room. 

Laurie & Whittle's Catalogue of New and Interesting 

Prints . . . 1795. (Numbered list of 'Quarto Drolls', 

PP- 95 -9-) 

Arthur Bartlett Maurice and Frederic Taber Cooper. 

The History of the Nineteenth Century in Caricature, 


F. MuUer, De Nederlandsche Geschiedenis in Platen. 
Amsterdam, 2<^edeel. 1876-77. 

'George Paston', pseudonym for Miss E. M. 
Symonds, Social Caricature in the Eighteenth 
Century. 1905. 

George William Reid, A Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Works of George Cruikshank ... 1 87 1 . 
Histoire de I' Art pendant la Evolution considere 
principalement dans les Estampes. Ouvrage posthume 
de Jules Renouvier . . . Paris, 1863. 
Alfred Rubens, Anglo-Jewish Portraits. A Bio- 
graphical Catalogue of Engraved Anglo-Jewish and 
Colonial Portraits from the Earliest Times to the 
Accession of Queen Victoria. 1935. 

G. van Rijn, Atlas van Stolk, Katalogus derHistorie- 
Spot- en Zinne-prenten betrekkelijk de Geschiedenis 
van Nederland, verzameld door A. van Stolk, Cz. 
vide, viide deel. Amsterdam, 1902, 1906. 

A. Weber, Tableau de la Caricature mddicale depuis les 
originesjusqu'anosjours. Paris, 1936. 
H. F. B. Wheeler and A. M. Broadley, Napoleon and 
the Invasion of England. The Story of the Great 
Terror. 2 vols. 1908 [1907]. 

Thomas Wright and R. H. Evans, Historical and 
Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James 
Gillray, 1851. A key to the edition of Gillray's 
plates published by Bohn in 185 1. 







= British Museum Library. 

= Half length. 

= Three-quarter length. 

= Whole length. 

= left. 


= right. 
= plate. 


THE period covered by the seventh volume of the Catalogue is that of 
Pitt's first war ministry. It opens on the verge of war with the French 
Republic, and closes with the end of the century on the eve of Pitt's 
resignation, when a new Ministry was to enter on peace negotiations with 
the First Consul. Such a volume can hardly be published in war-time 
without allusion to the historical parallels and contrasts that obtrude them- 
selves. The underlying parallel is that of a revolutionary war in which 
England was fighting for her faiths as well as for survival against crusaders 
of international revolution who were heirs to the plans of conquest of 
Louis XIV — plans that expanded into dreams of world hegemony. Con- 
trasts are chiefly to be found in the activities of a small but socially im- 
portant Opposition strongly hostile to the war, and refusing to recognize 
the aggressive character of the Republic, and a small body of revolutionaries 
prepared to welcome a French invasion. Burdett even claimed (May 1797) 
that the war was 'nothing but a second edition of the American war . . . 
another bold and daring, but unsuccessful, attempt to stifle the flame of 
liberty'.' Indeed, the war scarcely became truly national till the invasion 
threat of 1803; the contrast between the invasion prints of 1796-8 and 
1803-5 is significant. In these satires the Opposition are almost always 
Jacobins — they wear the tricolour if not the bonnet-rouge. The attack is 
directed as much against 'French principles' in England as against the 
French, and the motto of the caricaturists might be a phrase of the Anti- 
Jacobin (14 May 1798): 'the Principles by which, much more than by the 
Arms of our enemy, the safety of the British Empire is endangered'. When 
Gillray writes of 'skirmishing against the common enemy'^ he may mean 
the French or the Foxites, but his prints are a passionate plea for unity in 
the face of danger. The exaggeration of caricature illustrates the factious 
bitterness which deprived the Government of constructive criticism from 
both sides of the House. Wilberforce wrote in December 1797: 'It has 
long been my opinion that next to the violence of Opposition, this country 
has most to dread from the unbounded acquiescence of those who support 
Administration. '3 In such a war the movements of opinion were all- 
important, and in the classic age of caricature they are nowhere so com- 
prehensively displayed as in the principal graphic satires of the period. 
More than any other collection of historical material, the prints reflect the 
reactions of the public to the varying fortunes of the war. The political and 
social prints, taken together, give a wonderful picture of England in 

The first questions to suggest themselves are connected with propaganda. 
The Ministry had its subsidized newspapers, less eflPective by that noto- 
rious fact than the Opposition Press. Did they also subsidize caricature ? 
Were satires produced in England to be used as British propaganda 
abroad ? The answer is Yes ; but only as exceptions in the great mass of 
freely-produced prints. Clearly, English caricaturists were in no way 
controlled by the Government ; every shade of opinion is represented, at 

' Pari. Hist, xxxii. 682. On 12 Apr. 1802 he called the war 'the old struggle [by 
the French] for rights and liberties against arbitrary power . . . the struggle in which 
the first Christians were engaged'. Ibid, xxxvi, 500. 

* See below, p. xiv. ^ Life 0/ Wilberforce, 11.24.5. 



times there is a strong an ti- Ministerial bias, though only one print is openly 
Foxite. There is nothing comparable with No. 8337, a print paid for by 
the French Government giving a completely false view of the military 
situation in order to calm the public. Nor did the Ministry issue instruc- 
tions for caricaturists after the manner of the Committee of Public Safety' 
and Napoleon. In England the production of patriotic prints was some- 
times stimulated by societies or individuals, the chief society being the 
Association for preserving Liberty and Property, known as the Crown and 
Anchor Society, because its head-quarters were in that famous tavern. A 
few prints in 1793 were financed, circulated, or advertised by the Associa- 
tion, and in 1794 A Picture of Great Britain in the Year lygj was dedicated 
to it. Other plates may have been similarly patronized or commissioned,^ 
but patriotic prints of this type were not numerous, and they certainly 
correspond to the great mass of opinion in the country. Prints were sold 
cheaply in large quantities to those who would give them away; Village 
Politics, and other tracts by Hannah More, were distributed in the same 
manner. The full spate of patriotic broadsides was in 1803, when the 
Association was again active. There were, of course, patriotic prints that 
do not come within the category of satires, and no doubt many have dis- 
appeared. It would be interesting to see the 'large, coarse sixpenny repre- 
sentation of Howe's victory over the French', a print about four feet by 
two, which Cobbett sold in Philadelphia to two English labourers at the 
seemingly exorbitant price of two dollars : the men had got an advance of 
pay for their purpose, which was to display it to a hostile mob, who could 
not forbear 'giving signs of admiration'. This was 'one of the things which 
are hawked about and sold at the farmhouses in England'. ^ 

One piece of pictorial propaganda produced for use abroad was the set 
of twenty etchings by Gillray from drawings by David Hess, a Swiss who 
had served in the Dutch Army, published as Hollandia Regenerata in 1796. 
They were intended to incite the Dutch to resist the French, and may have 
been primarily an Orangist enterprise. Sir John Dalrymple wrote in 1798: 
'During the present revolutions in Holland, a series of engravings was 
published, which contained a succession of events, and consequences from 
them, forming a kind of history, whereby men were taught their duty in 
public life by their fears and their dangers. Twelve thousand copies were 
circulated in that country at a trifling expense. The antidote, however, 
came too iate for the poison.' This hopelessly belated publication was 
presumably financed by the British Government ; it would be interesting to 
know how it was circulated in Holland, and why so expensive a form was 
chosen: the prints, unsubsidized, could hardly have been sold for less than 
a shilling each, and there is a good deal of well-produced printed matter. 

Under the threat of invasion, Dalrymple set on foot a similar enterprise 
for Great Britain and Ireland. He induced Gillray to undertake the etching 
and publication of twenty plates, larger and more elaborate than those of 
Hollandia Regenerata, under the title Consequences of a Successful French 
Invasion. These were to be issued cheaply, to ensure a wide circulation. 
Dalrymple guaranteed the cost, apparently counting on Treasury support, 
but this was refused, and the loss seems to have fallen on Gillray. The 
designs were to be from descriptions written by Dalrymple, etched below 

' Blum, p. 195. 

* No. 869s may well have been so commissioned ; it is quite unlike the spirit and 
manner of other plates by Newton. 

^ Political Register, viii. 518-19 (5 Oct. 1805). 



the plates, and also published by him as a pamphlet. The pamphlet 
appeared, but only four plates were produced : Gillray and Dalrymple fell 
out. The latter undertook not to interfere with the designs, but stipulated 
that the artist should not 'introduce a single caricature or indulge a single 
sally that could give pain to a single British subject*. Gillray found the 
conditions irksome, the price inadequate; he wrote to Dalrymple: 'the 
loss . . . upon the four already done joined to the trouble & repeated dis- 
appointment he has had in the business, obliges him positively to decline 
having any thing more to do with the business.'^ He sold the plates to 
Miss Humphrey and the price was raised (Nos. 9180-3). 

The most important, and, so far as appears, the only direct intervention 
of the Government in the financing of caricatures for circulation in England 
was a pension to Gillray. Until the publication of Bagot's Canning and his 
Friends in 1909 this rested on the inconclusive evidence of Landseer in 
183 1. According to John Landseer, Gillray had told him that he was 
threatened with excommunication in the Ecclesiastical Court for the title 
of No. 8779, The Presentation — or — the Wise Men's Offering; the heavy 
expenses would have ruined him, he therefore accepted a pension and the 
stay of proceedings.^ This explanation may have been one of Gillray's 
characteristic fabrications, but the fact of the pension is certain: in October 
1800 he was threatened with its withdrawal if he persisted in doing plates 
for an illustrated edition of the Anti-Jacobin set on foot by Wright the 
publisher, and heavily subscribed.^ It is fairly certain that the pension 
was kept a secret: Cobbett, violently attacked by Gillray in 1809, would 
certainly have counter-attacked in the Political Register if he had suspected 
the truth. The date can be fixed with some certainty as not earlier than the 
summer of 1797, and probably in the December of that year. No pensioner 
could have produced Midas transmuting all into Gold (No. 8995), and it is 
scarcely conceivable that he could have ventured on Political Ravishment 
(No. 9016, 22 May), where Pitt rapes the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street. 
After this, attacks on the Ministry cease, to be renewed against Addington, 
when presumably the pension had lapsed with the change of Ministry. 
There is nothing in the transaction to imply venality. As a pensioner 
Gillray attacked the Opposition, the British Jacobins, and the French as he 
had consistently attacked them in his unpensioned days. He also produced 
prints highly favourable to Pitt, but no more so than some earlier plates, 
for instance Britannia between Scylla and Chary bdis (No. 8320), a theme 
anticipating Canning's The Pilot that weathered the Storm. Moreover, 
Gillray's shift of emphasis — for it was little more — coincided with events 
that caused a change of heart in Coleridge, Southey, and Wordsworth. The 
shift was noticed, but not always correctly: the annotator of Gillray's 
prints in London und Paris writes in 1798: 'He lashes both political parties 
without mercy. At first he worked only against the Ministry*, and quotes 
Gillray as saying 'but now the Opposition are poor, they do not buy my 

' Add. MSS. 27337, ff. 17-28; Dalrymple, Consequences of the French Invasion, 
pp. iv-v. 

* Athenaeum, 15 Oct. 1831. 

' Add. MSS. 27337. Canning wrote (characteristically) to Sneyd: '. . . though 
I should not approve of holding out the loss of his Pension to him as a Threat ; yet 
that would be the infallible consequence of any prosecution commenced against the 
work by any persons who may feel themselves aggrieved by it. And I have good 
reason to believe that a prosecution is intended.' Gillray was paid £150 for the 
work already done, and presumably destroyed. Bagot, Canning and his Friends, 
i. 173. 177. 



prints, and I must draw on the purses of the larger parties'.^ The pension 
may have followed, though not directly, Gillray's introduction to Canning, 
which Canning arranged through Sneyd,^ stipulating that the meeting 
should be 'without its appearing to be at my instance or with my formal 
assent', 3 He was anxious to ensure that his appearance in Gillray's prints 
should be not unfavourable. A letter from Sneyd to Gillray on 7 December 
seems to point to the pension. *It would be difficult for me to express the 
pleasure I received from hearing that what I had so long wished, has taken 
place, and I congratulate you sincerely upon an event which (agreeable as 
it is) is solely owing to your own merits ... In "skirmishing against the 
common enemy" (as you so well express it) I should be very happy to lend 
you whatever assistance I am able — but here again my feebleness to assist 
will appear if possible more strongly than in the other instance.' He is 
evidently referring to the sketches he sometimes provided.'* In the follow- 
ing April Gillray sent Canning the first six of his set of French Habits (see 
No. 9200). It is clear from the correspondence over the Anti-Jacobin that 
it was scarcely possible to exercise control over Gillray's designs. On 
3 Nov. 1798, Lord Bateman wrote to Gillray: 'The Opposition are as 
low as we can wish them. You have been of infinite service in lowering 
them, and making them ridiculous. '^ Canning's later relations with 
Gillray will be discussed in Volume VIII. Sayers had been rewarded by 
Pitt for his services over the India Bill with a well-paid office, but this is 
supposed to have reduced his output. 

The copying or adaptation of prints in other countries is also connected 
with war propaganda. Some English prints were well suited for use by the 
French and four have been traced of which unacknowledged copies were 
made; there were probably others. An ironical design by Gillray of 1789 
(No. 7546) shows France liberated and England enslaved. Pitt is a tyrant 
surrounded by engines of torture and death, his crime being that he had 
transferred the duty on tobacco from customs to excise. There are two 
French copies, one probably made in 1789, the other, of the English part 
only, perhaps after the outbreak of war ; it is called Constitution d'Angleterre 
(No. 8364). A French print, not in the British Museum, Guillot effraye, ou 
Pitt aux Expediens, is clearly a copy of No. 8434, where Pitt, with the King 
and Queen, registers terror at the prospect of having to face Parliament 
after the evacuation of Toulon. There are two French copies of No. 8837, 
The Budget, or John Bull frightened out of his wits. Pitt works a semaphore 
to create an invasion scare, and so fill the pockets of his friends, while the 
Opposition are anxious for the invasion, in order to share the loot with the 
French. This becomes Mr. Pitt fabriquant de nouvelles telegraphiques. A 
striking caricature by Newton of George III and Pitt as Head — and Brains 
(No. 9012) was closely copied in France as La TSte et la Cervelle. Mr. 
Broadley, not having seen the English original, reproduces it to 'give 
some idea of the pictorial satire directed against England in Paris during 
the first years of the nineteenth century'. It is indeed in the spirit of 
French satire, but the manner is English. There are also two adaptations, 
one Dutch and one French, that are merely plagiaristic, without political 
significance. No. 8314, of Dumouriez and a Dutchman glaring angrily 
at each other, is adapted from Gillray's Politeness, No. 5612, his first repre- 

' Op. cit. i. 195-6 n. 

* See Index of Persons, Index of Artists. 

3 Bagot, Canning and his Friends, i. 58-9 (10 Jan. 1796), 

 Ibid. i. 138-9. » Add. MSS. 27337- 



sentation of the typical John Bull. John becomes the Dutchman, the 
Frenchman is Dumouriez. In Le neuf Thermidor, ou la Surprise angloise, 
No. 8675, the fat John Bull, interrupted in carving his roast beef, is copied 
from Gillray's French Liberty, British Slavery (No. 8145). 

The sympathetic or propagandist copying of British prints abroad 
belongs to another category. A French copy of The Contrast (No. 8284) is 
described by M. Blum, who, surprisingly, classes it with 'Caricatures 
contre les Anglais'. It can only have been emigre or British propaganda. 
There is a copy of the English original in Jaime, which gives Leon Gozlan 
(citing Burke on Warren Hastings) an opportunity for a diatribe against 
British brutalities from the days of Cromwell. He calls it 'un tableau large, 
exact, et brutal de la pensee nationale de I'Angleterre a cette epoque*. 
There seems to have been a Russian copy of No. 9526, The Three Orders 
of St. Petershurgh. At all events. Princess Lieven described this design in 
1824, saying it was executed in St. Petersburg during Paul's reign. In 
the later stages of the war anti- Napoleon prints became a powerful weapon, 
and an irresistible expression of popular opinion, appearing when and 
where national feeling was roused against France. English prints were 
much copied, and reciprocal copying in different countries was widespread 
and complicated, culminating in the famous Triumph des Jahres 1813 by 
Voltz, copied and adapted in every country in Europe, As early as 1798, 
according to London und Paris,^ English prints were being copied in 
Switzerland with altered titles, but these have not been traced. Swiss 
anti-Napoleon caricatures, like those in England, were remarkable for 
their early appearance and their grasp of the international situation. A 
close relationship between English and Swiss caricatures is suggested by 
the title, form, signature, and imprint given by David Hess to his well- 
known plate The Political See-Saw — Die Politische Schauckel (both titles 
are on the plate), 'Drawn by Gillray, Junior. London, Cheapside Misery 
Street. February 1802'.^ There is little ostensible political bias in London 
und Paris, the remarkable periodical beginning in 1798 and published first 
at Weimar, whose object was to give a picture of life in London and in 
Paris, chiefly through the medium of caricatures and other prints, with 
elaborate explanations. English caricatures, especially those of Gillray, 
predominate. The Weimar volumes reflect the liberal atmosphere of 'the 
German Athens' under Charles Augustus. The reader was expected to 
take a deep interest in English politics ; the prints are elucidated in detail, 
and not without pedantry, twenty pages or more being sometimes given 
to one plate. The copies are precise, and the English inscriptions accurately 
transcribed. The striking thing is that the plates selected for copying are 
mainly those relating, not to international affairs, but to Pitt and Fox, and 
to Ireland, with several on Egypt and the Battle of the Nile. There is one 
European print only. No. 9544. Non-political plates appear occasionally, 
but these are chiefly French. The commentator, though not infallible, was 
extremely well informed on English politics, and a Pittite, pro-British 
attitude is implied rather than expressed ; it follows naturally on the choice 
of prints, and a great admiration for Gillray, at a time when he was 
'skirmishing against the common enemy'. The enterprise is a remarkable 
indication of the prestige and importance of caricature. Volumes between 
1 80 1 and 1805 contain many anti- Napoleon caricatures ; after that, for good 
reasons, these tend to disappear, and when publication was transferred to 

* i. 388-9, * Reproduced, Broadley, ii. 215. 



Rudolstadt from Halle the prints reflect a deferential attitude towards 

Propaganda, in the form of subsidized plates, seems to have been used 
by the radical clubs or booksellers. The efforts of the 'British Jacobins' 
were chiefly directed to circulating cheap copies of Paine's Rights of Man, 
Pait II, and to pamphlets and handbills, but prints, seditious and even 
treasonous, are described as 'dispersed' or 'shewn about' (see under Nos. 
8365, 8664). A startlingly outspoken set of verses threatening the King and 
Pitt with execution is headed with an engraving in which pigs (the swinish 
multitude) guillotine a crowned ass (George III). Even more surprisingly, 
this was openly advertised, though not on the print, as 'printed for Citizen 
Lee, at the British Tree of Liberty • . .', and sold for one penny, clearly 
under cost price, for it is very superior to the ordinary penny broadside. 

In view of sporadic attempts to curb the radical press, the licence 
allowed to printsellers and caricaturists is interesting. Purely political 
proceedings involving graphic satire seem to be limited to the case of 
Peltier, prosecuted at the instance of Napoleon.' It was perhaps this 
immunity which sometimes led controversialists to concentrate their 
venom in a frontispiece. The caricature plate to My Pocket Book, a 
damaging attack on the literary abilities (and pocket) of Sir John Carr, was 
the subject of an unsuccessful libel action in 1808.' The Hibernian 
Magazine published plates violently attacking the Union and Cornwallis, 
but no such attitude is expressed in the text. The prosecution of the print- 
seller Baldrey (also an artist) is worth noting. He was convicted of selling 
at his shop in Holborn a caricature of Zechariah Button, Esq., an Essex 
magistrate, 'exhibiting him in the pillory, the holes in the pillory being 
called button holes by way of pun'. For this intent to 'libel and bring into 
contempt' Baldrey was fined and sentenced to three months* imprisonment 
in the King's Bench. ^ Far severer attacks on Ministers were openly 
published : they are depicted hanging from gibbets or in Hell. Prosecu- 
tions for obscene books and pictures did occur, but there is no indication 
that such cases had any political significance. They were generally under- 
taken by the Society for the Suppression of Vice.^ 

The True Briton, a Ministerial paper, announced, 12 March 1796: 'We 
are happy to find that our strictures on the scandalous caricature-exhibi- 
tions . . . have had the desired effect. Humour has taken the place of 
Licentiousness and the works of Genius are substituted for the Fruits of 
Sedition.^ (Early in 1796 there was some reaction from the bitter satires of 
1795.) The case of Fores v. Johnes throws light on the position of the print- 
seller with regard to prints that were seditious or libellous. Mr. Johnes 
(see No. 9454) ordered from Fores 'all the caricature prints that had ever 
been published'. A consignment was sent to Wales in June 1800, but 
requests for payment were ignored. In September Johnes refused to 
accept the prints on the ground that 'the collection contained several prints 
of obscene and immoral subjects, exclusive of several being duplicates*. 
Fores sued to recover ^i^T' 10^. The counsel employed suggest that some- 
thing more than a question of payment was involved, namely, the immuni- 
ties of the caricaturist and printseller: Erskine, Park, and Dampier for 
Fores, the Attorney-General for Johnes. The judgement of Mr. Justice 

' See Volume VIII. For the proposed libel action against Gillray and others 
for a caricature of Sam Ireland, see No. 9064. 

* Lond. Chron., 18 June 1793. 

* Ibid., 21 Sept., 18 Feb. 1792; 21 Sept. 1802; 23 Oct. 1802. 



Lawrence was : 'For prints whose objects are general satire or ridicule of 
prevailing fashions or manners, I think the Plaintiff may recover; but I 
cannot permit him to do so for such whose tendency is immoral or obscene; 
nor for such as are libels on individuals and for which the Plaintiff might 
have been criminally answerable for libel.'' Might have been, but 
apparently never was. Peltier's defence of his vignette of Napoleon is 
interesting: 'I cannot disallow that this vignette was an historical caricature 
of the First Magistrate of France, but I thought, and still think it as 
perfectly innocent as those which I have constantly seen as well in war as 
in peace, ridiculing not only Bony in afit . . . but even the best of Kings, 
the first magistrates of other states, and the most respectable persons in 
this country, who were ever the first to laugh at these grotesque effusions 
of the Hogarths, the Bunburys, and the Gillrays of the day.'^ 

Under the stress of war the conception of John Bull develops. He 
appears far more frequently than in earlier volumes.^ He is almost equally 
countryman and 'cit', occasionally he is an artisan. Even when groaning 
under taxes he is generally fat. The hideously carbuncled John Bull, who 
is largely due to Woodward, has not yet appeared, though he is sometimes 
gross and gluttonous. This grossness should not be regarded with a 
modern eye: it probably had a different implication — *un Anglais dont 
I'embonpoint annonce une existence bien nourrie' (No. 8675), in contrast 
with the inhabitant of less favoured countries, almost invariably lean. 
Twice he is a handsome young farmer until he is so misguided as to enlist 
(Nos. 8328, 8333). As a countryman he is generally a yokel wearing a 
smock or old-fashioned coat and breeches, with wrinkled gaiters in con- 
trast with the top-boots of a later period. The John Bull in top-boots had 
already appeared, see Nos. 5611, 5612,'* and boots are worn by John in 
No, 8487, but as in No. 8189 denote the Englishman travelling abroad. 
Twice, however, the countryman wears boots (Nos. 8842, 9366), a sign 
that a different sort of farmer has arrived. John Bull as a shock-headed 
yokel is the creation of Gillray, who is followed by Isaac Cruikshank, 
Ansell, Cawse, Newton, and Woodward. Rowlandson's first John Bull is 
in No. 9264, the only other by him in this volume is the sailor in No. 9413. 
John, as before, is predominantly the bearer of burdens, and these become 
heavier than ever as subsidies to foreign Powers are piled upon taxes. But 
he has become something more, he is a humorous and critical observer of 
home and foreign policy and is proof against the blandishments of Opposi- 
tion. In No. 9231 Pitt is taken to task for his duel: *. . . I does not mind a 
little cash, if thee'd but behave.' As an exasperated citizen, confronted 
with the Income Tax, he is approached deferentially by Pitt (No. 9520). 
In No. 8817 he works actively to destroy Ministerial corruption. In No. 
9364 he declares his views on foreign policy, and calls for a new tune, 
'something stilish and grand'. Safe on the cliffs of Dover, he laughs at the 
countries that are deceived and plundered by France (No. 9224). John 
Bull, while commonly the typical Englishman outside the governing 
classes who grumbles and pays, sometimes stands for Great Britain. In 
this capacity he forces Holland into war (No. 8299). The important rebuff 
to Bonaparte's peace move is styled ^oA« BulVs Dispatches (No. 9512). In 
the guise of a noble but overburdened bull he bears the whole brunt of the 

' LoTid. Chron., 17 Feb. 1802; Espinasse, Reports at Nisi Prius, iv. 97; R. Davies, 
Caricature of To-day, 1928, p. 6. 
^ Peltier, Trial, 1803, pp. 286-7. 
' See Index of Selected Subjects.  See Vol. V, frontispiece. 

xvii b 


allied opposition to France, crying: 'Now my brave allies let us all stand 
firm together & make a bold push and I'll be answerable for the event.' 
But they have all turned their backs and are departing on their private 
concerns, notably the rape of Poland. The Emperor says : '. . . as for John 
Bull let him settle the business as he can, he loves to be meddling' (No. 
8477). After the Battle of the Nile he is the civilian, greedy for news of 
victories, but still grumbling (No. 9257). It is not till after the renewal of 
the war in 1803 that he is the defender of Britain and the sole obstacle to 
Boney's 'Stride over the Globe', in a manner both 'grim and gay*. This 
evolution surely reflects the subtle process of democratization that was 
going on despite appearances of political reaction.' 

The Frenchman, Spaniard, and Dutchman ('Nic Frog' in No. 8299) 
remain much as before. The theatrical dress of the Directory (designed by 
David) was an opportunity for the caricaturists. The Spaniard (sometimes 
represented by Charles IV) still wears the feathered hat, trunk hose, cloak, 
and ruff of a long-past period. The Dutchman is still the fat stolid creature 
in bulky breeches and sleeved waistcoat, with an inevitable pipe, but he is 
sometimes depicted in uncomfortable and inappropriate French clothes 
(No. 9420), as he had been in a Dutch print of 1780 (No. 5717). The 
Hollander is also occasionally a Dutch fishwife or a frog. The Prussians 
and Austrians are tall lean soldiers, with long pigtails and enormous 
moustaches; they too are sometimes represented by their respective 

In these years the relations between graphic and literary satire are 
exceptionally interesting, since Gillray did four plates illustrating the Anti- 
Jacobin. The first was at the request of Canning and Frere, sent through 
Sneyd, the usual intermediary between Canning and Gillray. The 'Needy 
Knifegrinder' verses were sent before publication (in November 1797) to 
Sneyd with a request that he would supply a sketch to be used by Gillray ; 
his treatment of the subject much displeased Frere : instead of placing the 
scene in a village with the parish stocks in the background he transferred 
the setting to South wark, and made Tierney the 'Friend of Humanity', his 
first appearance in caricature. Tierney filled the part excellently from his 
notorious parsimony, and the fact that he had just secured his return for 
Southwark by charging his successful opponent with infringing the 
(universally ignored) Treating Act, forbidding the treating of electors in 
alehouses, &c. The writers of the poem thought Gillray had 'bedevilled 
it, and destroyed all the simplicity of the idea'. In fact, a politico-literary 
satire was given a personal application (No. 9045). It is said that Canning 
satirized Tierney in his famous verses, but the correspondence between 
Frere and Sneyd strongly suggests, if it does not completely prove, that 

* Cf. Mackintosh on newspapers in his defence of Peltier: *. . . it is very certain 
that the multiplication of these channels of popular information has produced a 
great change in the state of our domestic and foreign politics. At home, it has, in 
truth, produced a gradual revolution in our Government. By increasing the 
number of those who exercise some sort of judgement on public affairs, it has 
created a substantial democracy infinitely more important than those democratical 
forms which have been the subject of so much contest.' Trial, 1803, pp. i6o-i. 
Cf. *. . . the Press is a power seldom much inferior; sometimes superior to the 
Government'. [1802-3.] Cited, History of The Times, i, 1935, from Pelham Papers, 
Add. MSS. 33124, fF. 78-9. Modem historians have underrated the circulation of 
newspapers, by forgetting the practice of letting them out on hire, as well as the 
numerous readers of alehouse copies. Pitt said in 1790 that the hawker commonly 
lent a newspaper to twenty or thurty readers, a practice he tried to stop for fiscal 
reasons. Pari. Hist, xxviii. 212. 



the introduction of Tierney was Gillray's idea. Canning wrote in 1800 
apropos the proposed plates to the Anti-Jacobin : 'he [Gillray] should know 
that it is not a mere matter of taste that any correction is intended — but 
that personal caricature is that which must not be admitted and will not 
be borne.' Doubt as to the possibility of restraining Gillray may well have 
induced the suppression of the proposed edition, for which Gillray was to 
have done 100 plates, after it had been heavily subscribed.' Gillray also 
illustrated Ellis's Ode to Lord Moira (No. 9184). This, too, is based on a 
sketch by an amateur, perhaps Sneyd, much altered by Gillray, who has 
added figures. Gillray also did a caricature of Moira, based on a sketch 
from life, now in the Print Room, with an inscription adapted from the 
same Ode. The Anti-Jacobin came to an end in July 1798, and was imme- 
diately followed by the Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine, a monthly with 
no connexion with its predecessor and none of its wit. The early volumes 
had some remarkable folding plates, six by Gillray and three by Rowland- 
son. The most remarkable was Gillray's wonderful illustration to Canning's 
New Morality (No. 9240), with which the Anti-Jacobin had closed its 
career. It goes far beyond its text by introducing Erasmus Darwin and 
Moira from other poems in the Anti-Jacobin, by burlesquing the ritual of 
Theophilanthropie, and by including allusions to a mass of literature, 
modernist or controversial, that had displeased the new magazine. And 
where Canning discreetly left blanks for some names, and covered others 
with the phrase 'And every other beast after its kind', Gillray supplied 
caricatures of fifteen Foxites and Jacobins 'sporting in the yeasty main*. 
Political and literary allusions are lavishly thrown into the fantastic design 
to which all the complicated and witty detail is subordinated. To the 
student of the polemical literature of the day it is of great interest. 

The only new form of caricature in this volume is connected with the 
arrangement of prints on folding screens. Woodward designed long 
narrow strips, about four inches wide, to form a border for 'walls or screens*. 
Three strips about eighteen inches long were placed side by side on sheets 
intended to be cut up and arranged as a continuous border. Some were 
etched by Rowlandson, and according to Grego twenty-four sheets were 
published. It is impossible to say whether the examples in the Print Room 
all belong to the twenty-four; they were published from 1799 to 1801, and 
some of the later sheets may be reissues. They are covered with figures and 
groups burlesquing the manners of the day. Some of the figures are 
realistic, but most are dwarfs with large heads, a form of caricature that 
was widely popular in Holland and Germany in the early eighteenth 
century and derived from // Calotto Resuscitato oder Neueingerichtes 
Zwerchen Cabinet, by L. van Saffe, published in Amsterdam in 1716.^ An 
English imitation is a set of twelve plates published by John Bowles about 
1730: The Twelve Months represented by Lilliputian Figures (in the Print 
Room). This may have been Woodward's inspiration : some of his groups 
are scenes in Lilliput. The large heads were less skilfully used by him 
in 1 79 1 in the six caricatures with the title The Lilliputian World (No. 
7874, &c.). The tiny scenes, if enlarged, would hold their own with 
caricatures of normal size, but their charm depends on the scale, and on the 

* Bagot, Canning and his Friends, i. 136-9, 143-4, i7o~4; Add. MSS. 27337. 

* It has 57 plates. A German version with 50 plates, published at Augsburg, is 
reproduced by W. Fraenger, Zurich, 1922, who attributes the plates to Elias Baeck. 
Similar large-headed figures appear in Dutch plates of the financial crisis of John 
Law (1720). Cf. the caricature drawing by Carracci (1560-1609) reproduced, 
Gombrichand Kris, Caricature, 1940, p. 11. 



combination of realism and grotesque. Some of them are good social 
comedy, and embody early forms of jokes that have become well known 
(No. 9636). The arrangement seems to have developed out of the sets of 
plates after Woodward in which small groups or figures arranged in two 
rows illustrate a single theme, social or political (No. 8541, &c.). These 
again are a development from the strip design introduced by Bunbury . The 
large folding screen with several leaves was a favourite way of displaying 
prints that lingered on into the Victorian nursery. Byron's screen' with 
pugilists on one side (including a caricature by Rowlandson of 18 10) and 
actors and actresses on the other, is a famous example. The demands of 
the screen may have determined the form of a set of decorative and 
emblematic heads by Rowlandson (No. 9616, &c.). 

Political Satires. 

The political prints, more than those of earlier periods, have a unity 
imposed on them by the war. Directly or indirectly, the satires relate to 
the contest between Pitt and Fox, Ministry and Opposition, Anti-Jacobin 
and Jacobin, England and France; between those who thought the war 
'just and necessary' (No. 8599, &c.) and those who used the phrase to 
pillory the Ministry as war-mongers. In the prints, 'Democrat' is used as 
a term of abuse and connotes a revolutionary republican roughly identical 
with Jacobin. Politically it stands for Home Tooke (and afterwards 
Burdett), with the members of the radical clubs. The year 1793 (90^ 
prints) opens with war virtually certain, and England united to a remarkable 
degree. Nevertheless, the attitude of the British Jacobins caused great 
uneasiness ; their addresses to the Convention in October and November 
had been circulated through France and had created the impression that 
the British people would support France in any efforts made to revolu- 
tionize other countries. The prevailing theme is England happy and free, 
with a blessed constitution, contrasted with blood-stained France (No. 
8284, &c.). Some of these prints were due to the Crown and Anchor 
Society,^ but they reflect the popular mood. 'The Constitution', wrote 
Lord Sheffield, 'most fortunately is become the word, and it is as much a 
favourite as Liberty, Property, and No Excise, or any other word ever was.* 
Eight prints in the year glorify the Constitution at the expense of those who 
wish for Reform on French principles. A good example is Gillray's 
Britannia in French Stays, or, Re-form at the expense of Constitution (No. 
8287), where Tom Paine, the republican stay-maker, laces Britannia into 
an excruciatingly tight pair of French stays. Sans-culottes, feeding Europe 
with the Bread of L^erty (No. 8290), also by Gillray, illustrates the famous 
decree of the Convention of 15 December: while the French deal with 
Holland, GeiTnany, and Italy, Sheridan and Fox are forcibly feeding John 
Bull. At this time, according to Lord Malmesbury, Fox 'privately ex- 
pressed horror at the decree of December 15, and thought war was certain'. '^ 
Nevertheless, his opposition to the war was uncompromising, and on 
I February (the day that France declared war on England and Holland) 
he maintained in Parliament that England was forcing the Dutch into a 
war they wished to avoid. This is the subject of No. 8299, John Bull in a 

* The pugilistic side is reproduced in detail in The Prize Ring, by Bohun Lynch, 

* The exact number in each year is of little significance, in view or gaps in the 
collection, a few prints of doubtful date, and some foreign prints. 

5 See above, p. xii.  Auckland Corr. ii. 498. 



rage ^forcing Nic Frog to fight against his will. The Dutch, torn by faction, 
and with a body of anti-Orange 'Patriots' in France, and many others in the 
country, were indeed unwiUing to fight, but the Government, with 
invasion pending, had called on the British to fulfil the terms of the treaty 
of 1778. The French invasion was postponed by British help, and by the 
withdrawal of Dumouriez, who is the subject of several prints (see No. 
8313) including one by Gillray on the imagined consequences of his 
invasion of England (No. 8318). Fox's popularity sank to at least the level 
of the India Bill days, and prints depicting him as a blood-stained Jacobin 
are more savage than those of 1783-4, when he was condemned as Carlo 
Khan, an Indian dictator, and a would-be Cromwell. His isolation with a 
few followers when the majority of the Whigs decided to support the 
Government is reflected in No. 8286. The Whig Club, formed in 1782 to 
commemorate Fox's return for Westminster, was pre-eminently a Foxite 
body, and became so more than ever when a large body of Whigs left it, as a 
protest against its support of 'Mr. Fox's political conduct and sentiments 
. . .' (No. 8315). 'Opposition', wrote Storer, 'is splintered into a thousand 
pieces.' The death of Louis XVI is the subject of many prints. In 
Gillray's terrible satire The Blood of the Murdered crying for Vengeance, 
symbolizing the horror of the guillotine, the spirit of the French king 
appeals to 'Britons! Vice-gerents of eternal Justice! Arbiters of the World!' 
to 'Revenge the Blood of a Monarch . . . and rescue the Kingdom of France 
from being the Prey of Violence, Usurpation and Tyranny'. The almost 
complete unanimity of the early prints of the year was soon broken. First, 
by Gillray, who went to Flanders in 1793. He represents the Duke of 
York and his staff carousing with Flemish women, while famished foot- 
guards serve as footmen at a lavish meal to the music of a military band 
(No. 8327). Many stories, chiefly false, were circulated about the Duke's 
conduct in Holland; the reports of undue luxury in the field were well 
founded. War very soon became less popular, and both Gillray and Isaac 
Cruikshank did prints of the misfortunes that follow the enlistment of a 
prosperous young farmer, who finds on his 'glorious return', crippled and 
penniless, a starving wife and children (Nos. 8328, 8333). Both are anti- 
recruiting prints comparable to those of the War of American Indepen- 
dence. The remarkable thing is that both were published while the Allies 
were still having successes in Flanders. The turn of the tide is marked by 
three prints. When Valenciennes capitulated on 28 July the garrison 
hailed the Duke of York as King of France, and the way to Paris lay open. 
Just at this time the Committee of Public Safety financed a French 
caricature depicting the Duke and Coburg being humiliated by Pichegru 
and Jourdan ; French and Flemish towns are flying the tricolour (No. 8337), 
whereas all were in the hands of the Allies. This was pure propaganda, 
representing the complete opposite of the truth: all was confusion and 
disorder in France. But it was prophetic. The tide turned at Hondschoote, 
forcing the Duke of York to abandon the siege of Dunkirk. This caused an 
outcry in England ; the Duke of Richmond was blamed, and is caricatured 
by Cruikshank (No. 8341). But all the results of this failure could not be 
anticipated, and even after Wattignies (15-16 Oct.) the Allies still held 
French fortresses. Accordingly, in A Member of the French War Department 
raising Forses to conquer all the World (No. 8345, 2 Nov.) Cruikshank 
depicts Carnot, encouraged by the Devil, blowing soap-bubbles which 
represent the levee en masse of 23 August, and are ironically inscribed with 
the names of the places to be conquered by the new levies. This satire also 



is prophetic: it represents the introduction of conscription (though the 
word was not used till 1798) and the formation of the armies with which 
Napoleon made his conquests. Of the nine bubbles, only two, 'Old 
England' and 'Petersburg', were to escape the new armies. Other satires 
on the Flanders campaign include The Wet Party or the Bogs of Flanders 
(No. 8351), on the deplorable condition of the Army and the abandon- 
ment of Dunkirk, and three ribald gibes at a scheme for providing much- 
needed flannel garments for the troops, which helped the bad work of 
suppressing the enterprise (Nos. 8347-9). 

In this year the work of the Navy was disappointing ; Howe was in com- 
mand of the Channel Fleet, and his returns to port were the occasion of 
scurrilous attacks. Both Gillray and Cruikshank depict him evading the 
French, and the former shows him acting under the influence of a shower 
of French gold (Nos. 8352, 8353). Only the evacuation of Toulon, not its 
occupation (27 Aug.) appears in these satires. Events in France illustrated 
here include the death of Marie Antoinette, the assassination of Marat, and 
the trial of Charlotte Corday. The last, as depicted by Gillray (No. 8336), 
has been condemned as an instance of his extravagance. It is indeed 
fantastic and horrible, showing the contorted body of Marat on a bedstead. 
This, however, satirizes the funeral of Marat, arranged by David, when the 
body was carried on a bedstead, the blood-stained shirt raised on a pike, 
as in this print. Like other satires by Gillray, it is a symbolic rendering 
of the grotesque savagery of the Terror. Dent's last print (No. 8350) is 
on the Fete de la Raison in Notre Dame on 10 November, a satire on 
dichristianisation in France which purports to be 'tho' a satyrical, a just 
representation'. A similar but more generalized satire by Nixon is 
called French Liberty (No. 8334). 

Two portrait groups by Newton of political prisoners in Newgate and 
their friends are especially valuable historical documents (Nos. 8339, 8342). 
A savagely republican print is undated, but may belong to 1793 (No. 8365). 
It is one of several broadsides and handbills recommending the guillo- 
tine for the King, who is here associated with 'Billy Pitt' and Reeves of 
the Crown and Anchor Society. The surprising thing is that it should 
have been openly advertised (though not on the print) as 'Printed for 
Citizen Lee, at the British Tree of Liberty . . .'. A set of portraits by 
Kay illustrates the earlier Scottish trials for sedition (Nos. 8358-62). 

In 1794 the prints are rather more numerous (98). Enthusiasm for the 
war has receded far from its peak in the early months of 1793, a natural 
result of disappointments in Flanders and the evacuation of Toulon. Dis- 
illusion is bitterly expressed in Gillray's savage attack on the Duke of 
York, No. 8425, PantagrueVs victorious Return to the Court of Gargantua 
after extirpating the Soup-Meagres of Bouille Land, and in Cruikshank's 
Half seas over alias the Hopes of the Family (No. 8433). The former contains 
the first allusion since the beginning of the war to the burden of taxes. No. 
8426, A Peace Offering to the Genius of Liberty and Equality, is equally 
violent against the Opposition, who were urging peace with France, here 
depicted as a hideous monster, symbol of the Terror. French terrorists are 
caricatured by both Gillray and Cruikshank as Republican Beaux and 
Belles (Nos. 8430, 8431, 8435, 8436). Military reverses made the Opposi- 
tion more vocal and they were fiercely attacked by Sayers in two sets of 
prints. Eight portrait heads (No. 8449, &c.), by the application of a 
bonnet-rouge, are transformed into their opposite numbers in France, Fox 
of course becoming Robespierre. Some of the comparisons are apt: the 



Marquis of Lansdowne becomes Chauvelin, Jacobin, diplomat, and ci- 
devant marquis. The Duke of Grafton, descendant of Charles II, becomes 
Orleans (figalite), descendant of Louis XIII. The eccentric republican 
Stanhope becomes Anacharsis Cloots, the advocate of a universal republic. 
As the year goes on the disastrous European situation is symbolically and 
truthfully rendered. The abandonment by Austria of the campaign in 
Flanders is the subject of No. 8472, while No. 8477 is a remarkably well- 
informed rendering of John Bull's desertion by his allies and their pre- 
occupation with their private interests. The partition of Poland is the 
subject of No. 8483, A Dance round the Poles, by Newton, the tiny Poles 
being unconscious of the three sovereigns who are about to crush them, 
The military and diplomatic situation is dealt with in a print illustrating 
verses by Captain Morris, the Opposition poet, condemning the whole 
policy of war with France and subsidies to allies who have proved faithless : 
Pitt is savagely attacked as 'the foul-going pilot that steers for the Crown' 
(No. 8496). The British Jacobins, including Fox and Sheridan, are 
depicted as ranged against the forces of order represented by the anti- 
levelling societies in No. 8424. It is a useful survey of the chief democratic 
bodies, seen from the extreme anti-Jacobin angle. Hardy and Margarot 
are there, presumably because they signed an address from the London 
Corresponding Society presented to the Convention in November 1792, 
declaring that the Elector of Hanover was uniting his troops to those of 
traitors and robbers, but that England was not Hanover: a triple alliance 
not of crowned heads, but of America, France, and Great Britain, would 
give peace to the world. The acquittal of Hardy and Home Tooke and the 
dropping of the other prosecutions was a great encouragement to the 
radicals, and Erskine acquired much popularity for defending them with- 
out a fee (No. 8502). In No. 8491 Fox and Sheridan pray to the Devil for 
Home Tooke, then awaiting trial. A violent denunciation of Pitt in the 
Courier^ for 28 March 1794 was given publicity by publication as a poster 
with a woodcut of Pitt as Signor Gulielmo Pittachio who is to perform for 
the benefit of the swinish multitude (No. 8500). From 1793 a new spirit 
of class bitterness in politics is symbolized by Burke's unfortunate phrase 
which recurs in radical and revolutionary publications. Two savage 
attacks on the King, republican in spirit (Nos. 8515, 8516), probably belong 
to this year. More portraits by Kay form an interesting illustration to the 
Scottish trials and the history of the British Convention (Nos. 8506-12). 

The first invasion print (apart from No. 8346, which is purely burlesque) 
appears in this year: French Invasion or Brighton in a Bustle (No. 8432): 
the foremost defenders of Brighton are yokels and old women; Martha 
Gunn the bathing-woman takes an active part, while: Fox and Sheridan 
peer furtively from one of the bathing-machines belonging to 'Smoaker* 
Miles. Invasion, though the declared policy of the Republic, was still only 
a paper scheme, owing to French naval weakness. At this time the volun- 
teers first become a subject of satire. Circulars by Dundas, the Home 
Secretary, recommending volunteer bodies supported by public subscrip- 
tion, were attacked in Parliament in March as leading to 'Voluntary Aids 
for public purposes without consent of Parliament', see No. 8434. The dis- 
tinction between Volunteers, Fencibles, Yeomanry, Militia, and members 
of defence Associations is complicated in law, vague in practice, and the 
caricaturists were not troubled by nice distinctions. The popular theme in 

* A paper which Cobbett called {Political Register, 22 Dec. 1804) 'now as 
furiously ministerial as it was formerly Robespierrean*. See No. 9194. 



this year is bad horsemanship and general absurdity; yokels (No. 8459) 
and 'cits' (No. 8476) are depicted in ridiculous and humiliating situations. 
The prevailing gloom in 1794 is broken by the first naval success of the 
vi^ar, the Battle of the First of June, the subject of three prints (No. 8469, 

In 1795 (117 prints) Pitt's popularity reached its lowest point, the 
activities of the radical societies were at their height; the causes were 
military defeat, diplomatic failure, and dearth. The growth of the societies 
had been stimulated by acquittals in England and by savage sentences in 
Scotland, while the Government had been further discredited by the 
farcical Pop Gun Plot in 1794 (No. 9035). The year opened with the French 
invasion of Holland (No. 8631, &c.); the capture of the unresisting Dutch 
fleet, stuck fast in the ice, made an invasion of England possible, if not 
probable, as Cornwallis thought (No. 8642). Fitzwilliam's calamitous 
Lord-Lieutenancy of Ireland is the subject of No. 8632. According to 
Auckland, in January only dread and dislike of the Foxites prevented a 
change of Ministry (No. 8608). The almost open adhesion of Spain to 
France in May was followed by the Treaty of Basel between France and 
Prussia, making Pitt's diplomacy seem bankrupt. Austria remained, but 
was inactive without a British loan. This was made tardily, and at high 
interest, but in face of bitter protests from the Opposition (No. 8658, &c.). 
The heavy subsidies to Prussia had been spent on the Partition of Poland 
(No. 8669, &c.). Fox called the war 'calamitous beyond example', and 
spoke of 'disasters which not fortune but folly had brought upon the 
country' (No. 8600). The Foxites made repeated motions for peace and 
were supported by Wilberforce. In the debate on Grey's motion for peace 
in January the Opposition maintained that it was impossible to win the war 
and both Pitt and Jenkinson were pilloried for phrases which became 
catchwords, and echo through these prints for many years. Jenkinson was 
assailed for having said (Apr. 1794) that marching to Paris was practicable. 
'The march to Paris' (No. 8826, &c.) recurs, in the Press and in caricature, 
especially when it fell to Jenkinson (as Hawkesbury) to negotiate the Peace 
of Amiens.' By a strange irony the Allied march to Paris, both in 1814 and 
1815, was during his premiership. In this debate Pitt (often challenged 
as to his war aims) was reproached with the phrase: 'indemnity and 
security' :^ 'Now for indemnity and security, and then for security without 
indemnity: ever changing with the events of the hour.' Pitt answered: 
'Everyone in this House and in the country must be satisfied that, in the 
termination of every war, there were two objects, reparation and security. 
Reparation was only an auxiliary, only a subordinate object.' (See No. 
9364.) The debates evoked a savage print from Gillray: The Genius of 
France triumphant, — or — Britannia petitioning for Peace (No. 8614); the 
abject Foxites abase themselves before a hideous monster symbolizing the 
Republic. Sayers again came to Pitt's help with a third set of prints: 
Outlines of the Opposition, Nos. 8636-42, a seemingly odd collection of 
characters which does not include Grey. In the early part of the year 
Gillray too produced Pittite prints, notably Light expelling Darkness . . . or 
— the Sun of the Constitution, rising superior to the clouds of Opposition 

' In Oct. 1809 when Liverpool became Secretary for War in Perceval's Cabinet 
the defeatist Auckland wrote: 'Now we shall have the march to Paris.' Dropmore 
Papers, ix. 339. 

* The formula was Auckland's, at the conference of the Allies at Antwerp in 
April 1793. Dropmore Papers, vi, p. viii. 



(No. 8644) : Pitt drives the British Lion and the Hanoverian Horse towards 
Peace who holds a scroll: 'Honorable Peace or everlasting War'. The 
Opposition scatter, abandoning their motions for 'Peace on any terms*. 
But he countered this print with Presages of the Millenium, No. 8655. Pitt 
is Death on the White Horse (of Hanover); he still triumphs over the 
Opposition, but he also gallops over the prostrate bodies of innumerable 
pigs: the swinish multitude. Both satires contain allusions to the pro- 
phecies of Richard Brothers, denouncing the war against a chosen people, 
and foretelling the destruction of the Royal Family, to the delight of 
many (No. 8627). In Gillray's Patriotic Regeneration (No. 8624), Pitt is 
tried at the bar of the House of Commons by the Opposition, who have 
converted the House into a Convention, with the proletariat crowding the 

As the year went on the situation worsened. The expedition to Quiberon 
(No. 8669) was a disaster, and emigres in England accused the British 
Government of having deliberately sent Frenchmen to death. In June 
high prices became serious, there were food riots, and Pitt's house in 
Downing Street was mobbed. The attacks on Pitt become bitterer and 
more numerous. In three prints he is a devouring insect, State Caterpillar 
(No. 8676) or Political Locust (No. 8672), an emblem of greed, destruction, 
and famine. Gillray's The British Butcher (No. 8665) depicts Pitt arro- 
gantly indifferent to the tragic disparity between prices and wages. Prints 
were published inciting to riots against taxes and high prices (No. 8664). 
The burden of the prints is taxes, subsidies (to so-called allies), loans, and 
dearth. Mass meetings were held by the London Corresponding Society 
at which inflammatory resolutions were passed in favour of reform and 
speedy peace 'with the brave French Republic', and biscuits were dis- 
tributed embossed 'Freedom and Plenty, or Slavery and Want' (No. 8664). 
Gillray caricatured the meeting behind Copenhagen House on 26 October, 
with Citizens Thelwall, Gale Jones, and Hodgson addressing the mob from 
platforms called tribunes; John Binns was in the chair (No. 8685). Its 
object was to demand Peace, Reform (annual parliaments and universal 
suffrage), and cheap bread. It produced an 'Address to the Nation' in 
which one sentence was in large letters: 'If ever the British Nation should 
loudly demand strong and decisive measures we boldly answer we have 
lives and are ready to devote them, separately or collectively, for the 
satisfaction of our country.' Place remarks, the London Corresponding 
Society did 'little more, so far as language was concerned, than copy their 
betters'.' The immediate sequel was the mobbing of the King's state 
coach on the way to open Parliament on 29 October. The glass was 
pierced by a stone or bullet, and the cries were 'Down with Pitt', 'No 
War', 'No Famine', 'Give us bread'. This is represented by Gillray in 
The Republican-Attack, No. 8681, a double-edged satire. Pitt, the coach- 
man, drives furiously over the prostrate Britannia; other Ministers are 
lackeys behind the King's coach, which is assailed, not only by the mob 
who have a loaf draped in black on a pitchfork, but, more prominently, by 
the Foxites. The bitterness of feeling at this time is reflected in the prints. 
Gilbert Wakefield wrote to Dr. Parr in 1795: 'I regard the present system 
of Government in this country, civil and ecclesiastical, as that bond of 
iniquity which must be loosed before social happiness can be secured, and 
which I am sure natural causes will loose in a very short time.' The 
Treason and Sedition Bills were the Government's response to the attack 
' B.M. Add. MSS. 27808, fF. 37-8. 



on the King. Both were popularly styled Convention Bills, the name 
chiefly used in the many satires which they evoked (No. 8687, &c.). The 
name is important : it expresses the belief that the Bills were intended to 
prevent the meeting of a popular Convention to supersede the existing 
Parliament and introduce a new era. There were weeks of intensive agita- 
tion before the Bills were passed on 18 December. They were strongly 
opposed by the Foxites, who organized a meeting in Old Palace Yard 
(No. 8690) which was expected to lead to rioting but did not do so. Pitt 
said to Wilberforce in November: 'My head would be off in six months 
were I to resign.' The view of the radical Place was similar: 'Most men 
would have let the Government fall from their hands. Never within the 
memory of man were Ministers placed in such untoward circumstances as 
were Pitt, Dundas, Windham, and Grenville at the opening of the Session. 
Never before did any administration so pertinaciously cling to power and 
hold it as it were in despite of circumstances. These men not only held it, 
but by a bold and dextrous line of conduct increased it to an extent greater 
than had been exercised by any of their predecessors since the King came 
to the throne.*' Place overestimated the strength of his own friends, but 
his view corresponds to much contemporary opinion and throws much 
light on the satires. The Seditious Meetings Act prohibited meetings of 
fifty persons and over except under restrictions (previous notice and the 
presence of a magistrate). The Corresponding Societies then established 
linked groups of forty-nine, and lost their more moderate members. It is 
the theme of No. 8691 by Gillray, The Royal Bull-Fight, that Pitt by 
provocative measures has provoked John Bull to treason, so that he and 
the House of Hanover are destroyed together, while the Opposition look 
on, well pleased. A rather different view is taken in The Death of the Great 
Wolf (No. 8704), generally regarded as simply a clever travesty of West's 
picture. Pitt dies in the moment of victory : the disproportionately heavy 
Ministerial forces have put to flight a small body of sansculottes. In No, 
8701 Pitt as Gulliver extinguishes the Lilliputians of Copenhagen House 
with the Seditious Meetings Act. An easing of tension is reflected which 
corresponds to the situation : the Opposition had failed to mobilize public 
opinion to the extent they had hoped, the harvest was excellent, and hopes 
of peace had been held out in the King's speech. One piece of good news, 
reaching London on 6 November, broke the chain of misfortune: the 
defeat of Pichegru and Jourdan on the Rhine by the Austrians. In 
Gillray's Hanging. Drowning, Pitt and Dundas in their delight drown 
themselves in wine, while Fox hangs himself. Among the many prints 
attacking Pitt, Fox gets little better treatment. There is, however, a print 
in which Fox, representing Reason, fights Pitt who stands for Oppression 
(p. 198). Other events of the year illustrated in satire are the betrothal 
(No. 8610, &c.) and marriage (No. 8643) of the Prince of Wales, leading 
to the payment of his debts. This, an additional burden on the nation, 
was an item in the accusations against Pitt (No. 8655). The end of Warren 
Hastings's trial is the subject of an interesting print by Sayers (No. 8647). 
During 1796 Pitt was in the ascendant. Without the twenty prints 
published for circulation in Holland there are only 67 satires. The year 
opened with the birth of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the occasion of the 
print by Gillray said to have caused proceedings in the Ecclesiastical Court 
(No. 8779).^ Caricaturists found a congenial subject in the separation of the 
Prince and Princess, and the relations between the Prince, Lady Jersey, and 
» B.M. Add. MSS. 27808, f. 56. ^ See above, p. xiii. 



Lord Jersey (No. 8806, &c.). A scurrilous attack by Gillray on Wilberforce 
and Bishop Horsley ; Philanthropic Consolations, after the Loss of the Slave 
Bill (No. 8793), perhaps commissioned by the West India Interest, is the 
only reference to the defeat by four votes of the Bill for the abolition of 
the Slave Trade, The prevailing themes are taxes, subsidies and loans, 
prospects of peace, alarms of invasion, and measures of defence. There 
are two more prints on the Treason and Sedition Acts (Nos. 8781, 8782), 
but neither is an attack on Pitt. Fox wrote to Lord Holland in February: 
'The whole country seems dead, and yet they showed some spirit while the 
Bills were pending, and I cannot help flattering myself that the great 
coldness at present is owing to people being in expectation and doubt with 
regard to what Pitt means to do with respect to peace.' Pitt's first peace 
move was an approach to the French Ambassador in Berne through the 
British Minister there at the beginning of the year. It was a failure, and 
was regarded both by the French and the Foxites as insincere, designed to 
calm the public and disarm the Opposition. The state of uncertainty and 
rumour relating to peace is reflected in No. 8792, A Will o' the Wisp or 
John Bull in a Bog. The Dog Tax and the Wine Tax both off^ered opportu- 
nities to the caricaturists. Pitt is attacked for these and for the burden of 
taxes, loans, and subsidies in general ; Johnny in a Flatting Mill (No. 8808) 
is typical : Pitt and Dundas squeeze John Bull flat between their loans and 
subsidies. A general election in May and June passed off quietly, improving 
the Ministerial position. In The Dissolution . . . (No. 8805) Gillray repre- 
sents Pitt as 'the Alchymist' transforming the old Parliament into a new 
one in which he is perpetual dictator, arrogantly enthroned on one of the 
new barracks, made necessary by the war, but denounced by the Opposi- 
tion as leading to military despotism. Prints on the Westminster Election 
stress the quasi-alliance between the Foxites and the Democrats. The 
old arrangement held good by which the seat was shared between Fox, the 
senior member, and a Ministerialist, who as usual was a naval officer. 
Home Tooke again intervened as in 1790 (No. 7652), but without attacking 
Fox, his former enemy, and in No. 8813 the contest is represented as one 
between Despotism and Revolutionism. A speech by Tooke, illustrated in 
No. 8817, The Tree of Corruption, — with John Bull hard at work, by Gillray, 
foreshadows the campaigns in Westminster and Middlesex in the early 
nineteenth century. No. 8821, The British Menagerie, shows Pitt and 
Dundas feeding the nations of Europe with British gold. Pitt's second 
peace overture, when Malmesbury was sent to Paris (after rebuffs from the 
Directory over a passport), is the subject of some interesting satires. The 
first is a print by Sayers on Burke's pamphlets. Thoughts on a Regicide 
Peace (No. 8825). Its lesson is pointed by a miserable frog-skeleton, the 
Batavian Republic, resignedly smoking a pipe, and chained to an arrogant 
sansculotte, representing the Directory. The King's speech on 6 October 
referred to the threat of invasion, which had in fact been decided on (the 
invasion of Ireland by Hoche with a diversion against England). On 
20 October Gillray published Promised Horrors of the French Invasion — 
Forcible Reasons for negotiating a Regicide Peace. In this Canning makes his 
first appearance, hanging from the same lamp-post as his colleague and 
rival Jenkinson, who is placarded 'New March to Paris'. The Opposition 
and the Democrats take advantage of the French march up St. James's 
Street to wreak vengeance on the Ministers. Prints more directly con- 
cerned with the mission to Paris are Nos. 8828-30, 8832, and two French 
prints, Nos. 8833, 8845. In Glorious Reception of the Ambassador of Peace, 



on his Entry into Paris Gillray depicts the deputation of poissardes and 
'national music' that met Malmesbury at fivreux, when fishwives stormed 
his coach to embrace him. The Directory took care that the reception was 
not repeated in Paris; they were set on conquest and invasion, and the 
negotiations were in fact hopeless,' but they broke down on the question 
of Holland, and on the British determination not to make a separate peace 
without Austria, whose success had stiffened her against negotiations 
(No. 8835). On 19 December Malmesbury received an ultimatum order- 
ing him to leave Paris within 48 hours (No. 8845). The Opposition 
refused to believe in the danger of invasion, and treated it as a device to 
justify taxes, loans, and defence measures. Nevertheless, the Address on 
the King's speech had been unopposed, and Glenbervie notes 'the 
unanimous address is not a common thing, and will tell abroad, perhaps, as 
much as a victory on the Rhine or even in the Tyrol'.^ The combination of 
measures against invasion with peace negotiations puzzled the public, see 
No. 8836, Opening the Budget; — or — John Bull giving his Breeches to save 
his Bacon, one of several of Pitt as an alarmist, scaring John Bull out of his 
money. The Loyalty Loan, raised specifically for defence measures, is the 
subject of Gillray's Begging no Robbery ... in which the Ministers are 
highwaymen ; actually, the loan was a triumph for Pitt, and the ascendancy 
of Pitt over Fox is the subject of a grotesque caricature by Nevv^on, Billy's 
Political Plaything, No. 8839. Other subjects of satire include Burke's 
Letter to a Noble Lord (No. 8788, &c.) and the death of Catherine the 
Great; in No. 8844 she is pilloried for the destruction of Poland and 
the sack of Praga. The twenty plates of Hollandia Regenerata, Nos. 8846- 
65, depict the miseries and humiliation of Holland under the French. 

The year 1797 was one in which, to quote Lord Holland, 'one sensation 
followed another'. There are, however, only 82 prints. It opened with 
news of the dispersal of the fleet carrying the French expedition to Ireland ; 
13,000 men under Hoche sailed from Brest, but only a part of the fleet 
reached the destination, Bantry Bay, to be driven out again by storms. It 
is interesting to remember that Lord Melbourne considered this one of 
the occasions on which Providence intervened to save the British Empire. 
It is the subject of Gillray's End of the Invasion; — or — the Destruction of 
the French Armada, No. 8979, in which disaster overtakes Foxites and 
Thelwall, through the intervention of the Ministry. This is followed by 
other prints of Fox and Foxites as disappointed republicans. News of the 
landing of Colonel Tate and his band of French jail-birds in Cardigan 
Bay reached London on 25 February. On 3 March came news of Jervis's 
victory at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The contrasted emotions which 
these two pieces of news inspire in Fox and in Pitt is the subject of No. 8992, 
The Tables Turn'd, by Gillray. The Welsh news caused a run on the Bank, 
and necessitated the suspension of cash payments. This was followed by 
the authorization of ^i notes and the Bank Restriction Act. The measures 
taken resemble those of August 19 14, but were less well understood. The 
Opposition proclaimed that they meant national bankruptcy, and foretold 
that English notes would go the same way as French assignats. The 
measures of the Government, who were supported by the City, were the 
subject of many satires. In No. 8990 Pitt as a bank clerk, while shovelling 
up gold for himself, proffers notes to John Bull. Fox (in French costume) 
and Sheridan urge him not to accept them. John is not beguiled : 'a' may 
as well let my Master Billy hold the gold to keep away you Frenchmen, as 

' Sorel, Bonaparte et Hoche, pp. 271-2. ' Journals, ed. Bickley, i. 73. 



save it, to gee it you, when ye come over, with your domned invasion.* 
The double edge of the satire is heightened by the large bundles of notes, 
down to the value of a shilling, that are being brought to Pitt. In other 
satires Pitt is more violently attacked for the suspension, but the Opposi- 
tion are generally treated as factious and Jacobinical, anxious for an 

The first English satire on Bonaparte appeared on 12 March, No. 8997, 
by Cruikshank. It is evidently based on a portrait: he is the war-worn 
soldier of the Italian campaigns. The spirit is that of a long succession of 
anti- Napoleon caricatures, and it is prophetic: the Pope lays the keys of 
St. Peter at the feet of the conqueror. Actually, it is based on an anticipa- 
tion of the terms of the Treaty of Tolentino. Despite the abortive peace 
negotiations the Opposition continued to claim that a change of Ministry 
would be the first step to peace, and the only means of obtaining it ; the 
Livery of London presented an Address for the dismissal of the Ministry 
and for peace (No. 9001). The next sensation was the secession of the 
Foxites from Parliament ; after the rejection of Grey's Motion for Reform 
on 26 May, Fox announced his intention to secede after seeing the House 
'give the Ministers their confidence and support upon convicted failure, 
imposition, and incapacity'. Gillray produced his Parliamentary Reform or 
Opposition Rats leaving the House they had undermined (No. 9018) two days 
later. It is the first of many prints on the Whig secession ; they support 
other evidence of its unpopularity, as well as its unwisdom. The sensation 
it might have produced was superseded by that of the mutiny of the Fleet 
at the Nore. It is perhaps significant that there is no allusion to the earlier 
mutiny at Spithead in April and May, and there is only one print on the 
mutiny at the Nore, No. 9021, The Delegates in Council or Beggars on 
horseback, by Cruikshank. Foxites and democrats are concealed under the 
table during the interview between Parker and Admiral Buckner on board 
the Sandwich. Public opinion was probably puzzled and divided, with a 
general impression that this was not a suitable subject for jest or satire. 
On the other hand, the Mutiny was a popular subject in naval songs, and 
one. The Death of Parker, is one of the commonest of all ballads relating to 
the Navy, which seems to show that popular feeling was inclined to regard 
him as a martyr and hero.' 

There were very strong reasons against continuing the war single- 
handed after Austria had made a preliminary peace at Leoben (18 Apr.) 
on humiliating terms. These included the news (30 March) of a secret 
agreement between France and Prussia on 15 August 1796,^ and the state 
of Ireland. Invasion still threatened despite Jervis's victory. Even Burke's 
friends saw that peace was almost necessary. The overtures to France, 
involving great concessions, were forced upon the cabinet by Pitt. These 
included recognition of the French incorporation of Belgium and the 
continued dependence of Holland on France. Malmesbury went to Lille, 
arriving on 4 July. The Diplomatic Squad, or Harmony Interrupted, No. 
9031, is a satire on the negotiation before the situation was transformed by 
the coup d'etat of Fructidor (4 Sept.). This confirmed the French policy 
of conquest, and on 17 September Malmesbury was ordered to leave 
France within 24 hours, failing an immediate restitution of all conquests 
(including West India Islands, the Cape of Good Hope, and Ceylon). The 
Directory's action strengthened Pitt's hands. Lord Holland writes: 'It 

* Firth, Naval Songs and Ballads, p. xcix. 

* Dropmore Papers, iii, pp. 304, 306, &c. 



was the opinion of impartial men that our first negotiation at Paris if not 
msmcere, was at least very foolish, but that the negotiation at LisLeipos^^^^^ 
ithtTS"^^' pretensions and proposterous conduct of the FreXn a 
dffLTff w °"'t1,*^" ^°""t^ to the continuance of the war. . . .' The 
defeat of de Wmter's fleet at Camperdown (ii Oct.) averted the immediate 
danger of invasion (No 9034). The Foxites continued to dem^d the 
resignation of Pitt as the only way to obtain peace. The prinTs^n the 

Kr> 'Tl'T''''' ' '^' '^"P^^"^ °f '^' A««^««^d Taxes roused furious 
hostility and the Foxites returned to Parliament to oppose it. It was a 
steeply graduated tax on consumption: Pitt's 'plan of finance', to support 
the war without loans, intended to demonstrate to Europe England^ 

hrraXbrd^ i^7:;^:X, ^ ^^"^^ ^^^ ^---p^^- '^ j-' ^- - 

s/'pZl^rnr^pf^ n''''/^ Cruikshank, The Victorious Procession to 
sludv Tt' Zi-\' ^T"^ Trturnphal Entry, No. 9046, deserves careful 
fn qfp I' P^'?^' the actual procession to the thanksgiving service 

m St. Paul s on 19 December for naval victories (First of jSne, Cape St 

.Tr Ki ri'^J^^T^ '" ^ 'P^"' '^^^^^^ t° th^t °f ^n inflammatory broad: 
side published for the event by the London Corresponding Sodety It 
IS a survey of the failures of the war, real and alleged, militar? diplomatic 
and financial, with the Seditious Meetings Act an^d the dep^bk stTte of 
Ireland. According to the Morning Post, the result of the^procession was 
diat one man gave thanks to God, and one woman was kicked to death' 
This was one of the 'Lies' pilloried by the Anti-Jacobin, which began its 
short and brilliant career on 20 November. The year ends with PitSl S 
th^ W? pT'k ^"!i'^"^ ' '"''^ ^^"^^ opposition expressed in the Press, 
Id tYti^ Club, and caricatures^ The unpopularity of the Assessed Taxes 
in P?t. ^^T^ °.^r/" T^?^y ^^y '^^ coach-makers) and to an attack 
attark, on n 7 °^ ^^^^^ Thanksgiving. It also led to a series of violent 
attacks on Dundas as an unscrupulous pluralist (No. 90 C2). Wilberforce 

throw.'r'h.H'^^"^' ^ ^'^'"^^.^^ '797: 'Fox's laWuageitihe WhTgcTub 
throws light, if any were wanting, upon their secession. It is my firm 
opmion, that a conviction of their weakness alone prevents their taking up 
the sword against the Government.' ^ ^ 

The number of prints in 1798 rises to 132, the maximum for the volume 
/S" XTM ! threatened invasion, the Irish Rebellion, and the Battle 
of the Nile At fii^t, the Tripling of the Assessed Taxes, round which 
faction raged, was a more favoured subject of caricature than the invasion. 
Wi berforce noted in January: 'I dread the venomous ranklings which it 
will produce. . . Naval preparations were in progress in the French 
SnH^' fP?r'' ^""^ '^^ ^^^ °^ ^"g^^"'^' ^^^ b^^" P"t under the com- 
TthLt'^'^i"'^ '" ^''°^"'-" ^"^barkation had been ordered for 
2S l-ebniary. There were many tales in France and England of fantastic 
troop-carrying rafts and «The Raft' is the subject of large prints by 
Cnukshank and Gillray (Nos. 9160, 9167). Gillray's, thougli pubHshed 
jTh^t^T n °"^-''^' ''TT' ^^aborated and weakened by Cmikshank. 
ittlh^^^.T^'^'T^^^ '^' '"^'.'° '^°^" ^y ^ ^"g^ ™dJass; in both, 
fhu^dtr^ r^^^^ "^^^^ '^'^'^ ^^ ^^«' -^« ^-^« ^g--t it the 

K, J!jf IT? °f *^l °u^^^''^ ''','^'''^te not only the naval victories of the war, 
but the blockade of the French ports. But in No. 9158. They are a coming 
or deliver your money, Pitt scares John Bull out of his cash, and the King and 
Queen out of their 'Royal Savings' by an invasion scare. In The Modem 


Cain's Lament by Kay, Pitt as 'the Murderer of Thousands' is in despair at 
t?e actilTndsuccess^ful invasion which he has brought upon the country 
No 9166). In No. 9172 the Opposition and Home Tooke we come 
Bonaparte's army on the diffs of Dover; it is an aerial mvasion by balloons 
nSutes and troops propelled through the air accompanied by a giant 
?aTt t^d a tr^op-car^ing sea monster. A French print, I^^-^^Projets '■ 
(No.^220), shows the straits of Dover traversed by a tunnel fi^ed with an 
nvading force, while in the air a fleet of troop-carrymg balloons advances 
upon England, whose aerial defence is limited to kites. In Gillrays 
Conseouences of a Successful French Invasion,' with long inscriptions by Sir 
fZ mir^mple, the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the English 
fanner Sd ]lri;h Catholic are at the n.ercy of F^^nch republicans 
(Nos 9180-3). Appearing on 2 March the prmts were belated. The 
mmedlte daiger of invasion had again passed: Bonaparte informed the 
DiSctory on 23 February that invasion was impracticable without 
command of the sea. An allusion to Bishop Watson' s^./^m. to the 
People of England suggests that the prints, especially No 9182, were 
hiended to counter Wakefield's Answer to the Address, m which he mam- 
tained that the working classes would lose nothmg by a French invasion. 

The perennial accusations of disloyalty and Jacobmism were lent colour 
by the Understanding between the Foxites and Democrats which foUowed 
the Treason and Sedition Acts. Its motive was stated by Fox in a letter to 
£>rd Holland in 1796: 'At present I think we ought to go further towards 
agreeing with the democratic or popular party than at any former period 
it the following reasons:-We, as a party, I fear can do nothing and the 
contest must be between the Court and the Democrats. These last, 
without our assistance, will be either too weak to resist the Court, and then 
comes Mr. Hume's Euthanasia, which you and I think the worst of all 
events, or if they are strong enough, being wholly unmixed with any 
aristocratic leaven and full of resentment against us for not joming them, 
will go probably to greater excesses, and bring on the only state of things 
which can make a m\n doubt whether the Despotism o Mon^^chy is the 
worst of all evils.'^ The alliance was recognized at Fox s birthday dinner 
at the Whig Club on 24 January, when for the first time Tooke and the 
radicals we?e present. At this the Duke of Norfolk gave his famous toast 
'The Sovereignty of the People', a favourite Whig toast current m 1784 at 
Westminster Election dinners. The more serious offence was that he 
compared the 2,000 persons present with the 2,000 who had rallied round 
Washington (in 1775), asking his audience to make the application. 
GmrlyTne%Proast (No. 9168) is the first of many satires on the 
affair- in most Norfolk has a bewildered, alarmed expression; he was, 
according to Lady Holland, 'a chicken-hearted, trimmmg sort of a 
politician'. She says he asked next day for a private audience, ^pressed his 
loyalty and asked for a post of danger in case of mvasion This did not 
avert his removal from the Privy Council and from the colonelship of the 
West Riding Militia. At a Whig Club dinner in May, Fox not only repeated 
the toast, but coupled with it 'the sufferers in the cause of freedom m 
Ireland', making a very injudicious speech (No. 9205 &c.) This was one 
of many ways in which the Foxites damaged themselves when the tide ot 
anti-Jacobin feeling was rising. Auckland wrote, 13 February 1798: At 
this hour every symptom of a Jacobinical tendency is regarded with detesta- 
tion and is discontinued and beaten down.'^ In No. 9190, John Bull con- 
« See above, pp. xii-xiii. ^ MemoriaUandCorr.m.i2S-<>. ^ Auckland Corr. 111.386. 



suiting the Oracle, Fox bewilders and alarms John by shouting 'Radical 
Reform or Ruin', and in No. 9178 he and Home Tooke are The Darling 
Children of Democracy. Nos, 9189, 9202, both by Gillray, are on the 
arrest of O'Connor, Binns, and others at Margate, when about to embark 
for France to get military aid for Ireland, and the subsequent arrest of 
members of the London Corresponding Society, in which Binns was a 
leading member. In the former, Foxites and Tooke are the conspirators. 
The Corresponding Society appears in many prints. Binns writes: 'The 
avowed object of the Society was to obtain a Reform in the House of 
Commons ... on a Plan of Universal Suffrage and Annual Parliaments. I 
say their avowed object, but the . . . hopes ofmanyofits influential members 
carried them to the overthrow of Monarchy and the establishment of a 
Republic.'' Place confirms this,^ though 'only a few were prepared to go 
to all lengths. . . . Most were convinced that by causing as great a ferment 
as possible the Government would be overawed, and concede what they 
requested.' Their hopes were dashed by the Seditious Meetings Act; the 
remnants of the Society, of whom Place says 'only the refuse remained', 
with a few exceptions, were thrown back on desperate remedies in co- 
operation with the Irish.3 In Gillray's series called French Habits (No. 
9196, &c.), Foxites and others appear in the official dress designed by 
David for the Directory. Burdett makes his first appearance in these prints 
as Messager d'jStat, illustrating the Anti-Jacobin which had chosen him as 
messenger to collect plebeian guests for Fox's birthday dinner. Actually, 
he had introduced O'Connor to Binns in order that the latter might arrange 
the attempted journey to France. The rebellion in Ireland is the subject of 
a number of prints, some of which relate to Fox's relationship to Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald (No. 9227, &c.). The duel between Pitt and Tierney 
is treated in various ways, but the altered attitude towards the Minister 
since 1795 is apparent, despite No. 9231, where all the miscarriages of the 
war are remembered against him. Pitt's ill-health, which became acute 
after the duel, is reflected in several prints where he is gouty and emaciated, 
see No. 9226, &c. In No. 9237 Pitt is blamed for the clearing of the House 
of strangers during the debates on Ireland. Property protected, a lafrancoise 
[sic], No. 9224, is an interesting print on the X.Y.Z. affair, over which 
American opinion underwent one of its most sudden and violent trans- 
formations : the five Directors plunder America in the name of fraternity, 
watched by the Powers of Europe who have already been robbed and 
exploited ; John Bull, safe on the cliffs of Dover, laughs at the scene. 

The most damaging blow ever received by the Foxites is the subject of 
No. 9245, Gillray's Evidence to Character; — being a portrait of a traitor by 
his Friends & by himself. Arthur O'Connor, arrested on his way to secure 
military aid from France, summoned the leading Whigs to give evidence 
for him at his trial at Maidstone. These 'Maidstone Oaths' had already 
been satirized, when his own confession was published admitting his share 
in negotiating for a French invasion of Ireland, The effect on public 

* Recollections of the Life of John Binns, Philadelphia, 1854, p. 45. 

* 'All the leading members were republicans . . . taught by the writings of Thomas 
Paine and confirmed ... by Mr. Winterbottom's history of the United States . . . 
published in numbers and generally used by the members.' Add. MSS. 27808, 
f. 113. 

' Hamilton Reid (Home Tooke's biographer) describes how the Corresponding 
Society disintegrated from alarm caused by the 'known violence' of the 'United Men' 
(United Englishmen) who were joint members of both societies in 1797 and 1798. 
Rise and Dissolution of the Infidel Societies of this Metropolis, 1800, p. 108. 



opinion was catastrophic. Farington notes: 'Opposition knocked up by 
the confession. ... In fact, too much power thrown into the hands of 
Government owing to the vile and fooUsh conduct of Opposition.' Gillray's 
print was one of the most politically effective he ever published. The words 
of the witnesses are only slightly burlesqued. By some fatality their 
evidence, though carefully considered, was often ridiculous; Erskine's 
egotism for instance was nakedly displayed, Norfolk's testimony that 
O'Connor was attached to constitutional principles 'in the same way as 
myself was absurd, in view of his removal from the Privy Council ; Lord 
Suffolk's *I have always told Lady Suffolk . . .' was characteristic of the 
speaker. Lord Thanet's 'He has the same sentiments as every one of the 
Opposition' was often quoted against the Foxites, while Fox's dictum that 
O'Connor was 'well affected to his country . . . attached to the principles 
upon which the present family sit upon the throne, and to which we owe all 
our liberties' was an assertion of the Whig doctrine of the right of revolution. 
Lord Holland writes: 'From pardonable motives of humanity and friend- 
ship, they endeavoured to give the most favourable colour they could to 
his views and opinions in England, and they thereby exposed themselves 
to the imputation of being implicated in the plot, or at least accessory to 
the designs which he afterwards confessed.'' The reproach of 'O'Connor* 
and 'Maidstone' from this time for many years was brought against the 
Foxites, and followed Fox beyond the grave: his followers and Burdett 
were accused of being friends of O'Connor, the most damaging imputation 
that could be made, very different from allegations of bloodthirsty 

The course of the war contributed to the discredit of Opposition. The 
wild rumours as to Bonaparte's whereabouts when Nelson was chasing 
him from Sicily to Alexandria and from Alexandria to Sicily are illustrated 
in No. 9241, Buonaparte really taken: Pitt humbugs John Bull with good 
news. Fox feigns satisfaction but weeps copiously. Authentic news of the 
Battle of the Nile (i Aug.) reached England on 26 September, ending a 
period of acute anxiety. On 3 October Gillray published his Nelson's 
Victory; — or — good news operating upon loyal-feelings. The Opposition 
hear of 'the end of the French Navy', 'Britannia rules the Waves', and 'End 
of the Irish Invasion' (by Warren's defeat of the French fleet), with 
despair or scepticism. Lady Holland records in her Journal the 'lamentable 
plight of Opposition' owing to successes in Egypt and Ireland 'so contrary 
to their predictions'. She wrote in 1799 of 'the obsolete doctrines of 
Whiggism'. The Battle of the Nile and Bonaparte in Egypt become 
the leading subjects of caricature, and of some famous plates, too well 
known for comment. One of the periodical caricatures representing the 
extinction of the Foxites is No. 9258, The Funeral of the Party. Similar 
prints were published after the elections of 1784, after the withdrawal of 
the Regency Bill in 1789, and in 1792-3. This series of calamities helps to 
explain the bitterness of politics. The plight of the Whigs is in violent 
contrast with the general exultation at the Battle of the Nile, which trans- 
formed the military and diplomatic situation. The final defeat of the 
Republic seemed at hand (No, 9260). The beginnings of the Second 
Coalition are indicated in St. George and the Dragon or the Glorious Era of 
lygS (No. 9273). British interest in Malta appears in No. 9268, a famous 
print by Gillray. His Buonaparte, hearing of Nelson's Victory, swears by his 
Sword to extirpate the English from off the Earth (No. 9278) is a wonderful 
* Memoirs of the Whig Party, 1852, i. 121. 

xxxiii C 


caricature of a general intoxicated with visions of conquest and world 
domination. The year ends with the first appearance of the Income Tax 
(No. 9281), the result of the evasions and opposition that had wrecked the 
Assessed Taxes, and of the projected Union with Ireland (No. 9284). 

In 1799 there are 100 prints. For the first eight months of the year the 
Allies were in the ascendant, on the offensive, and victorious. At home the 
main topics are taxes, subsidies, the Union, the Opposition, the Whig 
Club, the dearth ; abroad, Bonaparte in Egypt, Allied victories, the Russian 
Alliance, the Expedition to the Helder, defeat and disappointment, the 
Revolution of Brumaire, home and foreign affairs being of course often 
combined in the same satire. Since England again has allies, the question 
of subsidies again becomes acute. As Dundas wrote to Pitt in December 
1798 : 'The aversion of this country to renew any more subsidiary treaties is 
greatly increased by the unfaithful execution of those already past.' The 
burden of allies' (actual and potential) subsidies and Income Tax is the 
subject of No. 9338. John Bull at his Studies, attended by his Guardian 
Angell, No. 9363, is a classic and famous rendering of the Income Tax. 
Already, on its first appearance, the tax had complications associated with 
modem bureaucratic ingenuity, and it came into operation on that familiar 
date, 5 April. There are many satires on the tax, notably No. 9337, where 
Pitt, by means of 'the French Bug-a-Bo', brings total ruin to the farmer of 
;^2oo a year (the income at which the highest rate of 10 per cent, became 
payable), but the surprising thing, in view of the traditional British reaction 
to new taxes, is that it was accepted without still more bitter opposition. 
This was partly due to the discredit of the Opposition, who moreover had 
shot their bolt over the Assessed Taxes. Doubtless Gillray's witty Meeting 
of the Monied Interest (No. 9282) had something to do with it. But in 
general its acceptance reflects the change of heart in the country since 1795. 
A print of 1800 is significant. Ministers, even Dundas, are praised, 'With 
just one verse for Johnny Bull, Whom some have called a Nincum, 
Because he did not growl and roar, About the Tax on Income.' The 
prints on the Foxites have a documented malice, more damaging than the 
grotesque accusations of Jacobinism in the early months of the war, 
deriving from their relations with O'Connor. In The Maidstone White- 
washer (No. 9343), an important speech by Fox at the Whig Club, where 
declarations of Foxite policy were made during the Secession, is cleverly 
burlesqued. Burdett's visit to the Middlesex House of Correction, which 
was to have a great effect on politics in Middlesex and Westminster, and 
which gave him his status as a reformer of abuses, is the subject of No. 
9341, Citizens paying a visit to the Bastille, by Gillray, the first of many on 
this topic. In May occurred one of those events which from time to time 
monopolize attention to the exclusion of foreign affairs. This was 
Sheridan's play, Pizarro. According to the Monthly Magazine (in August) 
it 'obliterates the memory of the Archduke Charles, of Marshal Suwarrow, 
and General Moreau. In Egypt he combines with Sir Sidney Smith and 
. . . Ghezzar Pasha to annihilate Bonaparte'. The play is consistently 
ridiculed in these prints. The transition of the impoverished Foxite to the 
part of patriot was too striking for it to be otherwise, and Gillray's Pizarro 
contemplating over his new Peruvian Mine (No. 9396) sets the tone of many 
caricatures. The play owed its vogue to the patriotic speech of RoUa' 
(No. 9397) which was printed as an invasion broadside in 1803, with the 
title Sheridan's Address to the People. An earlier and more short-lived 

* It was reprinted in The Times in 1940 vinder their 'Old and True' caption. 



excitement was a race at Newmarket: in March news was anxiously 
expected involving 'the deliverance of Europe'. Portentous events were 
hoped for or dreaded, in Tirol, Egypt, India, and Ireland : John Bull was 
aware of these things, but his most immediate interest was whether Diamond 
would beat Hambletonian (No. 9366, A Week's Amusement for lohn 

A very elaborate satire, No. 9349, Representant d'une Grande Nation, is 
probably French, commissioned by emigres in England. The Directory is 
*Le Quintuple Auto-democratisme ou Demo-Autocratisme'. Its foreign 
policy is voiced by Talleyrand, who makes contradictory and irreconcilable 
promises and threats to the Powers of Europe, except England who is 
'Ennemie de la France — Implacable Albion'. He is applauded by the 
Foxites and Home Tooke. The French in Egypt were a great opportunity 
for the caricaturists, especially Gillray, whose prints deserve study for the 
truths underlying their extravagances, and who used the Intercepted 
Letters. The publication of selections from letters from French officers in 
Egypt to friends and officials in France, intercepted in the Mediterranean, 
caused a sensation; they were translated into French and German and 
remain an important source for the history of the campaign; they are 
disillusioned, discontented, despondent. Their publication was attacked 
by the Opposition as a breach of international good manners ; Horner even 
sets it against the seizure of Rumbold, the British Minister in Hamburg, 
by Napoleon in 1804. In view of the licence of caricaturists and the Press 
(for instance, Coleridge's 'Fire, Famine, and Slaughter', in the Morning 
Post, 8 Jan. 1798) this is one of the curiosities of political psychology. 
They were of course damaging to French prestige and to the defeatism of 
the Opposition. Gillray's Siege de la Colonne de Pompie — Science in the 
Pillory, No. 9352, is a comprehensive satire on French savants in Egypt 
and French propaganda to Turks, Arabs, and Africans. When news 
arrived of Suvoroff 's great victories in Italy, he remains for the caricaturists 
primarily the villain of the conquest of Poland and the sack of Praga, not 
a great Allied commander. Gillray depicts him as a barbarian war-monster 
(No. 9390), while bitter dislike of the Russian alliance is shown in his The 
Magnanimous Ally (No. 9415), a cruel caricature of Paul I, noteworthy 
for its early appearance (17 Sept.); it was reissued in 1801, after it had 
been fully justified by the Tsar's erratic conduct. French defeats, French 
generals, the grandiose aims of Bonaparte in the East, and Larevelliere- 
Lepaux are the subjects of No. 9403, French Generals retiring, on account of 
their health, by Gillray (20 June). Actually, Lepaux and Merlin had just 
been expelled from the Directory by the minor coup d'etat of 30 Prairial 
(i8 June). Allied Powers, unbooting £galite (No. 9412) marks the turn of 
the tide. It records successes : Austria and Russia draw from Bonaparte a 
clumsy boot formed of the map of Italy, the defence of Acre and British 
naval achievements are alluded to. But he stands on a Dutch cheese from 
which he is in process of being dislodged by the Prince of Orange. This 
is an anticipation of the fruits of the unfortunate Anglo-Russian expedition 
to the Helder. Its failure coincided with the Austrian defeats in Switzer- 
land, and the reversal of the military situation. The Great Swallow All 
Disgorging . . ., No. 9422, is a remarkable print, not from its hostility to 
Suvoroff and the Russian alliance, but in representing the French as 
liberators, with Austrians dancing round a Tree of Liberty. The return of 
Bonaparte to France (23 August) passed unnoticed at the time, but the 
Revolution of Brumaire is the subject of caricatures showing a noteworthy 



appreciation of its significance. Within three days of the first reports in 
the English papers, Gillray published his Exit Liberie a la Francois! 
(No. 9426). The Empire was at once anticipated. For instance, in No. 
9433, Bonaparte, at the head of a file of soldiers receives an imperial crown 
from a kneeling ragamuffin. Brumaire is said to have had more effect than 
any other event in destroying Jacobinism in England, so clear was it that 
this was a military dictatorship. But Jacobinism was already moribund. 
And the plight of the Foxites was more desperate than ever, despite the 
beginning of a period of dearth which was to prove worse than that of 1795. 
In the summer the Duke of Somerset deplored the 'inadvertencies of 
Opposition, as they have rendered themselves so obnoxious that they have 
been the means of throwing an unfounded popularity upon the King and 
Ministers'.' It was significant that the price of porter had been raised 
'without clamour'. There is a tendency to blame the Dutch for the failure 
of the expedition to the Helder (Nos. 9420, 9421, p. 574). War- weariness 
is reflected in Political Hoaxing and The Beauties of War!! (Nos. 9416, 
9418). The last satires of the year are on the increased price of porter, with 
Pitt exculpated or otherwise (No. 9430, &c.), and on disappointment and 
sedition in the Whig Club (No. 9434). 

In 1800 the number of prints (50 including some French satires of 
doubtful date) falls to approximately the low level of 1785.^ Frustration 
and disappointment seem to pervade them, though there are some pene- 
trating satires on Bonaparte. The hopes of a speedy and decisive victory 
had vanished. The year opens with the answer to the peace overture made 
by Bonaparte in a letter to the King which reached England on 3 1 December, 
and was rebuffed in a dispatch from Grenville to Talleyrand. The reply 
was a diplomatic blunder: the cry for peace in France was silenced, 
though the Ministerial belief that the offer was not seriously intended, but 
was a peace offensive in the strict sense of the term, is probably correct: at 
all events Napoleon said as much in St. Helena. The only satire directly 
relating to it represents Bonaparte dismayed at 'John Bull's Dispatches' 
(No. 9512). Whitbread maintained in Parliament that Bonaparte's personal 
approach to the King (contrary to diplomatic usage) was 'in no way incom- 
patible with the respect which is due from one crowned head to another'. 
This suggested Gillray 's The Apples and the Horse-Turds; — or — Buona- 
parte among the Golden Pippins (No. 9522), in which the republican turds 
swim in competition with crowned apples representing the sovereigns of 
Europe. This theme is combined with a comprehensive attack on the 
Opposition, the Opposition Press, and revolutionary doctrines in general. 
Bonaparte's departure from Egypt is retrospectively satirized by Gillray 
in an illustration to intercepted dispatches from Kleber, bitterly indignant 
at the desertion of the army in Egypt (No. 9523). In Gillray's The French- 
Consular-Triumverate, settling the new Constitution (No. 9509),^ Bonaparte 
writes with fierce decision, giving himself supreme power, while the other 
two Consuls bite their pens in pompous indecision; he tramples on 
republican constitutions, and has already prepared a future constitution 
with 'Buonaparte Grande Monarque'. In the background Sieyes searches 
in senile and impotent haste among his crowded 'Constitutional-Pigeon- 
Holes', illustrating Burke's dictum: 'Abbe Sieyes has whole nests of 

* Lady Holland's Joumcd, 1908, ii. 21. 

* Allowance should probably be made for plates prepared by Gillray for the 
Anti-Jacobin and presumably destroyed; these must have reduced his output on 
current politics. See above, p. xiii. ^ See frontispiece. 



pigeon-holes full of constitutions ready made, ticketed, sorted, and 
numbered, suited to every season and fancy.' The Rival Accoucheurs, or 
who shall deliver Europe (No. 9544) anticipates the flattering representa- 
tions of Bonaparte that filled the print-shops after the Peace Preliminaries 
began in the spring of 1801. The rivals are Pitt, a quack doctor, whose 
prescription is 'mint seed', that is, subsidies to European Powers, and 
Bonaparte, who points to his cannon-balls with his sword, declaring them 
far more efficacious, since he has 'delivered Europe in one day' (at 
Marengo), while Pitt has 'been months in attempting to deliver Italy'. 
The dignity of the handsome general in a design where the other figures 
are broadly caricatured is striking, and is an indication of the extreme 
unpopularity of subsidies. 

At home, the chief topics are the dearth and the Union with Ireland. 
As to the Union, the general tone of the prints is hostile facetiousness — 
jokes on marriage between Hibemia and John Bull. The plates to the 
Hibernian Magazine are very bitter, e.g. No. 9531, Marriage against 
Inclination, a Step to Separation. In this, Erin appeals to 'the constant 
loyalty of my children'. The prints on the dearth are in striking contrast 
with those of 1795. The blame is put, not on Pitt and seldom on the war, 
but on profiteers, corn-factors, and forestallers. This attitude, always 
latent, was encouraged by an injudicious address to the jury by Kenyon, 
which led to serious riots in London and elsewhere (No. 9545). Never- 
theless, Pitt found it necessary to protest against those (not supported by 
Fox, who remained Burke's disciple on this question) who were agitating 
for peace by declaring that the scarcity was due solely to the war.^ There 
is no reference, direct or indirect, to the Combination Act of 1799, or to 
the Act of 1800 that superseded it. This is not surprising,^ but is scarcely 
compatible with the interpretation of the Acts as a new departure and a 
repressive measure comparable with the Seditious Meetings Act which is 
the subject of so many prints. 

From 1794 there has been a sprinkling of satires on the Volunteers in 
each year (see Index). Some have been classed as political, others as 
social, but in general the Volunteers evoke ridicule and even hostility. 
They were regarded, especially in London, as a police force for curbing 
civil disturbance, and were called out to quell the food riots of 1800. The 
contrast with the attitude towards the volunteers of 1803 is striking, and 
illustrates a patriotic broadside of 1803, A Letter to the Volunteers, urging 
them to 'avoid the errors of your first Associations' in the last war. 'It is 
observed that dress, parade, and ostentation occupied more of your time 
than attention to discipline. . . . The system of extravagance you adopted 
produced the most baneful effects; the greatest envy and hatred,' The 
Volunteer corps are said to have been the chief safeguard of Parliament 
'while Democracy raged'. ^ The contrast between the Volunteers of the 
French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, like that between the popular 
reactions to dearth in 1795 and 1 799-1 801, is one of the signs that Jacobin- 
ism was dead. The century closed with misfortunes, and a caricature 
published on the first day of the nineteenth century, a study in facial 
expression by Woodward, is called Bad News from the Continent, namely, 

^ Speech of 17 Feb. 1800. 

* Economic Journal, History Supplement, 1927, pp. 214-28; Econ. Hist. Review, 
1936, pp. 172-8. 

3 W. Hamilton Reid, Rise and Dissolution of the Infidel Societies of this Metropolis, 
1800, p. 31. 



news of the collapse of Austria and of the League of Northern Powers 
under our recent 'Magnanimous Ally', the Tsar. 

Personal Satires. 

The distinction between political and personal satires remains difficult 
to draw, with many borderline prints. Military satires present a special 
difficulty in this volume; in general, prints involving the Army or the 
Volunteers as a body are classed as political, satires on individuals (unless 
political in intention) have been classed as personal. In a few composite 
prints, mainly social, a political subject intrudes (Nos. 9635, 9640). In 
general, there is a greater proportion of realistic studies of life and manners, 
as compared with those on stock subjects of humour, than in earlier vol- 
umes. This is largely due to Woodward ; the plates to his Eccentric Excur- 
sion (8929, &c.) are interesting as things seen by the traveller ; for instance, 
the interior of a stage-coach, with passengers uneasily asleep, a scene not 
unlike night travel by train at its worst. Rowlandson, too, has many prints 
on manners in this volume, but they are primarily works of art; he has 
not the interest of Woodward in manners and customs as such, though he 
often depicts them superbly. As always, personal and social satires are 
inextricably mixed, and it has not always been possible to discover the 
personal application of a satire (though the specialized knowledge of the 
reader may supply the missing clue). Personal scandal has diminished with 
the cessation of the vis-a-vis portraits, current from 1769 to 1791, known 
as Tete-a-tetes. 

The sensations that amused or even absorbed the town are well illus- 
trated. Two were both literary and theatrical, the Ireland forgeries and 
Sheridan's Pizarro. The latter is treated in caricature from the political 
angle, except for Dighton's portraits of Kemble and Mrs. Siddons as 
Rolla and Elvira. On the Ireland controversy there are three prints that, 
taken together, give an excellent survey of the affair from an extremely 
hostile angle. They are indeed cruel to the older Ireland, who suffered 
severely and unjustly from his son's talented imposture. Gillray and 
Steevens combined in a savage attack on Ireland in a travesty of an over- 
flattering portrait engraved twelve years earlier (No. 9064). The verses by 
Steevens are attributed to Mason, Walpole's friend, who had died some 
eight months earlier. This is seemingly an instance of Gillray's love of 
false and impossible attributions.^ For this deliberately insulting print 
Ireland began a libel action against Steevens, Gillray, and Hannah 
Humphrey, claiming ^^5,000 damages, but desisted on legal advice. The 
Anti-Jacobin was a literary sensation of another kind, but the prints 
relating to it are political, though with literary allusions. Booksellers and 
publishers attacked are Lackington and Stockdale: Lackington for his 
'Temple of the Muses', naive autobiography, and 'puffing advertisements'. 
In Effusions of the Heart (the title of his daughter's poems) Stockdale is 
attacked by Gillray for piratical publishing and general lack of principle. 
This contains allusions that cause it to be classed as political, showing that 
he was for a short time in 1798 (perhaps as Government agent) owner and 
publisher of the Press, the organ of the United Irishmen. The theme of 
the poor poet and the arrogant bookseller-publisher is the subject of a 
plate by Rowlandson (No. 9087). 

Theatrical prints are less important than those in Volume VI. Opera 
' See below, p. xliii. 


dancers were the subject of a violent outburst from Barrington, Bishop of 
Durham, in the House of Lords. He attacked them as emissaries from 
France to corrupt our morals (by their costume and poses). This occasioned 
a number of prints, all ridiculing the Bishop and his morality campaign 
(No. 9297). Another theatrical sensation was the marriage of Lord Derby 
and Miss Farren which followed immediately upon Lady Derby's death 
in 1797. It was the subject of a number of prints (No. 9074, &c.) that mark 
the end of a long series of satires, many in execrable taste, dating from 
1 78 1, on Lord Derby's attachment to Eliza Farren. The only scandal in 
the career of the correct Kemble is the subject of No. 8730. In A Theatrical 
Candidate (No. 9086) by Rowlandson an ugly actor implores Sheridan for 
an engagement. This gives an opening for concise criticism of notable 
actors, and also for comment on Sheridan's treatment of playwrights, 
actors, and Drury Lane shareholders. Family groups of French and Italian 
dancers, practising en deshabille, are the subject of two charming plates by 
Rowlandson, recent acquisitions included in the Addenda (Nos. 9670, 
9686). The contrasted emotions registered by the occupants of pit and 
gallery at tragedy and comedy were a favourite subject of caricature, 
treated by Rowlandson and Boyne in Volume VI. In Nos. 9098 and 9099 
Dighton depicts varieties of facial expression in the theatre in studies 
of men's heads, and Cruikshank represents a pit scene at a tragedy (No. 


Satires on graphic and plastic art are chiefly concerned with the Royal 
Academy and the fashionable portrait-painter. In 1797 there was an 
Academy sensation which gave Gillray an opportunity for one of his 
complicated designs combining fantasy with quasi-realistic portraiture. 
Titianus Redivivtis (No. 9085) is a satire on the 'Venetian Secret', the chief 
subject of discussion at the opening of the Academy. In some respects it 
is a sequel to his Shakespeare Sacrificed, since it also attacks Boydell's 
grandiose undertaking. Many artists had paid ^^lo to a young girl, an art 
student, for the supposed secret of Titian's colouring and technique, and 
it was agreed that the results were harmful. Seven R.A.s, including 
Farington (though he discreetly ignores the subject in his Diary), were 
known to have bought the Secret, and many other artists had also done so. 
The seven are depicted, painting away, each making remarks reflecting 
Gillray's (unfavourable) opinion of his work, and, incidentally, his admira- 
tion for Claude and Wilson. Crowds of other artists are indicated, clamour- 
ing for the Secret : eleven are identified by name ; they include Lawrence, 
and though some are now forgotten all have a place in the D.N.B. Eight 
other artists, including Turner and Fuseli, are honourably distinguished 
from the dupes. Old masters are represented by falling stars, expelled from 
Heaven by vulgar newspaper puffs. The connoisseurs also have their 
place: Malone, Abraham Hume, Sir George Beaumont. Hoppner, one of 
the seven, is also caricatured by Gillray in No. 8841. In an illustrated 
acrostic Wilton is attacked for his management of the Academy Schools 
(No. 8519). Old NoUekens putting the finishing touches to one of his 
Venuses is the subject of a well-known plate by Rowlandson. The fashion- 
able portrait-painter is ridiculed in No. 9639 (an echo of the portrait of 
the Primrose family) and in one of the plates to his Comforts of Bath 
(No. 9321). His Artist travelling in Wales (No. 9445) is a realistic study of 
the artist on a sketching tour in the wilds of Wales. 

Prints on musical subjects are chiefly concerned with the amateur. The 
painful singing of the elderly spinster is the subject of three prints (Nos. 



8381, 8764, 9307). The atrociously bad accompanist is the subject of 
No. 9586. The country caller who appropriates the piano to the boredom 
of her hosts is the subject of The Vicar's Visit returned! (No. 9481). A 
well-known print by Gillray, A Country Concert; — or — An Evening's 
Entertainment in Sussex (No. 9306), has been explained as Mrs. Billington 
singing and playing for the Duke of Sussex, the other instruments being 
'cello, flute, and violin. This interpretation forgets that Prince Augustus 
was not yet Duke of Sussex, while his association with Mrs. Billington (at 
this time in Italy) was some twenty years later. In Savoyards of Fashion or 
the Musical Mania of lygg (No. 9459) five ladies (probably portraits) play 
instruments generally associated with street music: hurdy-gurdy, tam- 
bourine, &c. The fashionable private concert is a secondary subject of 
No. 9404, a print on Sunday observance. A concert at Bath is one of the 
plates to No. 9321. 

Medical satires are generally concerned with the appearance and foibles 
of the old-fashioned physician, or his younger and more modishly dressed 
colleague. A typical print of burlesque character is Doctors differ and their 
Patients die (No. 8590). More realistic is Rowlandson's print of three 
doctors in attendance on a patient at Bath (No. 9321). But one medical 
subject of great importance is illustrated, the attempt of the surgeons to 
replace their City Company (which expired through neglect in 1796) by 
a College of Surgeons. Their Bill was defeated by the opposition of the 
remnants of the old Company, small practitioners of little education, and 
by a violent speech by Lord Thurlow. The difficulty was overcome soon 
afterwards by the grant of a Charter. The prints reflect the unpopularity 
of surgeons who are represented as ruthless hackers and slashers, profiteers, 
and (inconsistently) associates of barbers (No. 9092, &c.). Thurlow 
accused them of 'merciless cruelty'. There are two symbolical representa- 
tions of disease: a famous plate by Gillray on gout (No. 9448) and Newton's 
The Blue Devils (No. 8745) on hypochondria. 

The lawyer is more harshly treated than the doctor. He is peculiarly and 
traditionally associated with the Devil, cf. A Lawyer and his Agent by 
Dighton (No. 8394). His typical clients, John Doe and Richard Roe, are 
the subject of two prints and are alluded to in two others (No. 8912). More 
specifically, his client is generally a countryman, as in No. 8393, by 
Rowlandson, where a booby squire sits in consultation with five barristers, 
or in The Attorney (No. 9486). Lord Abington expressed similar views of 
his (former) solicitor and of lawyers in general in a speech in the Lords, 
calling them 'pettifogging attornies' and 'rotten limbs of the law'. He sent 
this challenge to the profession to the newspapers, even paying for its 
insertion. The result was a criminal information, imprisonment, and fine 
(No. 8520). Erskine's speeches in crim. con. cases are satirized in No. 
8374 ; it is true that these oddly anticipate Mr. Serjeaunt Buzfuz. 

The prevalence of suits of crim. con, (see index) is a favourite topic, 
especially in relation to the large damages awarded, which made such 
suits, it is said, a profitable speculation. Faro tables as a means of making 
money resorted to by women of fashion became notorious in 1791 (No. 
8075). They were run on a business footing by Lady Buckinghamshire 
and others. Kenyon declared in court that if 'the highest ladies of the 
land* should be convicted before him of illegal gaming they should 
'certainly exhibit themselves in the pillory'. Thereupon the chief practi- 
tioners were so exhibited in caricature as Faro's Daughters (No. 8876, &c.). 
This had a sequel in the following year. Two footmen, dismissed on 


suspicion of having stolen the faro bank belonging to Lady Buckingham- 
shire and her partners, informed against them for illegal gaming. Fines 
were imposed in the police court, but the caricaturists depicted Kenyon 
carrying out his threat. The degeneracy of the age, on account of fashionable 
vices and extravagance, as compared with Elizabethan times, is the subject 
of Days of Yore!! and The Days we live in!! by Woodward (Nos. 9104, 9105). 

Parsons are generally depicted as gross and carbuncled, or young, sleek, 
fashionable, ingratiating. Woodward makes great play with both types. In 
his Symptoms of Divinity (No. 9643) parsons are shown in eight different 
circumstances, all discreditable. Twelve types of preacher are depicted 
in Parsonic Piety (No. 9647). The guzzling parson is the subject of No. 
8323. The Battle of Bangor (No. 8881) is one of two prints on a deplorable 
incident in the history of the diocese. On the whole, the attitude to the 
Church and the parson, and the relative immunity of the dissenter, seem 
to reflect a more radical viewpoint than would be expected in a period 
generally associated with Tory reaction. Other stock subjects of caricature 
are the Scot, the Irishman, the Welshman (one print only, A Welch 
Justice, No. 9651), and the Jew. The Scot (No. 8550) climbs from abject 
poverty to the House of Lords ; he is an unpleasant character, with a sly 
thrust at Dundas, who throughout personifies the Scot in politics. The 
Irishman is primarily a man of pleasure, brawler, gambler, and spend- 
thrift ; he too rises from the humblest origins, but comes to a violent end 
(No. 8562). The Irish peasant is ignorant, absurd, and callous (Nos. 8747, 
8748). Jews are money-lenders, stockbrokers, pedlars, or dealers in old 
clothes. The English counterpart of these characters (besides John Bull) 
is the *cit', the subject of many prints in which he appears in his traditional 
parts: he is a guzzling alderman (e.g. No. 9472), he rides or drives, always 
clumsy and sometimes aping the manners of St. James's (No. 9466). He 
fishes in the New River, he learns to dance, he is a pert commercial traveller. 
The 'snug box* (traditionally at Islington) is depicted by Nixon (No. 8556). 
The cit's Sunday outing includes the tramp to the ordinary at a suburban 
tavern, and the guzzling that goes on there (Nos. 8405, 8515), as well as the 
family party in a tea-garden (No. 8934). He is a volunteer, suffering in a 
riding-school (No. 8476) or drilling in his shop (p. 515). There are two 
sets of four prints on the cockney sportsman in the fields round London, 
one by Gillray after an amateur (No. 9596, &c.). In one print only there 
is an element of tragedy : a prosperous citizen has retired to the country to 
find that, despite his coach and a comely wife and pretty daughter, he is 
visited by no one (No. 9500). 

More realistic studies of social life include the street scenes in Rowland- 
son's Cries of London (No. 9474, &c.) and his charming 'Entries of London' 
(No. 93 17, &c.), views outside turnpike gates. A crowd gazes at a Punch and 
Judy show in No. 8774. There are also the plates to Woodward's Eccentric 
Excursion, whose note is humorous realism and local character. (Some 
purely topographical plates have not been catalogued.) The departure of 
the Margate packet and the landing of the passengers are depicted in 
Nos. 8400, 8401 . In contrast with Volumes V and VI there are no prints on 
Cambridge, several on Oxford. Three very amateurish little etchings show 
undergraduates (university not specified) in their college rooms (No. 9656, 
&c.). The two prints on Christmas festivities (Nos. 8587, 9661) both 
illustrate kissing under the mistletoe. These are interesting from their 
date. It is said that the practice did not begin before the early years of the 
nineteenth century. 



These caricatures are an important source for the history of costume. 
The limp high-waisted dress associated with the Directory and the 
Empire makes its first appearance in 1793. It is still a matter of controversy 
whether it originated in France or in England, though it owes much to 
David, and is especially associated, in its more transparent form, with 
Mme Tallien. It appears here as the innovation of Lady Charlotte 
Campbell, who caused much comment early in 1793 by appearing in a dress 
intended to imitate the draperies of a statue, with a swelling below the 
waist, and much exposed or defined breasts. The pad, which gave the 
swelling the form of pregnancy (or was said to do so) was a popular topic 
in 1793, and was even the subject of a play (No. 8388). Dresses with very 
high waists and puflFed sleeves, worn with tall feathers in the hair, were 
characteristic of 1794. In 1795 there were two novelties, the turban 
(No. 8755) and the parasol with the jointed stick, anticipating the Victorian 
carriage parasol (No. 8754). Bunches of straw and straw trimmings 
generally were worn in 1795, perhaps in support of the straw-plait industry 
which was much patronized by charitable ladies during the war (No. 8756). 
The high-waisted dress was at its most shapeless during 1794 and 1795. In 
1796-7 the transparency of women's dress became the chief topic. Scanty 
and diaphanous dress is the subject of Gillray's Ladies Dress, asitsoonzoillbe 
(No. 8896), a print mentioned by Mathias, in a note to his Pursuits of 
Literature, as a deserved satire on the dress of the period. These anticipa- 
tions of what came to be known as Empire fashions brought with them the 
cross-gartered sandal or low shoe (cothurne) (No. 9328). The wig simulat- 
ing natural hair and worn on a shaved head by both men and women is the 
subject of No. 9313. The reticule, 'ridicule', or balantine was a develop- 
ment of the necessary disappearance of the old-fashioned pocket from 
clinging draperies ; it was a minor topic of the day in both London and 
Paris (No. 9577). The fashion for thin transparent dresses introduced new 
developments in underclothes (No. 9456), influenced by a very cold 
winter in 1799-1800, see Boreas effecting what Health & Modesty could not 
(No. 9608). Men's fashions satirized here are the spencer (also worn by 
women) and cropped hair (Nos. 8628, 8763); both had appeared earlier but 
were revived and popularized. The Incroyable was a dress fashionable in 
Paris in 1796, apparently under the impression that it was an English 
mode: its characteristics are a loose coat with large revers and bulky 
swathed neckcloth (much worn in England) with top-boots. In a French 
print, No. 8833, Malmesbury wears this dress (which was also depicted as 
an emigre fashion, worn at Coblenz) as an Englishman in contrast with 
the more elegant Frenchman. In 1799 a very ugly fashion for men is here 
caricatured as French. Its chief features were a wrinkled coat with high 
collar much padded and inflated sleeves gathered at the armhole, known as 
a Jean de Bry, and worn with tasselled Hessian boots (No. 9425). Skefling- 
ton, the fop par excellence of the early nineteenth century, makes his first 
appearance in caricature in a peculiarly ugly form of this dress worn with 
powdered hair and large dark whiskers (No. 9440). The feminine fashions 
were a coalscuttle scoop of straw which hid the face, so that its wearers 
were known in Paris as Les Invisibles, and a small straw cap, just covering 
the head, sometimes shaped as a jockey-cap (No. 9454). 

As before, social injustice is only by exception a subject of graphic 
satire. A new spirit, a greater awareness, is, however, apparent in satires 
classed as political. The appointment of Fast Days, with prayers for the 
success of British arms, evoked a telling contrast between a dinner at 



Lambeth Palace and the bare table of a poor weaver's family in Spitalfields : 
in Coleridge's words 'a turbot feast for the rich, and their usual scanty 
morsel for the poor' (No. 8428). A bitter attack on the callous charities 
of the rich who reduce their consumption of bread is made by Gillray 
in Substitutes for Bread; — or — Right Honourables saving the Loaves, & 
dividing the Fishes (No. 8707), while his comparative list of wages and 
prices in No. 8665 is a documented approach to the problem of poverty. 
The dictum that the law is the same for rich and poor is ridiculed in 
No. 9636. More traditional themes are imprisonment for debt (see index), 
and the vestry feast at which the parish vestry guzzle at the expense of 
the poor rate, while the poor starve (Nos. 8770, 9639). In Newton's 
A Row at a Cock and Hen Club a characteristic scene of the London 
underworld is represented, probably with realism though with a touch of 
decorative burlesque (No. 9309). 


In this volume Gillray's supremacy in political caricature is more 
apparent than ever: there are also many interesting plates on non-political 
subjects. His output too surpasses that of any other artist, while in 
1784-92 it was less than that of Rowlandson and almost equalled by Dent.^ 
His line has already lost something of the mastery apparent circa 1786-8, 
and conspicuous in (e.g.) Nos. 701 1, 7298, but his fantasy, irony, inventive- 
ness, and political insight are at their height. His use of pseudonyms, and 
of imaginary draftsmen who allegedly supply him with designs, is charac- 
teristic of his love of sardonic mystification. In this spirit he used Sayers's 
signature for plates parodying those of Sayers,^ attributed libellous verses 
to the recently deceased Mason, ^ and ascribed his set of Egyptian Sketches 
to the intercepted drawings of 'an ingenious young artist attached to the 
Institut National at Cairo' (No. 9355). Thomas Humphrey, aged thirteen, 
becomes the draftsman of three plates with a pseudo-childishness of line 
and conception. No. 8381, probably by Gillray, has a shaky technique that 
cruelly conveys the quavering voice of an elderly woman. Prints of the 
Archduke Charles and Suvoroff, clearly not from life, are inscribed 'drawn 
from life by Lieut. Swarts of the Imperial Barco Regiment'. A similar 
spirit inspires the insulting ad vivam deP et fecit of No. 881 1. 'Miss Mary 
Stokes', who ostensibly drew Gillray's Paris Beau and Belle (Nos. 8430, 
8431), has probably no more substance than Lieutenant Swarts, but covers 
a certain amateurishness that heightens the ferocity of the conception: 
conceivably she is one of the amateurs whose work was etched by Gillray. 
'Thomas Adams' appears, like 'John Schoebert', a mere pseudonym, 
though probably having some cryptic significance. 'Henry C — L may be 
an allusion to the subject of No. 8896. Some of the drawings supplied to 
Gillray by amateurs are in the Print Room: they vary from the rudi- 
mentary sketch (No. 9184) to the drawing which is fairly closely followed 
(No. 8892). In other cases there is documentary evidence as to the 
originator or designer (Nos. 8682, 9423). Amateurs with some individual 
status are noticed below. 

From 1793 to 1797 the work of Rowlandson is scanty, chiefly represented 
by reissues of earlier plates, and by etchings after Woodward in which 

' The British Museum possesses a more nearly complete collection of Gillray 
than of any other caricaturist of the period except Sayers. 

* See Volume VI, p. xxx. ' See above, p. xxxviii. 



his own manner is subordinated. In 1798 there is a new impetus from 
scenes of military Hfe, with plates on the Volunteers and on the Army. The 
interesting topographical plates of turnpike gates round London (No. 9317, 
&c.) have many details of Army life. This renewed activity may owe 
something to Ackermann's appearance as a printseller; at first he was as 
closely associated with Rowlandson as Hannah Humphrey with Gillray. 
This period of Rowlandson's work in caricature and humorous genre is 
transitional between his earlier work, represented here in the Addenda, 
and his later manner, as for instance the Dr. Syntax plates. 

For Dighton too the period is transitional.' The finished water-colours 
with whole-length figures that he had done for Bowles's series of mezzotints 
come to an end. Perhaps the last is No. 8416, though the half-length 
types in the series of small mezzotints continue for a year or two longer, 
and the small portrait heads or half-lengths also continue to about 1795. In 
1794 the series of whole-length caricature portraits etched by himself 
begins with a caricature of Stephen Kemble. In 1796 there is a caricature, 
unlike his other work, and seemingly an imitation of Woodward (No. 8912). 
In 1797 and 1798 he produced several interesting political caricatures with 
some characteristics of both his earlier water-colours and his etched 
portraits, which are yet unlike both, and seem to be experimental (Nos. 
8996, 9047, 9098, 9216, 9222, 9687). In 1799 he reverts to portraiture with 
two theatrical portraits, scarcely caricatures, and the well-known series is 
launched. His very interesting Westminster Election scene of 1796 
(containing a self-portrait) was etched by Bate and afterwards mezzo- 
tinted by Sadd (No. 8815). 

The work of Isaac Cruikshank continues on the same lines as in Volume 
VI, perhaps gaining facility, but he is always a very variable artist. He 
etched much of Woodward's work and did designs which were engraved 
for Laurie and Whittle's series of 'Drolls', besides the caricatures which he 
both designed and etched. He has the distinction of having produced the 
first English caricature of Napoleon. In this volume Cruikshank denotes 
Isaac: the name of George (born 1792) appears as the copyist on a tiny 
scale of plates by Gillray and of one by Rowlandson for a work which 
Hone intended to publish as a defence of his Political Litany (though the 
relevance of some of the plates selected is obscure). The book was pre- 
sumably given up on Hone's acquittal in 18 17. Reduced copies of many of 
Gillray 's plates were published in i8i8. One of these^ is attributed to 
Cruikshank by Reid, who apparently did not know that it was one of a set. 
If the attribution is correct, and there is no reason to dispute it on grounds 
of style, many, probably all, of the other copies must be by him. The 
attribution has therefore been noticed in the Index. 

Richard Newton's work gains in power in this volume. He was a 
miniaturist as well as a caricaturist, and he has two manners, one grotesque 
and bold, the other realistic, conventional, and rather charming, used 
occasionally, as in No. 8552. Both manners are fused in a design which 
admirably combines realism and decorativeness, No. 9309, done in the 
last year of his life, for he unfortunately died in 1798 at the age of twenty- 
one. His work suggests that his sympathies were with the democrats, and 
he drew portrait groups from life of the political prisoners in Newgate in 
1793. The work of Dent disappears in 1793 ; his last plate is also his most 
ambitious (No. 8350). Two new caricaturists appear in this volume, 

' See H. M. Hake, 'Dighton Caricatures', The Print Collector's Quarterly, xiii. 
1 36 ff. ^ A Kick at the Broad Bottoms, 23 Mar. 1 807. 



Cawse and Ansell. Cawse is mainly known as a portrait-painter and he 
exhibited at the Academy from 1801 to 1844; his caricatures belong to the 
earlier part of his life. The caricaturist known as Ansell presents some 
difficulties. His work, which is individual and easy to recognize, at all events 
in its earlier period, begins in 1797. His identity as Ansell depends on 
attributions made by E, Hawkins on prints now in the British Museum.' It 
has been assumed that he is identical with Charles Ansell, who exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1780 and 1781, and whose Death of a Race Horse was 
engraved in six plates in 1784. There is a charming water-colour by him in 
the Print Room, and four signed plates in this volume, the last in 1796. All 
are social subjects, and there is no obvious connexion between this work 
and the political satires of 'Ansell' which begin in 1797 and continue at 
least into the second decade of the nineteenth century. There may there- 
fore be two Ansells, and a (hypothetical) distinction has been made in the 
Index between Charles Ansell and Ansell. The latter may be identical with 
James K. Ansell who drew, engraved, and published a plate called A 
Flemish Diligence. This has the imprint 'Drawn & Engrav'd by James K. 
Ansell at Brussells, March 1794. London, Sep. 8, 1794 Publish'd for 
J. K. Ansell at N" 9 Clement's Inn'.^ This has a scratchy amateurishness 
unlike the later prints, but might well be a juvenile effort of the later artist, 
whose work is competent, and politically intelligent and well informed. He 
also did non-political plates in a similar manner. West is another puzzling 
artist. Several artists of this name were working in England, and not all 
the plates inscribed 'West' by E. Hawkins appear to be by the same hand. 
Two plates of 1787 attributed by Hawkins to West and by Grego to 
Rowlandson (Nos. 8260, 8261) are in the manner of Raphael West. 

Caricaturists who in different ways are to some degree amateurs are 
Woodward, Sayers, Bunbury, and Nixon. Woodward was an untrained 
artist, who never etched his own designs, and was the son of William 
Woodward, of Stanton Hall, Derbyshire, a large house, still standing.^ 
He makes a very considerable figure in caricature ; he was original, prolific, 
and varied. He was also a humorous writer, and his plates clearly owed 
much of their popularity to the inscriptions. It would appear from the 
titles to Tegg's Caricature Magazine that circa 1807-9 his prestige as a 
caricaturist was greater than that of Rowlandson, who etched many of his 
designs. There are some interesting plates by Sayers in 1794 and 1795, 
but after 1795 his work appears only at rare intervals. The work of Bunbury 
is almost over, and perhaps all the prints in the volume except No. 8619 
(from a drawing of 1794) are from earlier drawings or are copies or reissues 
of earlier plates. Nixon, who had a position of some importance in the 
Bank of England,* only produced an occasional caricature. He was an 
exhibitor at the Academy, and his vein was chiefly social comedy, but he 
did a large and elaborate design on the French Revolution, French Liberty 
(No. 8334), much admired by the de Goncourts. 

The work of the occasional amateur, less in Volume VI than in Volume 
V, has become still less frequent, though many doubtless supplied hints 
and sketches to the professionals and the printsellers. One of Gillray's 
most popular plates on costume is from a drawing by Miss Aynscombe. 

' See Broadley, i. 45. 

^ A. de R., ii. 126. 

3 Information from Mr. F. Williamson, curator of the Museum and Art Gallery, 

^ Miss Banks has endorsed a print 'By Mr. Nixon of the Bank'. See also B.M. 
Add. MSS. 27337, f. 156. 



Maria Carolina Temple, who is represented in the British Museum by a 
pleasant humorous water-colour, designed two plates. Brownlow North, 
second son of the Bishop of Winchester, designed some well-known comic 
plates etched by Gillray. The first of these appeared in 1800, notably a set 
of four hunting scenes (No. 9588, &c.). While he was at Cambridge some 
of his drawings were etched by Baldrey, and three are catalogued here, 
published in 1798 and 1799. Another amateur of similar calibre, and with 
a similar vein of broad comedy, whose work was etched by Gillray is 
*I. [J.] C. Esq""', a signature later expanded to 'J. C*^.' 

Among foreign artists represented here the most outstanding is David. 
He was commissioned by the Committee of Public Safety to employ *les 
talens et les moyens qui sont en son pouvoir, a multiplier les gravures et les 
caricatures qui peuvent reveiller I'esprit public et faire sentir combien sont 
atroces et ridicules les ennemis de la liberte et de la republique'. It is 
interesting to note that David carried out these instructions by two plates ; 
one is a schoolboy conception of the British Army as ridiculous and 
contemptible (No. 8462), the other 'represente le Gouvernement anglais 
sous la forme d'une horrible et chimerique figure, revetu de tous ses 
ornements royaux'' (No. 8463). The Committee ordered 1,000 impressions 
of each caricature. A German artist, Starcke of Weimar, is known only for 
the plates he engraved for London und Paris ; these were all copies of English 
or French prints, chiefly by Gillray. He was an accurate, almost a slavish, 
copyist, with no freedom of line ; he occasionally combines two plates by 
introducing a second copy on a minute scale in the form of a placard or 
picture within the first design. 

Printsellers and Publishers. 

Though many names appear in the Index only a minority represent 
printshops, and still fewer the shops specializing in caricatures. The index 
is strictly speaking one of imprints, so that many booksellers are included 
whose names are on plates to the books they published. In this volume a 
list is given, for the sake of convenience, of the periodicals whose plates 
are catalogued ; it will be noticed that the Anti-Jacobin is not included : the 
illustrations to it were not plates to the paper. 

The caricature printshops in this volume are Humphrey, Fores, Holland, 
Aitken, Bowles and Carver, Sayer, who was succeeded by Laurie and 
Whittle in 1794, Ackermann, and Allen. Humphrey for the first time rises 
to the front rank as the exclusive publisher of Gillray's plates. She also 
published Sayers's work during this period. In 1797 she moved from Bond 
Street to the well-known shop in St. James's Street, depicted by Gillray in 
Very Slippy-Weather (10 Feb. 1808). Her only rival was Fores, who, 
unlike herself, published the work of many artists, including Rowlandson 
and Cruikshank, but none exclusively. His Caricature Exhibition, which 
began in 1789, ended in 1794. In March 1793 he added to the attractions 
of 'the head and hand of Count Struensee'^ *a correct Model of the 
Guillotine, 6 feet high'. After January 1794 this object ceases to figure in 
his imprints; the Exhibition is not advertised after 12 October 1794, when 
it is said to have been 'just fitted up in an entire novel stile'. Fores 
specialized in supplying complete collections of caricatures, and there are 
indications that the large collection in twenty volumes so kindly lent 
to the Department by Mr. Anthony de Rothschild was supplied by Fores. 

* Archives Nationales, quoted Blum, p. 195. * See Vol. VI, p. xxxiv. 



The order given to him by Mr. Johnes of Hafod, Cardiganshire, for 'all the 
caricature prints that have ever been published' has already been noted.'' 
He also advertised 'Books of Caricatures' and 'Folio's of Caricatures 
lent out for the Evening'. In 1795 he moved from Number 3 Piccadilly 
to Number 50, 'the Corner of Sackville Street', where the firm remained 
till the house was pulled down a year or two ago. Holland's output 
shows a falling off in this volume. In 1793 he was imprisoned in Newgate 
for a political offence (see No. 8342). Aitken was always a secondary 
printseller, and his output shrinks during the period. Ackermann opened 
a printshop in the Strand in 1795, but does not seem at first to heve 
published caricatures. At all events, the first appearance of his name on 
these prints is in 1798, and in this volume his output is restricted to the 
work of Rowlandson (though he did not publish all his work) and to plates 
which though humorous are scarcely caricatures. On 27 November 1797 
he advertised in the Morning Herald his removal from 96 to loi Strand, 
finding his present establishment 'too confined, from a continued encourage- 
ment by the Nobility, the Gentry, and the Public in general for several 

The City printshops of Bowles and of Laurie and Whittle are in a 
different category. They produced comic prints, rarely political carica- 
tures, for a clientele that was certainly not that of St. James's; the 'Drolls' 
of Laurie and Whittle were advertised as suitable for sale by country 
booksellers. Both were very ancient firms. The former was in existence by 
1709 in St. Paul's Churchyard.^ Carington Bowles died in 1793 and was 
succeeded by his son Carington who carried on the business as Bowles and 
Carver. The series of humorous mezzotints known as 'Postures* continued 
to be sold, dates were obliterated, and prints were issued with altered 
imprint and date during the later *9o's. The last of the series appearing 
in this Catalogue is Number 3768 (see p. 145), published 17 February 1794. 
The smaller series can only be dated approximately, but prints were issued 
after the hair-powder tax of 1795. Laurie and Whittle succeeded Robert 
Sayer, who died at Bath, 29 June 1794. The Fleet-street shop was that of 
the very ancient business of the Overton family at the Golden Buck.^ They 
continued the series of 'Drolls' begun by Sayer and issued a catalogue in 
1795 which includes many of the Bowles mezzotints. Besides this numbered 
series which went on for many years, there is a similar set, not numbered, 
and in broadside form with verses engraved or printed beneath the design 
(e.g. Nos. 9503, 9504). M. Allen of 15 Paternoster Row published a few 
prints, all by Cruikshank ; his imprint succeeds that of Allen and West, or 
Allen & Co., the firm which published Woodward's Eccentric Excursion. 
He was afterwards a publisher of Napoleonic broadsides. 

Newton opened a printshop which he called 'his Original Print Shop', 
but he apparently published only his own prints and by no means all of 
those. Kay sold his prints at' his own shop in Edinburgh, Dighton pub- 
lished his at 12 Charing Cross, but the place was probably more studio than 
shop. Dent published his own plates, but sold his prints through the 
printsellers, Aitken at this period. Baldrey, Dickinson, and Aiken were 
artists who were also printsellers. Luffmann and Jenner appear to have 
been engravers who occasionally published prints of their own. Many 
artists occasionally published their own plates. Rowlandson did so before 
and after the period of this volume, but his imprint does not appear in it. 
It is interesting to find Henry Angelo publishing an important plate by his 
' See above, pp. xvi-xvii. * See Vol. V, pp. xxxvii-xxxviii. ^ Ibid.,p. xxxviii. 



friend Rowlandson. Gillray's publishing venture has been noted.' He had 
previously published one or two plates. 

Few prints were published outside London. There was Kay of Edin- 
burgh ; Baldrey who published in Cambridge had also a shop in Holborn. 
One plate has the imprint of Turton, Manchester. In Dublin there was 
McCleary, afterwards notorious for his piracies ; his name appears on two 
plates, one copied from a print by Cruikshank, the other insignificant. The 
French imprints include that of the famous Martinet, whose shop was 
opened in 1795. His shop-front appears in Bosio's Les Musards de la Rue 
du Coq a Paris', a copy was published by Tegg about 1814.^ 


* See above, pp. xii-xiii. 

^ Broadley, ii. 28-30. See also Colas, Bibliographie gin. du Costume et de la 
Mode, Paris, 1933, ii. 1307-9. 




4727 (1774, see Vol. V, p. 190) Reissued, Fores, 23 May 1799 (A. de R., 
'Bunbury', p. 12). 

4728 (1773) Reissued, J. Harris, 27 Feb. 1799 (Ibid., p. 80). 

4759 (1773) A reissue with the imprint Published as the Act directs May 23, 
ijgg by S. W. Fores N'^ 50 Piccadilly (No. 4759 a). 

A reduced copy by Rowlandson (Grego, i. 372) in Caricatures, ix. 190 
(No. 4759 B). 


5213 Reissued, Fores, 23 May 1799 (A. de R., 'Bunbury ', p. 14). 

5214 A reissue, with imprint as No. 4759 A (No. 5214 a). 

5215 Reissued, Fores, 3 Feb. 1799 (A. de R., 'Bunbury', p. 14). 

5216 Reissued, J. Harris, 3 Feb. 1799 (Ibid., p. 17). 
5361 Cf. No. 9684. 

5807 There is a state Published as y Act directs 2^ March 1772 (A. de R., 

viii. 81). 
5913 Reissued, Fores, 23 May 1799 (A. de R., 'Bunbury', p. 19). 
p. 807. Index, s.v. Tyrconnel, for ist earl, read 2nd earl. 


p. xxiv, 1. 37. For No. 8150 read No. 8145. 

p. xxix, 1. 41. For No. 5877 read No. 6877. 

6713 Mrs. Hobart and Mr. Bradshaw appear as Violante and Felix in 
Mrs. Centlivre's comedy The Wonder!, performed at Sans Souci, Ham 
Common, on Nov. 3, 4, 5, 1783. The inscription is from an epilogue by 
Miles Peter Andrews spoken by Mrs. Hobart after a performance of 
Murphy's All in the Wrong, printed, Morning Chronicle, 11 Nov. 1782.^ 
There is a later state inscribed Ham Common Theatre. 

7189 Published with the imprint: London, Published April j'^ lygi by 
S, W, Fores N° 3 Piccadilly (A. de R., iii. 190). 

7227 Attributed to Raphael West. 

7229 Reissued, Fores, 8 Mr. 1794 (A. de R., 'Bunbury', pp. 90-3). 

7230 Reissued, Fores, 15 Mar. 1794 (Ibid., pp. 94-7). 

7330 Some alternative identifications are given in A. de R., 'Gillray', pp. 
76-9; one only is completely satisfactory: Orleans (figalite) for Corn- 
wallis. Lord Carlisle replaces Sir J. Johnstone, but appears also as in 
No. 7330. The Duke of Portland replaces both the Marquis of Bucking- 
ham and (probably correctly) Sir P. Francis. Lord Sydney replaces 
Sir G. Shuckburgh and is (incorrectly) replaced by Keppel (d. 1786). 
Lord Coventry replaces General Bligh. 

* Information from Miss Sybil Rosenfeld. 


7393 The scene and the verses (parodied) are from O'Hara's burletta 
Midas (also parodied in No. 7498). 

7436 The engraving from which this photograph was taken has been 
presented to the Museum. 

7586 Alternative identifications from A. de R., ix. 118, are for Locatelli 
John Charles Lochee who did portrait medallions for Tassie and Wedg- 
wood, and for the Duchess of Devonshire her sister Lady Duncannon 
(Lady Bessborough), 

7635 For ' } Barrington' read Charles Berington, Vicar- Apostolic of the 
Midland Division and a member of the Catholic Council.' 

7695 Published 16 Feb. 1791 by Fores, with inscription as quoted from 
Challamel (A. de R., iii. 161). 

7699 For Prince Ernest read Prince Edward. 

7702 For Prince Ernest read Prince Edward. 

7747 The man in the cask is identified as 'Deighton', probably Robert 
Dighton the artist, his 'Knowing One' and 'Deep One' being the 
manipulators of the cask. 

7792 A Deep One. Pub Aug 21 iyg2 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 
(A. deR.,ii. 83). Cf. No. 9683. 

7799 An adaptation of No. 1609 (1749) attributed to 171 9, the date 
corrected under No. 3047. 

8005 The 'amorous Irish Barrister' is John Philpot Curran. 

8018 For Attic Miscellany, i. 113, read ii. 113. 

8027 The verses are from The Barber's Nuptials, by G. Huddesford. 
Poems, i8oi, i. 104-9. 

8138 p. 938, 1. 8, for 6919 read 16919. 

8196 An original water-colour, no title, is in the Print Room; there are 
minor variations from the etching (Cannon Collection). See also 
No. 9663. 

8205 Last line, for 3^ read 13^. Reissued, Fores, 15 Mar. 1794 (A. de R., 
'Bunbury', pp. 82-3). 

8235 Imprint, Published July 26, iyg2 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 
(A. de R., xii. 152). 

8236 Imprint, Published July iyg2 [etched over an earlier date] by S W 
Fores N° 3 Piccadilly (Ibid., p. 150). 

p. 1020 Index, add to Mills, Selina, m. Zachary Macaulay 1799. 

p. 1028 Index, s.v. Tyrconnel, for 5th Earl read 2nd Earl. 

' Infonnation from Mr. Wickham Legg. 




(Nos. 8284-9692) 

Caricature in its most important practice is satirical, 
and satire is essentially a sort of complaint and dis- 
approval, its best effects being most readily produced 
in the spirit of opposition. 

DAVID LOW, 1932. 

La lutte s'etendra aux deux hemispheres, c'est sur les 
mines de la Tour de Londres que vous devez signer le 
traite qui reglera les destines des nations et fondera la 
liberte des mondes. 

kersaint: in the Convention, i Jan. 1793. 

La Carthage modeme sera detruite. 

BARfeRE: in the Convention, i Aug. 1793. 


8284 THE CONTRAST I 1793 

[Rowlandson after Lord George Murray.] 

Pub Jan ly 1. 1793 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly, i^ i' 0^ p' Hundred 
Plain and 2^ 2^ o"^ Coloured Price 3^ Plain, Coloured 6^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A close copy of No. 8149' with the same 
inscriptions. One of the prints advertised by the Crown and Anchor 
Society (see No. 8316, &c.) on a broadside reprint of Loughborough's 
speech on the Alien Act, 26 Dec. 1792 (B.M.L., 648. c. 26/19): 'The happy 
and flourishing State and Wealth of Great Britain, contrasted with the 
Horrors, Massacres, and Poverty of France.' For similar contrasts, cf. 
Nos. 8288, 8289, 8301, 8609, 8695. Cf. No. 8287, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 61 19. A copy in Jaime, ii, PL 64 G., reversed and with 
French inscriptions. 

A French copy : Blum, No. 607. 
9|X 13I (pi.). Diam. of the two circles c. 6^ in. 


[L Cruikshank,] 

London Pub Jan'y i iyg3 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly who has 

again opened his Exhibition Rooms to which he has added several 

Hundred Old & New Subject Admits' i' 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Burke, a colossal 
figure, lunges forward and to the r., a dagger in each hand. Behind, the 
House of Commons is indicated, empty except for the Speaker (Addington) 
in the background, raising his arms in dismay, and Fox in the middle 

distance, who flees, looking over his shoulder to say, D me he's got the 

French Disorder. Burke frowns ; a scroll issues from his fiercely closed lips : 
Plunderers Assassins Republicans Villians Cut Throats Levellers Regicides 
Lovers of Disorder Exporters of Treason & Rebellion These are Articles they 
Deal in. 

A satire on the famous dagger scene during the debate on the Alien Bill 
on 28 Dec. 1792, when Burke said it was his object *to keep the French 
infection from this country; their principles from our minds and their 
daggers from our hearts'. Pari. Hist. xxx. 189. In this speech Burke 
acknowledged his indebtedness to Fox, but said that 'from the moment he 
saw him countenancing the proceedings in France ... no public connexion 
could subsist between them . . .'. Ibid., p. 181. See Nos. 8147, 8148. 
For their quarrel see No. 7854, &c. For Burke's Reflections see No. 
7675, &c. 

' The woodcut copy, No. 8149 A, was used for the cover of The Antigallican 
Songster, No. i, 1793. (B.M.L., 1890. e. 18.) 



y^ Gy d"* et fed — pro bono publico — 

Pii¥Jany 2^ I793y by H. Humphrey N i8 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The head and shoulders of Fox (like 
Christian in The Pilgrim's Progress) emerge from a pool of liquid mire; 
he looks despairingly up and to the r., his (half-submerged) hands raised 
in supplication. On his back is a bundle inscribed Contents French Gold, 
French Loyalty, French Daggers [cf. No. 8285, &c.], And Crimes, more 
numerous than the sands, upon the Ocean's shore. His hat has fallen off, the 
tricolour cockade and motto Ca ira are half submerged. His large club 
rises from the slough: Patriots Staff — i.e. Whig Club [cf. No. 8987, &c.]. 
Before him floats an open book : Gospel of Liberty by the four Evangelists 
5* Paine S Price S^ Priestly 5' Petion [see No. 8122] | Fly to the Wrath 
to come. Fox says : Help! Help! — will no kind Power lend a hand to deliver 
me? — Oh! what will become of me? — all my former Friends have forsaken me! 
— if I try to go on, I sink deeper in the Filth; & my feet are stuck so fast in 
the Mire, that I can not get back, 'tho I try; — Ah me! — this Burden upon 
my Back overwhelm' s me, & presses me down! — / shall Rise no more! — / am 
lost for ever, & shall never see the Promised Land!! 

From the slough a hill ascends up which a straight path leads to a fortified 
gateway in a castellated wall inscribed : Knock, & it shall be opened. The 
Straight Gate: or the way to the Patriots Paradise. From it flies a flag of 
Libertas, surmounted with the cap of Liberty. Within the wall is a ladder 
slanting towards a waning moon. After the title (from The Pilgrim's 
Progress): "This Miry Slough is such a place as can not be mended; — it is 
the descent whither the Scum & \"& [sic] Filth that attends being Convicted 
of Sin, doth continually run; it is called the Slough of Despond, | " for when 
a Sinner is Trap'd in his Sins, he sinks into Despondency under the Burden 
of his own Wickedness." 

A satire on the isolation of Fox and a few followers by the decision of the 
majority of the Whigs at a meeting at Burlington House, 11 Dec. 1792, 
to support the Government. See debates of 13 and 15 Dec, Pari. Hist. 
XXX. I ff^. ; Auckland Corr. ii. 479, 481-3; Rose, Pitt and the Great War, 
pp. 87 if. Cf. Nos. 8140, 8304, 8305, 8366. For the subsequent split in 
the Whig Club see No. 8315. One of many prints of Fox as a Jacobin. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 165 (reproduction), Wright and Evans, No. 90. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 


G: W: ini^ [Gillray £.] 

Pu¥ Jany 2^ 1793. by H. Humphrey, N° 18 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Britannia (1.), a buxom young woman, 
clasps the trunk of a large oak, while Paine tugs with both hands at her 
stay-lace, placing a large foot on her posteriors. He wears blue and buff 
with a tricolour cockade on his bonnet rouge. From his coat pocket pro- 
trudes a pair of scissors and a tape inscribed : Rights of Man. His face is 
blotched with drink and his expression is fiercely intent, but he is neatly 


dressed. Behind him is a thatched cottage inscribed: Thomas Pain, Stay- 
maker from Thetford. Paris Modes, by express. 

Britannia looks over her shoulder at the stay-maker (cf. No. 9240) with 
an expression of pained reproach. Her shield leans against the tree ; her 
spear is on the ground; across it lies an olive-branch. 

Paine, born in Thetford and formerly a stay-maker, was a refugee in 
France and a member of the French Convention, see No. 8137, &c. His 
(republican) Rights of Man (see No. 7867, &c.) was widely circulated by 
the radical clubs. Cf. Sheffield to Auckland, 3 Jan. 1793 : 'The "Constitu- 
tion" most fortunately is become the word, and it is as much a favourite 
as "Liberty, Property, and No Excise", or any other word ever was.* 
Auckland Corr. ii. 481. Cf. Chauvelin's letter of 14 Dec. 1792 quoted 
Stoker, Pitt et la, 1935, pp. 164-5. ^^^ ^^^o Nos. 8284, 8289, 8296, 
8320, 8424, 8624, 8644, 8685, 8834, 9024, 9039, 9054, 9214. Cf. No. 9425. 

The design appears to derive (with important alterations) from Collet's 
Tight Lacing, or Fashion before Ease {I'J'J']), No. 4552. 

Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 667. 

8287 A Another impression with an altered title: 


Cf. a bill headed, 'John Bull to his Brethren: Shall we trust to Tom the 
Stay-Maker, and his bungling French Journeymen, to amend our Con- 
stitution . . .'. B.M.L., 648. c. 26/40. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Jan^ 3 lygj by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly who again 

has Opened his Caracature Room to which he has added several 

Hundred old and New Subjects Admitance i 5^ 

To those who give them away i^ 11' 6'^ P^ Hundred Plain, and 

3^ 3" o^ in Colours 6'* Plain, *J Coloured 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A design in two com- 
partments. On the r., in a poverty-stricken room, four ragged and 
famished French sansculottes tug frantically at the limbs of a frog, saying, 
aha by Gar So we serve all the Enemies to Liberty and Equality. On the 
empty hearth is a pan inscribed Tree of Liberty, in which a small twig has 
been planted ; two rats sniff at it. On a shelf above it is a ( ?) crucifix 
supporting a noose of rope. On the wall (1.) is a trellis in which assignats 
are stuck: 5000, Assignat 2000, 500. Next is a large print: a body hangs 
from a lamp-post ; an infant, the son of an Aristocrate, is impaled on a spike ; 
a soldier carries a head on his bayonet. Next is a List of the Killed & 
Wounded Allied Army Jemapps 306, 184, 200, [total] 6go. French 20 — 600, 
14 — 5go, 18 — goo, [total] 54ogo. French victorie. A dead bird is in a cage 
(1.). A rat emerging from a hole looks at a dead or dying cat. A broken 
pitcher is inscribed Water. 

On the 1. a countryman carves a juicy sirloin, two men, one gorged to 


repletion, the other stuffing hard, sit at the table. A man in a smock stands 
at the table; he holds a frothing pitcher and draws his hand across his 
mouth, saying. Here goes, the King & Constitution for ever (cf. No. 8287, 
&c.). A blazing fire burns in the grate, by it lies a corpulent dog, while a 
fat cat plays with a mouse. On the chimney-piece is a Bible, above it is 
pasted O the Roa\si\ Beef of ol[d] England. Other songs pasted up are God 
save the King and Rule Brittania. Two frothing pitchers stand on the floor. 
Through an open window is seen a man sowing, and a man driving a team 
of oxen. Laden apple-branches extend across the window ; beside it a bird 
sings in a cage. 

Cf. Gillray's similar contrast, No. 8145 and No. 8284, also a propa- 
gandist publication. The French victory of Jemappes (6 Nov. 1792), when 
the Austrians lost 4,000 killed, wounded, and deserters, was followed by 
the easy conquest of the Austrian Netherlands, and dazzled the French 
nation. For the depreciation of Assignats, see Camb. Mod. Hist. viii. 709 

de Vinck, No. 61 18. 



Pulished [sic] as the Act directs Jany 5'* ^793 by JnP Brown N° 2 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A design in three 
compartments, each with its title, [i] John Bull (1.), very corpulent, 
a frothing tankard in his hand, sits in an arm-chair beside a table loaded 
with beef, pudding, and Home Brew'd; he is approached by three famished 
Frenchmen, who lean eagerly towards him, cap in hand. He points to the 
table, saying : The blessed effects of a good Constitution. The three say : / am 
your Friend John Bull you want a Reform ; My Hon''^' Friend speaks my 
Sentiments ; John Bull you are too Fat. Below : 

[2] The three Frenchmen, ragged, bare-legged, and fierce-looking, two 
with bludgeons and one with a dagger, advance menacingly to John Bull, 
who holds out a frog, saying: A Pretty Reform indeed you have deprived me 
of my Leg and given me nothing but Frogs to eat I shall be Starved I am no 
Frenchman. He has a wooden leg, is less stout than in [i], and his clothes 
are ragged. The Frenchmen say: Eat it you Dog & hold your Tongue you 
are very happy ; Thats right my friend we will make him Happier still (his 
cap is inscribed Ca ira) ; He is a little leaner now. Below : 

[3] John Bull lies prostrate screaming O — H — O — H; two frantic 
Frenchmen holding firebrands trample fiercely on him. One (1.) says: 
now he is quite happy I will have a Jump ; the other adds, Oh Delightfull you 
may thank me you Dog for sparing your Life — thank me I say. 

The Society of the Friends of the People had been formed in April 1792 
by Grey and others to advocate Parliamentary Reform (No. 8087, &c.). 
The Corresponding Societies urged a more drastic reform on a system 
'consistent with the Rights of Man', using Paine's book (see No. 7867, &c.) 
as a manifesto, but 'Constitution' was the prevailing cry, see No. 8287, &c. 

The print is probably that advertised by the Crown and Anchor Society 


(cf. No. 8284): 'Reform. Several Degrees of Modem Reform, and its fatal 
consequences, contrasted with the settled, constitutionally protected, 
affluent, happy Briton.' 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 319. 
16^X9^ in. 



Pu¥ Jany 12'^ [sic] 1793. by H. Humphrey N i8 Old Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Five groups, one in each corner, with 
a central group which represents John Bull, standing full face, between 
Sheridan (1.) and Fox (r.), who are forcibly feeding him with the bread of 
liberty. Both are ragged and bare-legged sansculottes, wearing bonnets- 
rouges. Each forces a small loaf inscribed Liberty, on the point of a dagger, 
into John's gaping mouth, dipping a hand into his coat-pocket. In the 
background, standing on a barren plain, are a gibbet (1.) and Temple 
Bar (r.). 

The other groups represent French sansculottes despoiling Holland, 
Savoy, Germany & Prussia, and Italy. In the upper 1. corner a stout 
Dutchman straddling across the River Sheldt is forced backwards by a 
Frenchman (1.) who forces a loaf inscribed Liberty into his mouth at the 
point of his bayonet, while another diverts a stream of coin? from his 
pocket into his own cap. A third removes the Dutchman's hat with its 
tobacco pipe, and places on his head a bonnet-rouge. 

In the upper r. corner a Frenchman thrusts the loaf of Liberty, spiked 
on a spit, at the mouth of a stout Savoyard while another holds him by the 
ears, and a third (r.) drags at the hurdy-gurdy which is slung round his 

Below (1.) an Austrian officer holding a standard on which is the Habs- 
burg eagle, and a Prussian officer (probably Brunswick) wearing the cap of 
the Death's-head Hussars, and holding a broken sword (indicating retreat 
after Valmy, see No. 8125, &c.) flee in terror before French tatterdemalions 
with loaves of Liberty on their spears, and a banner inscribed Vive la 

In the lower r. comer a sansculotte fires a loaf oi Liberty from his blunder- 
buss into the mouth of the terrified Pope, who leans back in his papal chair. 
A second Frenchman, clutching the keys of St. Peter, removes his triple 
crown. The pope's bare foot rests on a stool, and is trampled on by the 
furious man with the blunderbuss. The emblematical dove (irradiated) 
flies off. 

For the foreign policy of the Girondins see No. 8136. The print precedes 
the declaration of war on Holland (i Feb.), but not the intention of the 
French to promote a revolution there: the Austrian Netherlands were 
occupied in Nov. and on 15 Dec. the Convention passed a decree that 
in all territories occupied by French troops the new French revolutionary 
institutions should be established: the threat to Holland was clear, cf. 
No. 8313. The French seized Nice without resistance on 29 Sept. 1792, 
occupied Savoy, and on 27 Nov. decreed their annexation to France. The 
Convention hoped to provoke a revolution in Rome, and a threatening 
letter (composed by Mme Roland) was addressed to the Pope (27 Nov. 
1792). Sorel, L'Europe et la Rev.frangaise, 1908, iii. 208-12. Cf. No. 8821. 


Grego, Gillray, p. 165. Wright and Evans, No. 95. Muller, 5309 a. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, 
V- 503. 
iifXHiin. (pi.). 



Sold by y Aitken N" 14 Castle Street Leicester Square London 

Pu¥ by W Dent Jan 15 lygs 

Engraving (coloured impression). A W.L. figure of Fox, bisected vertically, 
the organs of his body and his ribs being laid bare as if for dissection. The 
1. half (on the r.) is dressed as a Frenchman, he has no 1. shirt-sleeve but 
has ruffles attached to his wrist according to the English gibe. In his 1. 
hand is a dagger inscribed Penetration. In his teeth he holds a toy wind- 
mill inscribed Genius, its four sails inscribed, respectively. For the King, 
Monarchy, For the People, Republic. His forehead is Self-interest; his r. 
shoulder is Attachment, his 1. Apprehension. On his r. shirt-sleeve are dice- 
box and dice and the words : British Industry, Interest of Levellers, Jews, 
Gamesters, Adventurers. His clenched r. fist is inscribed Argument. On his 
1, arm are an axe and noose and the words: French Industry, Advocate for 
Atheists, Jews, Papists, Dissenters &c. His r. ribs are Duplicity, Drunken- 
ness, Whoredom, Gambling, Envy, Inconsistency, Prophaness; his 1. ribs: 
Enmity, Cruelty, Madness, Distress, Treachery, Ingratitude, Despair. His 
organs are inscribed Gallic, Aristocratic, Fraternity, Oratorical Lungs 
variably verbose [a pair of bellows]. Common Wealth, Intemperance, Demo- 
cratic, French Principles, Reservoir for Royalty. These are flanked by 
Fat of Pidgeons and Fat of Friends. 

One breeches pocket is inside out and inscribed Equality, the other 
bulges with Assignats. On the English (r.) leg is a knave of Clubs ('Pam') 
with the head of Fox (cf. No. 6488, &c.) and the word Hypocrisy. He wears 
a top-boot inscribed Post-haste to Old Scratch, and tramples on papers 
inscribed : Religious Duties, Moral Duties. On his 1. leg are two oval minia- 
tures: Perdita (cf. No. 61 17, &c.) and Armstead {ci. No. 7370, &c.), and 
the words: Valor, Fornication, and Step to French Measures. He wears a 
buckled shoe and tramples on papers inscribed Religion, Liberty, Order, 
Law, Property. Across his breeches are the words Private Virtues. One 
of many prints of Fox as a Jacobin, cf. No. 8286. Cf. no. 9013, a similar 
dissection of Pitt. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: Janv: 26 lygj by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has 

again opened his Caracatur Room to which he has added Many 

hundred Old & New Subjects admitance i ShilU 

Engraving (coloured impression), Louis XVI kneels with his head on the 
block ; Orleans, a ragged sansculotte, is the executioner ; he puts his r. foot 
on the King's head and raises the axe in both hands. A hideous old woman 
(1.) inscribed Roberspierre en Poissard kneels, holding a basket to catch the 
head. Marie Antoinette kneels behind the King, weeping, holding out her 



r. arm to Orleans, saying : How carCst thou do this deed? could not the Laws 
of Man of Nature, nor of Heaven, dissuade thee ? No beast so fierce, but knows 
some touch of Pity. The Dauphin kneels behind his mother, weeping, his 
hands folded in supplication. Orleans, whose face is blotched with drink, 
looks wildly to the r,, away from his victim, and declaims: 

Shall future eyes, when this tale is told 

Drop tears in pity for his hapless fate. 

And read with detestation the misdeeds of Orleans; 

The red nosed tyrant, cruel, barbarous. 

And bloody — will they not say too. 

That to possess the Crown, nor laws divine. 

Nor human stopt my way? — Why let 'em say it; 

They cant but say I strove to obtain the Crown; 

I was not fool as well as villain 

Now, for the deed Cousin farewel. 

To me there's music in your passing bell. 

Richard 3^ 

Below the design: 

Thrice is he arm'd that has his quarrel just 
And he but naked, though locked up in steel. 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 
The very weight of Orleans guilt shall crush him. 

[2 Henry VI, in. ii.] 

A satire on the vote given (16 Jan.) by Orleans ('J^galite') for the execu- 
tion of Louis. Auckland (6 Jan.) calls Orleans 'that monster of the moral 
world'. Auckland Corr. ii. 484. The King was guillotined on 21 Jan., see 
No. 8297, &c. See also Nos. 8293, 8294, 8298, 8300, 8302, 9020, 9349. 
The design appears to derive (though with many differences) from No. 
7892 (Gillray). The title is from Macbeth, u. iii. 

de Vinck, No. 5795. 

8293 CITIZEN COUPE t£te in his misery. 

T. Ovenden 1793 

y [? January] I 29 J793 by I. Dovms, 240 Strand, [clipped.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A ragged and almost naked sansculotte 
sits in his room surrounded by his starving family. He holds in the r. hand 
a dagger, in the 1. a noose of rope, uncertain which to use. Above his head 
is a staple in a beam, ready for the rope. A fierce, half-naked child seated 
on straw (r.) gnaws a bone; another, much emaciated, begs for a share. 
Behind, the distraught mother kneels weeping over the prostrate body of 
a girl. On the floor (1.) are a pitcher, an empty plate, and bones, one 
resembling the skull of a horse. On the chimney-piece are two skulls; 
above it is a print of three T.Q.L. figures: Marat Pain Robertspi[erre]. On 
the wall is a mirror in a carved frame above which are a bonnet-rouge and 
headsman's axe. Next it is a print of Le Bonne Hamme, [sic] & Citoyen 
Egalite, standing on a pile of skulls (see No. 8292, &c.). 

Through an open window is seen a scaflFold on which is a guillotine 
with small figures hastening towards it. A bunch of bodies hangs from a 
* A mutilated *y' is the only indication of the month. 


gibbet. The windows of a house are crowded with spectators. Beneath 
the design: 

How different is poor Coupe Tele's Lot ' 

His bloody Services forgot. 

Famine triumphant Reigns: 
All his dire Crimes come fresh in View, 
His Treasons and his Murders too, 

Distract the Wretches Brains. 
With various Thoughts his Mind's at Strife, 
Whether to chuse the Rope or Knife, 

To end his Wretched Days: 
The Mother oeW her Children moans. 
Hears their sad sighs and dying Groans, 

In vain to Heav'n she prays. 

Till overwhelmed with poignant Grief, 
In Death they only find Relief, 

Who comes with lingering Pace; 
Thus banish' d from all earthly Joy, 
Hunger and Misery destroy. 

This Democrat's vile Race. 

The opening line suggests that this is a companion print to one of a 
prosperous John Bull, cf. No. 8288, &c. For Paine see No. 8287. 

8294 [THE END OF PAIN.] [? January.] 

T.O. [Ovenden] Fecit, 1793. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Paine (head and shoulders only visible) 
dangles on a noose from a lamp-bracket, the post of which is inscribed 
Rights of This Man (see No. 8287). The head of Orleans (see No. 8292, &c.) 
with the horns of a devil looks down at Paine from behind the post, which 
he clutches with his talons. From the lamp dangles an escutcheon, on 
which are pairs of stays and a chevron, with the motto Common Sense (the 
pamphlet (1776) which had so much effect on the American Revolution, 
see No. 8146). 


Engraving. Another version of No. 8294, the heading to a printed leaflet, 
a libellous attack on Paine, the sub-title being: The last Speech, Dying 
Words, and Confession of T. P. He is said to have 'hired himself to the 
French' to write The Rights of Man. He is executed for saying in a Paris 
club ' "that he thought roast beef and plumb pudding better than soup 
meagre and fried frogs" — although he had said the contrary of this in his 
own country'. There is 'a side squint of Mr. Equality in his proper 

Paine, a member of the Convention, had actually risked his life (15 Jan.) 
by opposing the execution of Louis XVI. On 27 Dec. 1793 he was arrested 
and narrowly escaped the guillotine. Other 'Dying Speeches' of Paine were 
published in England, in 1792 and 1794, see Conway, Life of Paine, ii. 152. 
6 J X 6 in. 



8295 [THOMAS PAINE.] [? 1793-] 

W Grainger sculp 

Engraving. Paine stands in a sylvan scene, the centre of a group of six apes, 
to whom he holds out his Rights of Man. He is ragged, and under his 1. arm 
is a pair of stays. Beneath is engraved: 

"Hear and improve" he pertly cries: 

"/ come to make all nations wise" 
The design is vignetted and is perhaps from a title-page. For Paine see 
No. 8287; for his book, Nos. 7867, 8137, &c. 
3fX5|in. (pL). 


Engraving. Heading to a printed dialogue. A lean sansculotte (1.) in profile 
to the r. with a scraggy queue, a ruffled shirt, and bare thighs, addresses 
a stout Englishman with an insinuating gesture : You be one poor Slave. 
The other, a stout, plainly dressed John Bull holding a thick walking-stick, 
stands squarely but turns his head to the Frenchman to say: you be 
Damn'd. (Cf. Nos. 561 1, 5612.) 

The 'saucy, artful, chattering Frenchman' boasts to the honest English- 
man 'how they had cut the king's throat, murdered a great many gentle- 
men . . . [etc. etc.]'. The Englishman maintains the superiority of English 
liberty, institutions, charities, &c. They discuss Paine, see No. 8287. Cf. 
No. 9541. 
Sixsf ill- Broadside, 15IX9I in. B.M.L., 1890. e. 18, fo. 10. 

/. Cruikshank In^ 

Pu¥ Feby i lygj by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly. 
Engraving (coloured impression). Louis XVI (a portrait) stands alone on 
the scaffold, turning to the 1. and looking up, his r. hand on his heart, his 
1. hand raised. Behind (r) is the guillotine realistically drawn. In the back- 
ground are bayonets, a flag, bugles, &c. There are heavy clouds but broad 
rays of light slant towards the King. Beneath, the title: I forgive my 
Enemies, I die Innocent!!! 

For the execution (21 Jan.) see Pierre de la Vaissiere, La Mort du Roi, 
1910; Sorel, U Europe et la Rev. fr. iii. 266-70; de Vinck, Nos. 5098-5232 ; 
Hennin, Nos. 11,427-11,460; Dayot, Rev. fr., pp. 190-4. The King 
attempted to say a few words, but drums were at once beaten to drown 
them. See also Nos. 8292, &c., 8300, 8304, 8306, 8307, 8308, 8309, 8312, 
8319. 8446, 8460, 8825, 9260, 9345. 

de Vinck, Nos. 5155, 5156 (plain and coloured). 
9 X 7I in. 


Published Feb. i. lygs. 

Aquatint. Orleans (l^galite) stands on the steps of the guillotine holding 
at arm's length the head of Louis XVI. In the background (1.) are soldiers 
and spectators, slim and elegant; and behind, buildings of the Place 
Louis XV. 


Not a caricature ; the manner (in bistre) is that of a French poHtical print 
of the period. For the execution see No. 8297, &c. ; for the part taken by 
Orleans, No. 8292, &c. 
8^X7 in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: Feb: 9 J79J by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly zaher may be 
had compleat sets of Caracaturs on the French Revolution 

Engraving (coloured impression). A fat and placid Dutchman leans 
cross-legged against a large barrel, smoking. His musket is under his 1. 
arm, bayonet resting on the ground. He wears civilian dress with a car- 
touche-box slung across his shoulder. An irate and ugly John Bull, his 
face blotched with drink, runs up to him, putting a sword in Nic's r. hand, 
saying, „Why, you cold-blooded dolt, can nothing move you? I say you shal l 
be in a rage — / am in a rage. Damme, you shall go to war; now what say 
you? " Nic answers, the words within the smoke which issues from his 
mouth: / say nothing — you know John, I dare not contradict you. Pitt's 
profile, enclosed in an obtuse angle, projects from the r. margin, saying, 
tell him they will open the Scheldt, and he shall fight Dam him. In the back- 
ground is the sea with ships. On the r. is a Dutch town with a jetty pro- 
jecting into the sea, and (in the middle distance) two bales of commerce. 
On a mound (1.) a sentry stands at attention. 

A satire arising from the debate of i Feb. (the day that France declared 
war on England and Holland). Fox maintained that England was forcing 
the Dutch into a war which they wished to avoid. Pari. Hist. xxx. 308. 
Pitt claimed that treaties impelled England to defend Holland: *If Holland 
has not immediately called upon us for our support and assistance, she may 
have been influenced by motives of policy, and her forbearance ought not 
to be supposed to arise from her indiflference about the river Scheldt.' 
Ibid., p. 284. On 16 Nov. 1792 a Declaration of the British Government's 
determination to execute the terms of the Alliance of 1788 (see No. 8633) 
was delivered to the States General. J. H. Rose has shown that the Dutch 
had appealed (29 Nov.) for help, but were nervously anxious to temporize, 
while Pitt and Grenville stiffly refrained from revealing Foreign Office 
secrets. Pitt and the Great War, 191 1, p. 77; Cambridge Hist, of British 
Foreign Policy, i. 226-8, 236. For the negligent ill-will with which the 
Dutch (torn by faction) conducted the war, see Nos. 8313, &c., 8345, 
8477, 8496, 8608, &c. Cf. No. 9412, &c. For the negotiations, &c., leading 
to war see Stoker, William Pitt et la, 1935, pp. 149-209. 
8xi3f in. 


y^ Gy des^ et fee* — pro bono publico — 

Pu¥ Feb^ 12*^ 1793^ by H. Humphrey ^ N" 18 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). On the level of the eye, but high above 
a square in which the guillotine is at work, bodies dangle from lamp- 
brackets projecting from the wall of a high building on the r. A bishop 
in his robes and two monks, their hands tied, hang close together from 



the horizontal bar. On the lantern sits a ragged, bare-legged sansculotte 
playing a fiddle, looking down with smiling triumph at the crowd ; he is 
in back view, his bony r. foot planted on the head of the dead bishop. On 
his cap are the words Ca ira. He wears a bag-wig and two daggers dripping 
blood are thrust through his belt. To the bracket is tied the bishop's 
crozier, surmounted by the cap of Libertas. In the wall immediately behind 
is a crucifix in a niche ; to this is affixed a placard : Bon Soir Monsieur ; at 
its foot are a skull and cross-bones. From another projecting lantern in 
the middle distance hangs a judge in his robes between the scales and 
sword of Justice, similarly suspended. 

The high scaffold is surrounded by a sea of bonnets-rouges, waving exult- 
antly as the guillotine falls on Louis XVI. A ragged and grinning sans- 
culotte hauls at the wheel which releases the blade (on which is a crown). 
From the guillotine flies a tricolour flag inscribed Vive VEgalite (cf. No. 
8292, &c.). Ragged sansculottes holding spears stand on the scaffold. The 
windows of the adjoining houses are crowded with spectators. Above their 
roofs a church dome ( ? V Assomption) is on fire. Beneath the title: Religion, 
Justice, Loyalty, & all the Bugbears of Unenlightened Minds, Farewell! 

For the death of Louis XVI see No. 8297, &c. For the design cf. 
No. 8301. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 164 (copy), where the title is: View in Perspective^ ; 
the Zenith . . . [(^c.]. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Fuchs, 
p. 144; Veth, p. 47. 
13^X9! in. 



Aquatint (unfinished). Companion designs on one plate placed side by 
side, [i] Harvest rejoicings outside a village inn. A young man, in shirt- 
sleeves, with a sickle thrust through his belt, dances with a young gleaner 
who holds corn in her apron. Beside them is the sign of the inn, a wheat- 
sheaf tied to the upright post. An older man dances, facing him, holding 
up a frothing jug in one hand, a glass in the other. An old man in the 
foreground (r.), seated on a low stool, plays the pipe and tabor, a little girl 
leaning against his shoulder. Beside him are a frothing beer jug, rake, and 
pitch-forks. Behind is the door of the inn, in which is the landlord, bring- 
ing out two frothing jugs to harvesters at a table beside the door: a couple 
kiss, two men have tankards. In the background is a barn, a cart laden 
with sheaves, and in the distance (1.) the sea with ships in full sail. 
12X9I ^^' 

[2] A scene in Paris, in front of the high doorway of a building, over 
which is a (broken) escutcheon with fleurs-de-lis and a crown. From a 
projecting lamp-bracket hang a man and woman, back to back, an infant 
hanging from the woman's neck. On it sits a man playing a fiddle as in 
No. 8300, but reversed, and wearing a cocked hat in place of a cap. A 
ragged sansculotte with an evil smile seizes a despairing woman whom he 
has dragged from the building. An old aristocrat kneels on one knee (1.), 
holding out a purse towards the ravisher, regardless of a man who stands 
over him with dagger raised to strike. A monk kneels with clasped hands, 

' From the 1851 reissue (supplementary volume); not in the 1830 reissue. 



a Stout virago raises a chalice to smite him ; in a pocket in her ragged petti- 
coat are two daggers. A man holds a crucifix with which he is about to 
brain the monk. Two men carry plunder from the building. Behind (r.) 
is a mob with pikes and in the distance a large domed church is on fire 
(as in No. 8300). In the foreground (r.) lie the naked bodies of two infants 
(unfinished) impaled on a spit. An axe and dagger also lie on the cobbles. 

The design of the lamp-bracket with its corpses and its fiddler has been 
altered and used (in reverse) in No. 8300, probably after this (unfinished) 
plate had been discarded. The scene appears to be that of No. 8300, 
viewed from the street level and without the guillotine. For similar con- 
trasts between England and France, cf. No. 8284, &c. 

Adaptations of both designs were published by G. Humphrey, 25 Mar. 
1822, as Lawful Liberty and Lawless Liberty ('Caricatures', vii. 190, 191). 
12X9! i"- 


/ Cruikshanks 

London Pub Feb: 12 lygs by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Orleans (Egalite), looking to the r., 
stands on the scaffold dressed as a grenadier of the National Guard. He 
holds out by the hair the decollated head of Louis XVI, while he waves 
his cap in his r. hand. Behind (1.) is the guillotine, with the King's body; 
streams of blood pour from head and trunk. Below the scaffold (r.) are 
heads and bayonets of the National Guard, and, behind, two large buildings, 
the windows and roofs filled with spectators ; those on the roof wave their 
hats. Beneath the title: Behold the Progress of our System. See Nos. 8292, 
8297, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5175. 


Pub'^ by H Humphrey S^ James's S^ [Feby 13^^ I793'Y 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt and Dundas, Fox and Sheridan face 
each other across a long narrow table, smoking long pipes and puffing 
clouds of smoke in each other's faces. The gallery of the House of Commons 
is indicated in the background. At the head of the table (1.) in a raised 
arm-chair (in the manner of the chairman at a tavern-club) sits a man in 
the hat, wig, and gown of the Speaker (Addington)^ holding the mace, 
which has been transformed into a crutch-like stick. He puffs smoke at 
both Treasury and Opposition benches. Pitt, on the Speaker's r., holds 
a frothing tankard inscribed G.R and directs a cloud of smoke at Fox, who 
puffs back. Before Fox is a tray of pipes and a paper of tobacco, implying 
that he excels in abuse. On the extreme r. Dundas, a plaid across his coat, 
puffs at the scowling Sheridan seated close to Fox; he has a punch-bowl 

' Date from G.W.G. The address appears to be engraved over an obliterated 
inscription: Humphrey did not leave Bond Street till 1797. 

* Identified by Wright and Evans as Loughborough, 'cogitating' between the 
parties ; this is inconsistent with the House of Commons setting and with Lough- 
borough's appointment (26 Jan. 1793) as Chancellor. 



inscribed G.R in which he dips a ladle. Small puffs of smoke issue from 
the pipes, great clouds from the smokers' mouths, as in No. 8220. 

The House of Commons is burlesqued as a smoking-club, a plebeian 
gathering in which quarrelsome members were wont to puff smoke at each 
other, see No. 8220. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 166 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 92. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
I2f X i6f in. 

8303 A A copy, Ja^ Gillray deV 1793, faces p. 114 in The Caricatures of 

6|X9in. With border, 7i^g X 9I in. B.M.L., 745. a. 6. 


J^ Qy des"" et fed pro bono publico. 

Pu¥ Feby j6'* 1793. by H. Humphrey No 18. Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The head of Louis XVI (a portrait) lies 
at the foot of the guillotine, a corner of the scaffold forming the base of 
the design. The guillotine is realistically drawn ; the body of the King, 
hands tied, lies on the low platform behind the machine, the legs being 
cut off by the 1. margin. The blade and head drip with blood, which 
ascends in a broad crimson swirl across the design, expanding into clouds 
of smoke as it rises. On this is etched: Whither, — O Whither shall my 
Blood ascend for Justice? — my Throne is seized on, by my Murderers; my 
Brothers are driven \ into exile; — my unhappy Wife & hinocent Infants are 
shut up in the horrors of a Dungeon; — while Robbers & Assassins are sheath- 
ing I their Daggers in the bowels of my Country! — Ah! ruined, desolated 
Country! dearest object of my heart! whose misery was to me the \ sharpest 
pang in death! what will become of thee? — O Britons! vice-gerents of eternal- 
Justice! arbiters of the world! — look | down from that height of power to which 
you are raised, & behold me here! — deprived of Life & of Kingdom, see where | 
/ lie; full low, festering in my owtt Blood! — which flies to your august tribunal 
for Justice! — By your affection for your own | Wives & Children — rescue 
mine: — by your love for your Country, by the blessings of that true Liberty 
which you possess, — by the | virtues which adorn the British Crown, — by all 
that is Sacred, & all that is dear to you — revenge the blood of a Monarch 
most I undeservedly butchered, — and rescue the Kingdom of France, from being 
the prey of Violence, Usurpation & Cruelty. 

Above the design : This exact Representation of that Instrument of French 
refinement in Assassination, the GUILLOTINE is submitted to the Gentlemen 
of ''the Phalanx"^ — & other well-wishers to the King & Constitution of Great- 
Britain, by their devoted Servants at Command The Assassins of the King 

of France. Fox and his remnant of followers are indicated, cf. No. 8286, 

For the execution of Louis XVI see No. 8297, &c. Lord Holland writes : 
'The advocates for war seemed to feel more pleased at the hold this event 
gave them on the favours of the publick than grieved at the catastrophe 
itself.' Memoirs of the Whig Party, i. 27. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 166-7. Wright and Evans, No. 97. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 



IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub. Febrv i8. 1793 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, wearing the rags of a sansculotte 
under a long legal gown, stands directed to the 1., looking down and to the 
r. with an expression of sly meditation. He wears bands and a large legal 
wig, with tattered stockings on his otherwise bare legs. Across his corpu- 
lent figure stretches a tricolour belt inscribed Republicanism. He stands on 
a floor of black and white squares. An owl looks down upon him from 
a perch (r.). In his r. hand is a scroll, the brief of the Republic: 
1st Insist we have done Every thing we ought to have done 

2 They have Provoked us Neglected and treated us with scorn. 

3 How desirous we were of Peace Fraternity & Equality. NB not to mention 
our underhand Proceedings. 

4 Soften the Massacres. 

5 Abuse our Adversarys 

6 If likely to Termiate [sic] against us to Demurr to the matter of form or 
move an Arrest in Judgment 

Fox opposed the war with France (12 Feb.) in a speech defending him- 
self against 'the imputation of being the abettor of France . . .', but main- 
taining that the French decrees and actions were not grounds for war ; he 
accused the Ministry of acting aggressively towards France. Pari. Hist. 
XXX. 363-75. For the indignation with Fox of the moderate Whigs see 
Sir G, Elliot, Life and Letters, ii. 76, 82 ff. ; Auckland Corr. ii. 495-6, 498. 
See also for the Foxite attitude to the war, J. H. Rose, Napoleonic Studies, 
1906, pp. 222 if. One of many prints of Fox as a Jacobin, cf. No. 8286. 
See also No. 8518. 

8306 MASSACRE OF THE FRENCH KING! [c. Feb. 1793.] 
London: Printed at the Minerva Office, for William Lane, Leadenhall- 

Street, and sold wholesale at Two Guineas per Hundred. And Retail 

by every Bookseller, Stationer, &c. in England, Scotland and Ireland. 

Price six-pence. 
Engraving. Heading to a broadside, identical with that of No. 8308. The 
scaffold is seen from the side facing the Champs-filysees, the King lying 
under the guillotine with his feet towards the spectators. Two men on the 
scaffold display ( ?) a board to the crowd. In the foreground are the heads 
and shoulders of infantry and spectators. In the background are buildings 
with (behind) a church spire. See No. 8297, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5 181. 

8307 MASSACRE OF THE FRENCH KING! [c. Feb. 1793.] 
London : Printed at the Minerva Office, for William Lane, Leadenhall- 

Street, and sold Wholesale at One Guinea per Hundred. And Retail 
... [as No. 8306] Price Three-pence. Where may be had an exact 
and authenticated Copy of his Will, Price One Penny. 

Woodcut. Heading to a broadside, identical with that of No. 8308. A 
view of the surface of the scaffold without background. The King lies face- 



downwards as in No. 8306, with two baskets on the 1, of the guillotine. The 
executioner stands in back- view holding the cord. Two men stand on the r. 

This broadside was advertised by Lane in a hand-bill (B.M.L., 1890. 
c. 18, fo. 102) addressed *to the Subjects of Great-Britain who are free and 
happy', the cheap price to enable it to circulate 'in every Village throughout 
the Three Kingdoms!' 'And as the Spirit of this Country is roused, in 
Loyalty to our most excellent King, ... It is highly necessary the conduct 
of France, in their Destruction of Monarchy, should be publicly and 
universally known.' Distributing agents might have 'at a day's notice, 
from one to ten thousand copies'. For the will of Louis XVI see No. 8309. 

A similar view of the scaffold from the opposite side is a pi. to the 
Wonderful Magazine, i. 65: 'Massacre & Execution of Louis XVI . . .', 
Mar. I, 1793, said to be drawn on the spot by M. le Brun. (B.M.L., 
P.P. 5153 a.) 

de Vinck, No. 5182. 
$^x6f^'m. Broadside, i6Jx I if in. 

8308 MASSACRE OF THE FRENCH KING [c. Feb. 1793.] 
London : Printed at the Minerva Press, for William Lane, Leadenhall- 

Street; . . . Price one Shilling.^ 

Engraving. Heading to a black-bordered broadside printed in two columns 
giving an account of the execution with a transcript of the decrees of the 
Convention of 15, 17, 19, and 20 Jan. Louis XVI lies face downwards 
under the guillotine, which is on the 1. of the scaffold. The executioner 
stands full-face behind the instrument; two other persons (1.) are on the 
scaffold. Troops surround the scaffold, the front line being infantry with 
fixed bayonets. Mounted men (1.) beat kettle-drums, on the r. one blows 
a trumpet. Four persons have numbers referring to names engraved 
beneath the design : i The King, 2 His Confessor (Edgeworth, who stands 
(1.) with folded hands immediately below the scaffold), 3 Gerif Santerre 
(among the mounted soldiers (1.) in the middle distance), 4 Mayor of Paris, 
in back view below the scaffold. On the r., next the steps leading to the 
scaffold, is the King's coach. On the extreme r. are the walls and trees 
of the garden of the Tuileries. In the background behind the scaffold is 
the Louvre. Beneath the design: La Guillotine or the Modern Beheading 
Machine at Paris. 

See Nos. 8306, 8307, headings to a broadside textually identical, but 
differing in arrangement. For the execution see also No. 8297, &c. 
5jx8 in. Broadside, 19X13 in. B.M.L., 1890. e. 18, fo. 103. 

DE LOUIS SEIZE, ... [c. Feb. 1793.] 

London: Printed at the Minerva Press, for William Lane, Leadenhall- 
street. And Sold by E. Harlow, Bookseller to her Majesty, Pall- 
Mall. Price one shilling. 

Engraving. Heading to the will printed in two columns, in English (1.) and 
French (r.). An oval bust portrait of Louis XVI directed to the 1., resting 
on a trophy of palm and olive branches, with a crown, broken sceptre, 
cherub's head, a head of Medusa or Discord, a mitre, and crozier. The oval 
is surmounted by an irradiated crown, on the points of which are stars. 

' Proof impressions were advertised at zs. 6d. Handbill advertising No. 8307. 



From this drapery is festooned, inscribed Louis. XVI. King of France. 
Beneath the trophy is a scroll : Born at Versailles, 23 Aug 1734. Massacred 
at Paris, 21 Jan^ 1793. See No. 8297. 

The will of Louis XVI had a great effect in rousing compassion for the 
King. Many copies were issued in various formats. It was printed in 
The [black-bordered] Times of 26 Jan. 1793, and also on fans used by 
emigres (Schreiber Coll., Nos. 121, 122). See de Vinck, Nos. 5233-51. 
5fgX7f in. Black-bordered broadside, 2o| in. 

With portraits of Louis XVI, also B.M.L., 1858. e. 1/5. 


Pu¥ March !"■ 1793. by H. Humphrey, N" 18. Old Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, a ragged sansculotte with blood- 
stained hands and a dagger dripping blood thrust in his belt, sings Ca ira! 
He capers, r. hand on his hip, 1. hand held up; expression and attitude 
suggest quasi-intoxication, a blast issues from his posteriors. On his fore- 
head is a patch of sticking-plaster. He is unshaven and his body has a sub- 
human hairiness. He wears the ill-fitting wig of an artisan, with a tricolour 

One of many attacks on Fox for revolutionary principles, e.g. Nos. 8286, 
9039. Said to be one of the few caricatures at which he was really offended. 
For Fox as a sansculotte see also No. 8142. For the connotation of 'demo- 
crat' cf. (e.g.) Nos. 8320, 9055, 9178. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 167. Wright and Evans, No. 98. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ March 7. 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly where may be had 

Compleat Sets of Caricatures on the French Revolution & an [sic] 

Every Popular Subjects, an Exhibition Ad^ j* 
In the Exhibition a Complete Model of the Guillotine, 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales stands (1.) turning 
from, but looking towards, Fox and Sheridan, ragged sansculottes, who 
kneel (r.) on the farther side of a rail inscribed Hitherto shall ye go & No 
Further. In the background and on the extreme 1. is the King, saying, 
Bring hither the fatted Calf we will rejoice & make merry for I have found 
the Sheep that was lost. The Prince says, I know ye not, Vain Proffligates. 
fall to your prayers; how ill White hairs become a fool & jester . . ., the 
quotation continues, written as prose, and slightly altered, to adapt it to 
the change from 'Old man' to 'Vain Proffligates'. It ends: The tutors & 
the Feeders of my Riots; vd Henery 4 [Second Part, v. v]. 

/ will return to my Father & say unto him. Father I have Sinned against 
heaven & in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy Son make me 
as One of thy Hired Servants. 

Fox and Sheridan weeping, making imploring gestures towards the Prince. 
From Fox's coat-pocket projects a letter with a tricolour cockade: Your 
affectionate Brother Egalite. From Sheridan's pocket issues a paper: After 



you have caused the same Disturbances in Your country that we have long 
enjoyed here, fly to the Arms of your Dear Brother Condorcet. Both are 
saying: We have often Devised matter enough to keep him in Continual 
Laughfter, the wearing out of Six fashions, which is four terms, or two Actions; 
& he has Laughed without Intervalliums, a lye with a strong Oath, & a Jest 
with a Sad Brow, has done with a Fellow that never had the ache in his 
Shoulders, we have seen him Laugh, till his Face has been like a Cloak ill laid 
Up; v Henery 4 (Incorrectly quoted from v. i.) Below, the title: No 
more Coalitions no more French cut Throats. 

The Prince had ranged himself against the Foxites in an effusively loyal 
speech on the proclamation against seditious writings (May 1792, see 
No. 8095). He was anxious to serve abroad {Letters of Sir G. Elliot, 
ii. 125), and his hopeless financial position made him wish for reconciliation 
with the King. After the breach in 1792 he did not again meet Fox and 
his friends till a dinner at Carlton House in Mar. 1797. Diaries of Lord 
Glenbervie, 1928, i. 134; Farington Diary, i. 201. Cf. No. 8317. For 
!lSgalite see No. 8292, &c. For Fox as Falstaff see No. 6974, &c. For the 
Prince as the Prodigal Son cf. No. 7129. For the Coalition see Nos. 6283, 
6361, &c., and cf. Nos. 8330, 8426. See also No. 8441. 


/; Cruikshank Del: 
Published March 8. iyg3 by S.W. Fores N° 3 Piccadilly. Where may 
be seen a Model of the Guillotine 6" Feet High. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a dungeon with one 
barred window (r.) and a heavy door (1.). Louis XVI stands full-face, 
looking towards the despairing queen whose 1. hand he holds in his 1. His 
daughter (1.), a young girl kneeling in profile to the r., holds his r. hand, 
kissing it. The little Dauphin stands on tip-toe, clasping his father's waist. 
Behind (r.) Mme Elisabeth sits weeping at a table, on which are an open 
book and a rosary. 

One of many prints on the same subject, the last interview on 20 Jan. 
(not to be confused with prints on the separation of the King from his 
family on 29 Sept. 1792, see below). See de Vinck, Nos. 5099-5140; 
Hennin, Nos. 11,408-11,426; Dayot, Rev. fr., pp. 187-9. ^°^ the 
execution of Louis XVI see No. 8297, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5 117. 
8IX13I in. 

A print by Gillray, not in B.M., pub. 20 Mar. 1793 by Aitken, Castle 
Street, has the (translated) title: Les Adieux de Louis XVI a safamille. A 
long inscription^ (here re-translated) begins: *It is an exact copy of an 
infamous French print, which formerly appeared in Paris, amongst 
innumerable other outrages on their last monarch. It is now copied and 
published on the order of the agent of a nation of cowardly assassins, that 
every true Englishman regards with horror.' It is a burlesque scene, evi- 
dently (though applied to the final parting) of the first separation of 
Louis XVI from his family on 29 Sept. 1792. The King, fat and ragged, 

' Apparently written over an engraved 4. 

^ Not shown in the reproduction, and evidently below the title. 

17 c 


is interrupted at dinner, and stands full-face clasping a bottle and glass. 
The Queen, Dauphin, Mme Royale, and Princess filisabeth, grotesquely 
caricatured, and ragged, weep and gesticulate extravagantly. Behind are 
a monk holding up a grossly distorted crucifix, two soldiers, one angry, 
and prepared to club the Queen with his musket, the other laughing. See 
No. 8312. 

Reproduction, Dayot, Rev. fr., p. 188 (yx io| in.); Fuchs, p. 142. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March 13 1793 hy S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where 
may be seen a Complete Model of the Guillotine admitance one shilling. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Dumouriez, followed by a tall and ragged 
sansculotte, marches aggressively towards a low barricade (1.), behind which 
are frog-soldiers presenting their bayonets at the invaders. Dumouriez, 
foppishly dressed in regimentals, but with bare legs, his shirt confined by 
a sash, holds against his shoulder an enormous seal. He says, holding out 
his r. hand, Mons^ Orange, I will seal up your Papers, & take care of your 
Cash. From his pocket hangs a scroll: New Laws for Holland Prepared by 
the Convention. His 'aid du Camp' holds against his shoulder a gigantic 
piece of sealing-wax inscribed Fyn Se gelak wel brand en vart. hotid, in his 
r. hand is a large lighted candle or taper. He says. Aha. Mon^ Grenouille 
I wou^d rather eat you than fight. He is perhaps Miranda, Dumouriez* 
second in command. 

Dumouriez, in February, was threatening an invasion of Dutch Flanders 
and Zeeland, relying on the help of the Dutch patriots (see No. 7172, &c., 
and No. 8314). This was prevented by lack of food and transport and by 
English assistance (naval and military) to the Dutch (under the treaty of 
1788) which blocked invasion at the Hollandsdiep. Dumouriez' with- 
drawal to the main French army in Belgium (9 Mar.) marks the abandon- 
ment of his Dutch scheme, which was ended by the defeat of Neerwinden, 
18 Mar. (see No. 8321, &c.). Cambridge Hist, of British Foreign Policy, 
i, 233-4, 239. J- H. Rose and A. M. Broadley, Dumouriez and the Defence 
of England, 1909, pp. 161 ff. (reproduction, p. 184). See Nos. 8290, 
8299, &c., 8314, p. 19. 
8|xi3 in. 

8314 [DUMOURIEZ AND THE HOLLANDER.] [c. March 1793.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A Dutch print based on No. 5612. 
Dumouriez and a Hollander take the place of the Frenchman and John Bull. 
Dumouriez (1.) is copied from the Frenchman (reversed), but instead of a 
snuff-box he holds the cap of Liberty on a staff from which hang ribbons. 
He turns his head in profile to the r., scowling, but says, vrijheid goede 
Hollander. The Dutchman holds a pipe, not a tankard ; he wears a loose 
shirt, coat, and trousers, with a broad-brimmed hat (unlike the Dutchman 
of English caricature). He answers Weg roofzieke fransman [go away 
rapacious Frenchman]. The greyhound of No. 5612 is replaced by a cock 
with a favour (intended to be tricolour, but not so coloured), looking arro- 



gantly towards the Dutchman. By the latter lies the Dutch lion holding 
a sword. Beneath Dumouriez: 

Mijn goede vriend qijword misleid, hoar hoe ik voor il Vrijheid pleit, Ik ml 
d riiste geven [My good friend, you are deceived, listen how I plead for 
Liberty. I will give you peace]. 

Beneath the Dutchman : 

Vertrek ik rust stil bij mijn Leeuw. u prulle kraam isfrans geschreuw, Oranje 
is mijn leven- [I still get peace from my lion. Your talk is French rhetoric. 
Orange is my life.] Zie Uiterse C° N'^ 3. 

An Orangist print directed against the 'patriots' who welcomed a French 
invasion. Dumouriez said (Apr. 1793): 'les Hollandais me desiraient.' 
Sorel, U Europe et la Rev. frangaise, 1908, iii. 336. See Nos. 8299, ^3^3- 

The original, by Gillray, was probably published in 1788 : in John Bull at 
the Sign, the Case is altered, 2 Mar. 1801 (see Vol. viii), a copy of No. 5612 
is inscribed 'A Frenchman in 1788 . . .'. 
5iX7f in. 

Under Van Stolk, No. 5473 : 


[Pub. Dent and sold Aitken 10 Mar. 1793] 

Engraving. French Jacobins rob Dutchmen of their breeches (words not 
transcribed). In the middle distance a Frenchman takes from a Dutchman 
a large sack of 200,000 Florins, saying, Thus we Fraternise; the other says, 
Then we are undone — and mockt with the Cap of Liberty and woe to us for 
Cowardly and treaherously [sic] forbearing to resist these free booters. See 
No. 8313, &c. Cf. No. 8846, &c. 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Fuh March ly iyg3 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where may be had 
Complete setts of Caricatures on th [sic] french Revolution & on every 
Popular Subject. An Exhibition Ad"^ J* in which is a correct Model 
of the Guillotine 6 feet high 

Engraving. Fox and Sheridan (1.) sit together at the head of a rectangular 
table on which is a punch-bowl, &c., looking with dismay at whigs (r.), who 
advance to hurl their wigs at a large pile of wigs on the 1. (inscribed The 
Heads having Scratched out of the Club), or retire, having already done so. 
Fox and Sheridan wear enormous wigs, the former says. Brother: Brother: 
we are all in the wrong (showing that they are Peachum and Lockit^ in Gay's 
Beggar's Opera, 11. ii). Before Fox is a list with names scored through. 
Sheridan grasps a bottle of Sherry. A couple advance together, in the act 
of hurling their large wigs at the pile ; one says, / will Scratch out my Name 
in hopes of getting in for the City (probably Nathaniel Newnham, returned 
for the City 1784, but defeated in 1790, cf. No. 7162). The other is perhaps 

' Like Newcastle and Fox in 1756 (No. 3371), Burke and Sheridan in 1790 
(No. 7627), Burke and Fox in 1791 (No. 7856). 



Windham. The only one of the retiring wigless Whigs who is characterized 
is Burke. All say: We have erazed our Names for ever from the Club, when 
the Artful & Ambitious designs of a Faction are carried on under a Mask of 
Prudential Reform & when the leading Members are Notoriously known to 
Carry on a secret Correspondence with the Avowed Enemies of the Constitution 
they Affect to Support & Defend it is high time for all prudent & realfriends 
to that Constitution to leave them to their Just Punishment, the Contemp of all 
true Friends to their King and Constitution. 

At a specially numerous meeting of the Whig Club^ (at the London 
Tavern), a letter was read from 45 members resigning from the club on 
account of its political attitude, especially its approval on 20 Feb. of 
'M"" Fox's political conduct and sentiments during the present session 
of parliament'. The signatories include Burke and his son, Windham, 
and Newnham. Press cutting, n.d., Place MSS. B.M. Add. 27,837, 
fo. 46 B. For the disruption of the Whig party see Life and Letters of 
Sir G. Elliot, ii. 80 ff.; Auckland Corr., ii. 487, 495, 498. Lord Holland 
calls it 'a feverish and unnatural separation', after which the greater part 
of the Whigs soon drifted back to Fox. Memoirs of the Whig Party, 1852, 
i. 78. See also (e.g.) Nos. 8140, 8286, 8316, 8330, 8338, 8618. For the 
Crown and Anchor cf. No. 7892. 


7* Gy des^ et fed pro bono publico. 

Pu¥ March ig^] 1793, by H. Humphrey N 18, Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Burke, writing as he walks, advances 
towards the door of the Crown & Anchor tavern, over which is inscribed 
British Inquisition. He wears a skull-cap and long legal robe, from his waist 
hangs a bag like that of the Great Seal, on which the royal arms are replaced 
by a crown and anchor and having a skull at each corner. His head is in 
profile to the 1. and he scowls with fiercely protruding lips. He holds up 
a large sheaf of paper headed Black List, his pen touching the last word 
of the inscription (a parody of Richard III) : Beware ofN — rf — kf — P — tl — d 
loves us not! — The R — 55 — Vs will not join us The Man of the People [Fox] 
has lived too long for us! The Friends of the People must be blasted by us! 
Sherridan, Ersk[ine]. On one of the door-posts is a narrow slit inscribed 
Anonymous — Letter Box. The door of the famous tavern appears to be 
correctly depicted, but its lamps are surmounted by royal crowns. 

A satire on the split in the Whig party, see No. 8315, on the attitude to 
his old friends of Burke (much more anti-revolutionary than Pitt and 
Grenville), cf. No. 7865, &c., and on the propagandist activities of the 
'Association for preserving Liberty and Property . . .', known as the Crown 
and Anchor Society (because its head-quarters were in that building), see 
No. 8138, &c. It received much correspondence (Nov. 1792-Feb. 1793), 
some anonymous, on seditious or suspect activities, see B.M. Add. MSS. 
16,919-28. Cf. Nos. 8138, &c., 8284, 8289, 8318, 8424, 8609, 8699, and 
Index of Persons, s.v. Reeves (called by Coleridge in 1795, 'captain- 
commandant of the spy-gang', Essays on his own Times, 1850, i. 79 n.). 

' The meeting was during the last illness of the Earl of Bessborough, d. 1 1 Mar. 



For the Friends of the People (formed 11 Apr. 1792) see No. 8087. For 
Gillray's attitude to the Society cf. Nos. 8318, 8699. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 167. Wright and Evans, No. 99. Reprinted, G.W.G.y 
12IX9I ^' 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

Puh March 25 J793 hy S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where may be seen 
the Completest Collection of Caricatures in Europe Also a Correct 
Model of the Guillotine 6 Feet high Admitt i Shilling 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox sits on the ground, contemplating 
suicide. His hair rises in horror as he listens to words which dart towards 
him in the guise of flashes of lightning: Thy Country Expatriate thee; Thy 
Crony's Impeach thee [cf. No. 7861] ; The Wigs forsake thee [cf. No. 8315] ; 
The Prince discards thee [cf . No. 83 1 1] ; Thy Friends Abjure thee ; The People 
despise thee ; All true friends to their King & Constitution Abhor thee [cf. 
No. 8287]. Two messages (1.) are surrounded with rays: The Sam Culottes 
admire thee ; The Poissards Love thee. In Fox's r. hand is a dagger, under 
his I. hand is a large bowl of Poison. Beside him (1.) is a gallows inscribed 
Pro Patria, from which hangs a noose. 

Cf. No. 6 19 1 (1783) in which Fox is offered by the Devil the choice of 
dagger, pistol, halter, poison. One of many prints of Fox as a Jacobin, 
cf. No. 8286. 

THE 15TH OF MAY, 1793. 

Vide His own Declaration, as printed by the Anti-levelling Societies. 

y^ Gy des*^ et fed pro bono publico. 

Pu¥ March jo'* 1793. by H. Humphrey N" 18 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Dumouriez (r.) sits in a gothic chair 
(reminiscent of the Coronation chair), at the royal dinner-table. Three 
cooks advance towards him, wearing bonnets-rouges with tricolour cock- 
ades, aprons, and over-sleeves. They are Fox, the foremost, proffering 
the steaming head of Pitt ; at his belt, in place of a cook's knife, hangs a 
dagger. Sheridan, on Fox's 1., proffers a dish on which steams a broken 
royal crown. On the extreme 1. Priestley enters in profile to the r., holding 
up a dish containing a mitre. The dishes have a garnish of frogs. All look 
with eager courtesy towards Dumouriez, who sits with famished expec- 
tancy, a dagger in one hand, a fork in the other. He is much caricatured, 
thin, and unshaven, with straggling hair and long pigtail. He wears a large 
feather-trimmed cocked hat, lace ruffles, a gold-laced and ragged military 
tunic, a tattered shirt over bare legs. His plate bears the royal arms ; other 
gold plate is in the form of inverted coronets and of a Communion cup 
with the letters SIH (reversed). Two spoons are decorated with the red 
hand of a baronet. These objects indicate that Dumouriez has come to 
overthrow the monarchy, the Church and hereditary rank. On the back 
of his gothic chair is a red cap of Libertas. Below the design: To the worthy 
Members of the Society at the Crozon & Anchor^ this Print, illustrative of 



Treasons in Embryo, {by them hunted out & exposed,) is submitted, by an 
admirer of their Loyal principles & truly Classic publications. 

Dumouriez was much talked of in England at the beginning of 1793. 
The print appears to have been designed before news of the defeat of 
Neewinden (18 Mar.) reached London on 25 Mar. The bare fact was 
announced in the Gazette of 26 Mar. (see No. 8321). Gillray's attitude 
to the Crown and Anchor Society appears ironical, cf. Nos. 8316, 8699. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 168. Wright and Evans, No. 101. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, J. H. Rose and A. M. Broadley, Dumouriez and the 
Defence of England, 1909, p. 188. 
ii|xi4jin. (pi.). 

83 1 8 A A copy, Ja^ Gillray del', faces p. 144 of The Caricatures of Gillray. 
Impression in Print Room. 

de Vinck, No. 4671 (where Sheridan and Priestley are identified as 
George III and Queen Charlotte). 


Thornton Sculpt. 

Published by Alex'' Hogg. April i. 1793. 

Engraving. Louis XVI lies under the guillotine, the executioner and two 
other men stand on the scaffold. Four figures have numbers referring to 
an explanation below the title: i The Monarch, 2 His Confessor (Edge- 
worth), standing praying in profile to the r. below the scaflTold facing the 
King, J General Santerre, on the scaffold, 4 The Mayor of Paris standing 
among the soldiers who surround the scaffold. On the r. is the coach in 
which the King drove to the Place de la Revolution. See No. 8297, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5186. 

J^ Qy des** et fed pro bono publico 

Pu¥ April 8'^ 1793 by H. Humphrey N 18 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt steers a small boat. The Constitu- 
tion, with a single sail, a Union pennant flying from the mast, through huge 
waves between a high rock (I.) and a whirlpool whose circumference is an 
inverted crown which merges in the swirling water. He is in profile to the 
r., gazing fixedly at a castle on a promontory (r.) among still waters, which 
flies a flag inscribed Haven of Public Happiness. Britannia, a buxom young 
woman, sits in the boat, her hands raised in alarm, her head turned towards 
the rock, on the summit of which is a large bonnet-rouge with a tricolour 
cockade on a post within a ramshackle fence. Spray dashes against Scylla ; 
beside the rock and in the foreground (1.) three sharks with human heads 
closely pursue Pitt's boat: Sheridan, Fox, and Priestley (good profile 
portraits), their eyes fixed menacingly on the boat. They are: Sharks; 
Dogs of Scylla. Beneath the title: or — The Vessel of the Constitution 
steered clear of the Rock of Democracy [cf. No. 8310], and the Whirlpool of 
A rbitrary-Power. 



For the enthusiasm for the Constitution see No. 8287, &c. For the 
Opposition Whigs, cf. No. 8315. An anticipation of Canning's The Pilot 
that weathered the Storm. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 168-9 (reproduction); Wright and Evans, No. 102. 
Rqjrinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
io|xi3f in. 



Sold by J Aitken N" 14 Castle Street Leicester Fields London 

Pub by W Dent April lygs 

Engraving. A thin, grotesque French officer flees in terror with out- 
stretched arms from the beak of a bird (1.) which is about to peck his 
posteriors. He is a sansculotte, without breeches, wearing a military coat 
and ruffled shirt. His hair and long pigtail fly out behind him ; his cocked 
hat flies off; the cockade is inscribed Ca ira, ironically translated Go it. 
Before him (r.) the rear ranks of the French army are seen running away 
at full speed, but in orderly formation. Dumouriez says : Dam the Rotter- 
damers! Dam the Amsterdamers! neither Breakfast nor Breeches obtained — 
and no more pickings in Belgia, but my Rear in danger of being pickt by the 
Imperial Eagle. The bird resembles a goose more than an eagle except for 
its predatory beak. The French troops say: Go it — Master's limbs are on 
full Stretch its the Devil take the hindmost — this is running in the Old 
French Style. 

A satire on the evacuation of the Netherlands by the French after the 
defeat of Neewinden. This was not a flight, but the result of an informal 
armistice on 23 Mar. between Dumouriez and the Prince of Coburg. 
J. H. Rose and A. M. Broadley, Dumouriez and the Defence of England, 
1909, p. 175, and Nos. 8313, 8322, 8324. 

MuUer, No. 5223. 
8|xio| in. 


[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub April II lygs by S. W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly Where may be seen 

a Modle of the Guillotine 6 feet high also the Head and Hand of Count 

Struensee Admittance one Shilling 

Engraving (coloured impression). Dumouriez runs forward (r. to 1.), hold- 
ing out his sword in his 1. hand, a paper in his r. inscribed Je Grains Citoyens 
de vous enuier par le recit de mes Victoires Dumourier. He sheds tears and 
vomits a stream of church plate, coins, and fortresses inscribed, respec- 
tively, Anvers, Bruxelles, Louvain. He urinates a stream in which are three 
other fortresses: Klundert, Breda, Gertruidenberg. Two stout Dutchmen 
on the extreme v., standing on a fortification, urinate over the heads of 
intermediate soldiers on to Dumouriez' large cocked hat, from which two 
streams fall to the ground. An Austrian officer with a drawn sabre (probably 
Coburg) rides after Dumouriez, behind him advance grinning and mus- 
tachioed Austrian infantry with muskets, saying : ah Ca ira Ca ira. In 
the foreground, behind Dumouriez, is an officer holding a large syringe 



inscribed la [ ?] seringue De Clerfait ; he grins exultantly. On the extreme 
r. are a cannon and a pyramid of cannon-balls inscribed Pilulles Purgatives 
pour les Salsaottes [ ? Sansculottes] francais. In the foreground in front of 
Dumouriez lies a woman, stabbed to the heart, holding the (broken) staff 
and cap of Liberty. She is la vraie Liberie Morte. In the distance (1.) are 
fleeing soldiers. Beneath the design : Evacuation of holland and Brabant or 
Evacuation de la hollande et du Brabant. 

A satire on Dumouriez' retreat from Belgium after Neerwinden ( 1 8 Mar.), 
where Clerfayt commanded the Austrian left wing. Forces masking 
Breda, Gertruydenberg, and Klundert were withdrawn. Dumouriez 
promised the Belgians at Brussels on 1 1 Mar. to restore the church plate 
stolen by agents of the Convention. Rose and Broadley, Dumouriez 
and the Defence of England, 1919, p. 167; de Vinck, Nos. 4637-9. See 
No. 8321, &c. 

Van Stolk, No. 5 119. MuUer, S., No. 5224 A. 
9X14! in. 

8323 FAST DAY! 

Designed & Etched by R. Newton. 

London Pu¥ by W. Holland, 50 Oxford S^ April ig, 1793. 

Aquatint (coloured impression). Four very fat and grotesquely ugly 
parsons greedily surround a circular table laden with food and drink. The 
two in the foreground face each other in profile: one (1.) holds knife and 
fork vertically, about to eat; his wig hangs on the wall behind him; the 
other, stooping near-sightedly, carves a large turkey. The other two stand 
behind the table, clinking glasses; one (1.) says: Here\ our old Friend; the 
other answers with a grin : You mean the Church, I suppose. Below the title : 

Fasting and Prayer, attending the Church Bell, 
That, thafs the way, good Christians, to live well! 

Fasts were occasionally proclaimed during the War. On i Mar. the 
King proclaimed for 19 Apr. *a Public Fast and Humiliation', to intercede 
for 'God's blessing and assistance on our arms, and for restoring and per- 
petuating peace, safety and prosperity . . .*. Gazette, 2 Mar. 1793. This 
satire on the Church was timed to appear on the Fast Day. A plate on the 
same subject by Rowlandson was published (? reissued) on 20 Mar. 1812. 
See No. 8428, &c. 


Drawn by Doddfrom a Sketch taken on the Spot. Wilkes Sculp 
Published by C. Johnson. Saturday April 27, 1793. 

Engraving. Wonderful Magazine, i. 189. Design in a frame decorated with 
military trophies. Dumouriez (r.) stands beside his tent, pointing at six 
dismayed civilians who are being hustled off by soldiers holding muskets 
with bayonets. Illustration to humorous verses signed Thomas Bellamy, 
describing the arrest (on 2 Apr.) of Beurnonville, Minister of War, and 



the four Commissioners sent by the Convention to remove him from his 

command. They end: 

May blessings on our favour'd land for ever increase, Sir, 
And Britons know the joys of a long and lasting peace, Sir; 
For their's is the glorious, the upright intention, 
To lend a ready hand to crush the Base Convention. 

The commissioners were Camus, Bancal, Quinette, and Lamarque. 
They were handed over by Dumouriez to Coburg as hostages. See 
No. 8321, &c., and de Vinck, Nos. 4655-60, 4666. 
4X6iin. B.M.L., P.P. 5153. a. 

A copy of a print on this subject by Dent, the inscriptions translated 
into French, is a plate in Jaime, PL. (629), Les Commissatres devenus des 
otages. . . . Seven men wearing bonnets-rouges through which project long 
asses' ears sit on stools in a dungeon. Each has a noose round his neck, the 
rope being attached to the wall. They all make exclamations of anger or 
regret. (B.M.L., 1266. g. 5.) 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: May 5 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly, where may 
be seen a compleat Model of the Guilotin 6 feet High also the Head 
and hand of O Streuenzee : Books of Caracaturs &c Admitance 
I Sh 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a pawnbroker's shop, a 
counter running round three sides of it, the customers in the foreground. 
Behind the counter on the r. stands Pitt, a pen behind his ear, talking to 
a stout Lord Mayor in civic robes, who offers him a chain with a jewel on 
it. The Mayor holds the mace, its head projecting from under his robe. 
On the ground at his feet is plate marked with the arms of the City. He 
says : you know you promised me 100 Thousand. On the opposite side are 
three bearded Jews chaffering with Grenville, who stands behind the 
counter holding up a goblet at which he peers near-sightedly. One Jew (1.) 
says : By Got it ish pure fine Goild only you cannot shee the Mark ish it not 
Mosses; the other, holding out his hands deprecatingly, answers: pon my 
honor as I am an honest man. The third, a sack on his back, says to Gren- 
ville : Look a little closher if you pleash. Buckles, rings, &c., lie on the 

In the centre, and at the back of the shop, a gaunt Scot leans on the 
counter saying to Dundas, who listens with folded fingers: Brither, wee* I 
yee len' me a thusand Fund I'll gie you looo Barrels o Brimston in Pawn 
and yen for your ain use. Under his arm is a small cask ; he takes snuff 
from a ram's-horn mull. 

A satire on the loan proposed by Pitt on 27 Mar.: ^^4, 500,000 in 
3% annuities to be issued at 72. Pitt acknowledged that the terms were 
disadvantageous: he had made the loan public through the Bank of 
England, saying he would close with the best offer ; the only offer was the 
one put before the House. London Chronicle, 28 Mar. 1793. See New- 
march, On the Loans raised by Mr. Pitt, i'jg3-i8oi, 1855, pp. 7-10. Cf. 
No. 8326. 



YOUNG PAWNBROKER. [? May 1793.] 

Vide Lord K — g's Speech 
Pu¥ by J Aitken N° 14 Castle Street, Leicester Fields, London, 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, in profile to the 1., stands behind 
the counter of a pawnbroker's shop ; he hands to an exultant Jew a paper 
inscribed 4000; a large sack stands on the counter between them. The 
Jew says : As mush above Four Tousand as you pleash, and dere vos de costs, 
precious stones in de rough, but no rubbish, by Cot a mighty — is dere Moses? 
The second Jew also stands in profile to the r., his hands raised in depreca- 
tory affirmation ; he answers : No, I vos Swear dat. Both are bearded and 
wear low wide-brimmed hats. A stout man advances from the 1., carrying 
a pyramid of three tea-chests on his head; he says: They wont know Sloe 
Leaves from Bohea. In the background under an arched doorway a 
fashionably dressed cloth-merchant carrying his rolls of stuff addresses a 
man in Highland dress (1.) with a roll of material under his arm: Do you 
think they will measure every Yard of my Cloth? The Scot answers: Yes, 
but my stuff will do for I have a bonny friend [Dundas] to Speak for me. In 
the shop window are three balls, Money Lent, and various objects. Above 
Pitt's head are shelves on which are a bellows, warming-pan, &c. 

Probably a satire on Pitt's loan, see No. 8325. Lord King was an almost 
silent supporter of the Government. 
9fXi3f in. 


See No. 7853. The date 1791 is probably an engraver's error for 1793. 

J' Qy des"" etfed 

Publish' d May 20^^ 1793, by H. Humphrey, N° 18, Old Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A staff dinner in a large open tent. At 
the head of the table the Duke of York carouses ; a fat Flemish woman 
seated on his knee plays with his sword ; he raises a full glass, looking down 
at the woman. He is seated on a drum, his 1. foot rests on a tattered 
British flag, beside which lies a bundle of muskets. On the table is a punch- 
bowl ornamented with the royal arms. On one side (next the Duke) sits 
the Prince of Orange, a fat and stolid Dutch officer smoking a pipe and 
holding a small tankard. Facing him is a savage-looking (?) Austrian 
officer wearing a cap ; his drawn sabre is on the table, he drinks wine vora- 
ciously from a bottle, his I. arm round the waist of a stout Flemish woman 
seated beside him on the cannon which forms a seat ; she raises her glass, 
holding a smoking pipe. Next the Dutchman a British officer and a fat 
Flemish woman are kissing. Behind the seated officers stand bandsmen 
wearing cocked hats and blowing wind instruments with great energy; a 
negro clashes his cymbals behind the Duke. On the extreme r. two files 
of gaunt and emaciated British foot-guards advance behind the Duke 
carrying wine-bottles, glasses, and a punch-bowl, also with the royal arms. 
Empty bottles are stacked under the table. Behind (1.), a file of conical 
tents recedes in perspective; the three flags which fly from them are 



British, Austrian, and Hanoverian. Dutch and Austrian officers are carica- 
tured, but not the Duke, who is handsome and florid. The Flemish women 
with their wide straw hats are studies of type and costume. 

The Duke's 'own deportment is perfectly steady and unexceptionable, 
and the stories which are spread of his drinking are absolutely false . . .'. 
But the very young men of his immediate circle caused 'a levity of manners 
at head-quarters'. Letter to Sir G. Elliot, 2 Nov. 1793. Corr. of Sir G. 
Elliot, ii. 185 n. He and his staff lived luxuriously in the field; Hanoverian 
mules carried, 'on a march, cold meats, the service of plate, rich wines and 
other necessary articles of refreshment. . . . The cooks and servants . . . 
preceded ... in large covered waggons'. Narrative of the War by an Officer 
of the Guards [1796], i. 80 n. See also Nos. 8329, 8351, 8355, 8425, 8433, 
8493, 8789, 8790, 8791. 

In 1793 Gillray went to "Flanders with de Loutherbourg to follow the 
Duke of York's expedition, the latter making studies for his picture of the 
siege of Valenciennes (which began early in June 1793). 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 169-70 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 100. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Van Stolk, No. 5143. 
13! X 19I in. 


J^ Qy des. et fecit— 

Pu¥ June 3'^ 1793. by H. Humphrey N i8 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Four designs, each with a title, the plate 
divided into four quarters. 

[i] John Bull Happy. A cottage interior: John Bull, a stout countryman 
with wrinkled gaiters as in Nos. 7889, 8141, dozes serenely in an arm-chair 
before a blazing fire, holding a pitcher on his knee. Behind (1.), his wife 
sits spinning ; two little boys feed a bird in a wicker cage. A pretty young 
woman approaches the open door with a milk-pail on her head. Brass 
utensils are ranged on the chimney-piece, beside which is a roasting-jack 
with wheel and chain. A well-fed cat and dog sleep amicably by the fire. 

[2] John Bull going to the Wars. John Bull has enlisted and marches off 
(1. to r.) beside a file of soldiers with drawn sabres, the man next him 
blowing a bugle. He marches with awkward energy, gazing proudly in 
profile to the r., not to see his wife and children (1.), who cling to him, 
weeping. He holds a musket and is dressed as in [i], with the addition of 
a grenadier's cap and bandolier. Behind (1.) is a corner of his cottage. 

[3] Jo/tn BulVs Property in danger. John Bull's wife, followed by her 
three children, approaches the stone gateway of the Treasury, its iron gate 
open, the three balls of a pawnbroker above it, the inscription Money Lent 
by Authority. Beside it are two bills: Wanted a Number of Recruits to serve 
abroad and List of Bankrupts Johti Bull. The woman carries her spinning- 
wheel and a bundle of household goods; the smallest boy, holding his 
mother's petticoat, carries the bird-cage; the girl carries the churn and a 
bowl. The elder boy carries spade, rake, and pitchfork (a kettle slung to 
the prongs) and leads a pig. 


[4] John BulVs glorious Return. A gaunt, one-legged, and one-eyed 
soldier (r.), in tattered uniform, limps on crutches into a miserable hovel 



in which his starving family crouch over a fire Ut on the hearth. The little 
boy clutches a bare bone; onions and a broken dish are on the floor (cf. 
No. 8145). Mother and sons are ragged and emaciated, the daughter has 
a certain youthful grace. They look with frightened astonishment at their 
almost unrecognizable father. 

For other prints on the illusions and tragedies of war see Nos. 8333, 
8428, 8609, p. 250, 9418, 9642. This, like No. 8333, was issued while the 
Allies were still victorious, cf. No. 8337. They should be compared with 
the anti-recruiting prints of the American War, notably No. 5295 (1775). 

Grego, Gillray, p. 171 (reproduction, p. 172). Wright and Evans, 
No. 103. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Social England, ed. 
Traill, 1904, v. 513. 

There is a sketch in pencil and pen by Rowlandson of [2] and [4] in the 
Print Room. In [2] the two soldiers are less caricatured, the wife and 
children are differently posed and drawn with more freedom. The file of 
soldiers is omitted. In [4] the soldier has not lost an eye, his family are 
less emaciated. On the back of the water-colour described under No. 9014. 
Binyon, iii. 250, No. 18. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: June 9 J79J by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where may 
be seen the Original Model of the Guilotine Head and hand of Count 
Streuenzee Ad*"*^ i Sh^. and the Largest collection of Caracatures in 
the World. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Duke of York stands full-face but 
turning his head in profile to the 1., between two laughing Dutch courtesans. 
He holds a glass of wine in his r. hand, while the woman on his r. takes 
his arm, holding up a bottle. He holds the hand of the woman on his 1., 
who picks his pocket. An English officer (1.) standing by a cannon urinates, 
his back turned to the Duke ; he says, wine cannot cure the Pain I Indure 
for my Dear Chloe's Sake. In the background (r.) are tents. 

See No. 8327, &c. For the title cf. No. 5952. 

de Vinck, No. 4676. Van Stolk, No. 5144. Muller, No. 5235. 



Pu¥ by W. Dent June 11 1793 

Sold by L Aitken N" 14 Castle Street Leicester Square 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted. Fox, a ragged and bare-footed beggar, 
walks (1. to r.) past the door of the [Crown] & Anchor Tavern holding out 
his hat. On his chest is a placard : Pray pity the poor Gallican [the prefix 
Anti has been scored through but left legible] undone by French Affairs. 
In his r. hand is a staff. He weeps, saying. Oh! A heart of Stone would melt 
at the misfortunes of my Life — How I was cast away aboard the Portland 
East Indiaman — How I have since been buffeted about by adverse winds in the 



Republic — How I have been scarce able to keep head above water in Brooks — 
How I was stranded with a French Cargo — and lost most of my Crew in 
Constitution Bay and now left to starve but for sweet Charity. At his feet 
are dice and a dice-box, with an empty cornucopia, suggesting that his 
profits from faro, see No. 5972, are ended. (Cf. a scurrilous pamphlet, 
A Looking-Glass for a Right Honourable Mendicant . . ., 1794, pp. 24-5.) 
A satire on the subscription raised for Fox by his friends, see No. 8331, 
&c. He traces his misfortunes from the defeat of the Coalition over the 
India Bill, see Nos. 6283, 6368, &c., and cf. No. 83 11. For the disruption 
of his party see No. 8315, &c. 


J^ Gy das'" etfed 

Pu¥ June 12*^ 1793 — hy H. Humphrey N" i8 Old Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, as a beggar, holds out his bonnet 
rouge to the door of the Crown & Anchor tavern to catch the shower of 
dishonoured paper which the talons of the Devil are scattering ; smoke and 
flames issue from the doorway. Fox, unkempt and unshaven, his tattered 
coat and breeches scarcely covering his naked body, has an expression of 
desperate eagerness; he holds under his coat a dagger which drips blood. 
From his coat-pocket project a dice-box and cards, the Knave of Clubs 
uppermost (cf. No. 6488). Behind him are his needy followers : Sheridan 
(a pair of pistols in his coat-pocket), M. A. Taylor, and Home Tooke 
immediately behind him, also clutching concealed daggers and holding 
out their bonnets rouges. Close behind these are Hall the apothecary, 
Priestley, and Lord Stanhope, whose attitudes show that they too are 
clasping daggers and proffering caps for alms. From Hall's pocket protrude 
a syringe and a medicine-bottle labelled W. Pitt. Three other heads are 
indicated. The Devil's words issue from the door among flames: 

"Dear Sir | Seldom have I experienced more heart-felt pleasure | "than 
now in executing the zvishes of my Committee; — I flatter | "myself you will 
not be displeased with the convincing proof of the | "esteem of so many & so 
honorable persons; who far from imagining they \ "are about to confer any 
obligations upon you, will think themselves | honoured & obliged by your 
acceptance of their endeavours to be \ "grateful for your unremitted efforts to 
effectuate \ the Grand Object they have so deeply at heart. 

Fox answers: "Dear Sir — You will easily believe, that it is not \ "mere 
form of words when I say, that I am wholly at a loss how \"to express my 
feelings upon the Charity which you are now in so kind a \ "manner showering 
upon me, — In my wretched situation, to receive such a proof \ "of the esteem 
of the Committee, — to be relieved at once from Contempt & Beggary! | "for 
such as me, to receive a Boon which even the most disinterested would think 
their \ "lives well spent in obtaining! is a rare instance of felicity, which has 
been reserved for me; — | "It is with perfect sincerity that I declare, that in 
no other manner in which a Charity | "could have been bestowed upon me, 
would have been so highly gratifying to every feeling \ "of my heart, — / accept, 
therefore, with the most sincere gratitude, the bounty of the Committee | "and 
consider it as an additional obligation upon me, to adhere strictly to whatever 
mea- | "-sures the Committee may find it convenient to pursue; & to persevere 
thro' thick and thin j "in That line of conduct, to which alone, I am conscious, 



that I am indebted for this, as \ "well as for every other mark of their appro- 
bation. — 

Sheridan says : Make haste, Charley! — jnake haste! — make haste! — for I 
long to have my turn come on; — / have been a Greek Emigrant a hell of a 
while, & relief could never come more seasonable: — and here's our "little 
Chicken" wants to peck up a little corn; & our old friend Blood & Brentford, 
the orthodox Parson, swears he has a right to a Particle; heres Glysterpipe 
expects to be paid for purging Administration; & old Phlogistick the Hackney 
Schoolmaster, expects some new Birmingham halfpence — besides ten Thousand 
more, with empty pockets, & hungry bellies, lads fit for any enterprize! who 
only want engagement; — but cannot get a Crust, before you are served! make 
haste Charley! — make haste! make haste. Over the tavern door is inscribed 
Whig Club. The papers pouring into Fox's cap are inscribed Forged Notes 
(twice), Swindlers Notes, Jews Bonds, Bankrupts Notes, Country Bank 
(twice), Gamblers Notes, Blue & Buff Bonds, Forfeited Mortgages. 

A satire on the subscription raised for Fox, on account of his desperate 
financial pHght, agreed at a meeting of the Crown and Anchor tavern on 
5 June, Adair in the chair, resolving 'that an effective demonstration and 
honourable proof of the affection esteem and gratitude of his constituents 
and of the public, ought to be offered to Mr. Fox as an acknowledgment 
and retribution due to his services and merits' {Gazetteer, 30 June). The 
words of the Devil and of Fox parody Adair's letter and Fox's answer, 
printed in Lord Holland's Memoirs of the Whig Party, i. 62-5. Fox wrote 
to his nephew: 'the sum [£70,000] will pay all my debts that are in any 
degree burdensome, and give me an income upon which I can live com- 
fortably. . . .' Ibid. This was an annuity of ^^3,000, see Stirling, Coke of 
Norfolk, 1908, pp. 398-404. For the King's opinion of the gift, see Rose, 
Pitt and Napoleon, p. 224. For M. A. Taylor as the 'Chicken' see No. 6777. 
Home Tooke, ex-parson of Brentford, owed much to his friends' bounty. 
For the allusions to Priestley see Nos. 7632, 7887, &c. Hall ('Liberty 
Hall') the apothecary was secretary of the Whig Club and one of Fox's 
leading supporters at Westminster elections (see Vol. vi). He was 
secretary to the 'Blue and Buff Charity' committee. Flames issue from 
the Crown and Anchor tavern also in No. 7889, where the door is 'the Gate 
of Pandemonium'. For Fox and the Jews cf. No. 6617, &c. The Devil 
(hands only visible) represents Adair. For the subscription see also Nos. 
8330. 8332, 8438, 8622, 9266, 9282, 9343, 9353. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 172 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 106. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
I3|xi6iin. (pi.). 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Land : Pub June 14 lygj by W Fores Piccadilly where may be seen the 
Largest Collection of Caratures [sic] in the World Admit'' one Shis 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, as a beggar, stands hat in hand 
beside a magnificent brass-bound treasure-chest, with a slit for money, 
inscribed Catalines Subscription Box. He says. Pray Remmember Poor 
Cataline. for Oppositions sake remmember poor Cataline. He weeps, his coat, 
waistcoat, breeches, and shoes are tattered, his stockings ungartered ; dice- 
box and dice protrude from his pocket. The chest stands against a stone 



wall and is backed by a large framed notice: Supported by Voluntary \ 
Contribution \ Subscribers taken in here \ The smallest Donations thankfully 
Rece^ I Charity cover eth a Multitude of Sins . . . \ And Humble Petitioner as 
in Duty Bound | Will Ever Pray 




for Party 


monies Missing 
Dad — one Million 

P.W. 1100,000 
D.E. 60 000 
B.D. .. 50 
C.E. 10 000 
P.D. 15 000 

S T 5000 
Sundries — 600,000 

won at Play 

&c. &c. 



On each side of this huge notice-board is a modest placard : Poore Familys 
in Distress 20 Pounds would save from certain ruin a Man Wife & nine 
Children ; A Tradesman in jail Solicits a Trifle to Support his Family, not 
being able to recover his just demands of some Peers & members of Parliament. 
Beneath this is a heart-shaped collecting-box and a small bill: No 
Money. On the wall a hand points (1.): Way to the Crown and Anchor. The 
title continues: alias the Dissipated Patriot, alias the Gamester, alias the 
Leader of Opposition alias the Word Eater [see No. 7390], alias the Soliciter 

for the French republic [see No. 8305] alias S 1 Breeches [see No. 6580] 

alias the Protector [cf. No. 6380, &c.] turned Begger. 

A satire on the subscription for Fox, see No. 833 1, &c. 'Monies Missing' 
is an allusion to the squandering of Lord Holland's fortune, see No. 5223 
(1774). The significance of the initials, other than those indicating the 
Prince of Wales (then estranged from Fox, cf. No. 83 11), is obscure; they 
may (reversed) indicate Earl of Derby, Duke of Bedford, Earl of Carlisle, 
Duke of Portland. For Fox's winnings at faro see Nos. 5972, 5997 (1782). 
For Fox as CatiUne see No. 6784, &c. For the title cf. No. 8142. 
iif X9 in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ July i^ I793 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly where may 
be seen a Model of the Guilotine Likways the Head of Count Streuenzee 
large Collection of Caracatures Admittance one shilling. 
Engraving. A sequence of six figures and a final group arranged in two 
rows, [i] John Bull at home, a handsome young farmer wearing a smock 
and wrinkled gaiters, sits at a table smoking, a pitcher in his hand. [2] 
Inlisted. He stands full-face, hands on hips, dressed as before but with 
a favour in his hat. [3] Trained to Arms. Smartly dressed in uniform, he 
stands at attention in profile to the 1., shouldering a musket. [4] On Foreign 
Service. He marches (1. to r.), still smartly dressed, but carrying a knap- 
sack inscribed GR. [5] Camp Dinner. He is seated on the ground eating 
bread and an onion. More bread and onions lie in and near his open knip- 
sack. (Cf. No. 8145.) [6] In Battle. He fires his musket, leaning forward 
in profile to the 1. His uniform is tattered, though his appearance is still 
neat. [7] Loaded with honors of War. An old soldier with a leg ampu- 
tated and a sightless eye, he limpa on crutches, holding out his hat for alms. 



An infant is tied to his shoulders. Behind him and on the extreme r. is 
his wife, a ballad-singer carrying twin infants, with an elder boy beside 
her. Her song is : O Bony Lass will you live in a Barrack. See No. 8328, &c. 

8334 FRENCH LIBERTY. [? c. July 1793.] 

[Nixon del.] 

This Print is most Respectfully Dedicated to every True Hearted Briton 
who is a Friend to his King and Country. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). An allegorical repre- 
sentation of the state of France. In the foreground on the extreme r. is 
the doorway of the temple of Libertas supported by two Corinthian 
columns. Liberty, a young woman with her arms bound behind her, is 
being pushed through the door by a band of ruffians with pikes ; one raises 
his dagger to stab her. Viragoes with clubs and a soldier with a bayonet 
wait outside the temple to strike her down. Two decapitated heads are 
on the ground. Two naked demons are seated on the architrave of the door 
blowing bubbles among which floats Tom Paine dressed as Harlequin, and 
holding a pair of stays inscribed Rights of Man and Liberty (see No. 8287). 

In the centre foreground is a fire before which kneels a woman burning 
a spinning-wheel, her hand resting on a large book. Trade and Commerce ; 
a boy brings another inscribed Fine Arts. A broken palette, compass, &c., 
lie on the ground. A man runs to the fire carrying on his head two books. 
Agriculture and Law, and a bee-hive, while an old military officer breaks 
the staff of Liberty across his knee. 

On the 1. a postboy (using boot and fist) and two men with bludgeons 
drive off a band of unoffending persons who walk in a dejected manner to 
the 1. They are (1. to r.) artisans carrying tools, a man with spade, rake, 
and pitchfork, a painter with palette, canvas, and brushes, a man carrying 
a picture of Peace, a woman with two infants, a man with a 'cello on his back. 

In the middle distance (r.) is a grotesque statue of a fat woman (described 
below) on a cylindrical pedestal, inscribed Murder, Treachery, Rebellion, 
Cowardice, Sedition, Levellers, with two skulls flanking a medallion : This 
statue was erected in the first year of our glorious Confusion A.D. 1792. Men 
and women {ancien-regime in character) dance round it holding hands. In 
the background is a large gothic church into the west door of which people 
are crowding. Over the door is a projecting balcony inscribed The Massacre 
at Paris ; — on this stand a zany with a trumpet, and others, as on booths at 
fairs ; they display a large banner, on which Punch roasts a monk, inscribed 
Religion, Law, & Equity, A Farce. Behind and to the 1. are old hoyses 
with crow-stepped gables falling into ruins; on these are emblems of 
industry: a shuttle and shears, an anchor, horse-shoes, a sheep suspended 
as in the order of the Golden Fleece. In front of the houses small figures 
are breaking a loom and two women kneel beside a naked corpse. On the 
extreme 1. boats are putting out to sea. Heavy clouds form a background. 

Beneath the design : Liberty is torn from her Temple, by a hired band of 
Ruffians, bound, & going to be Sacrificed to the rage of these Ignorant People; 
in the Centre a Poissarde or Fish Woman is burning a Spinning Wheel, the 
Emblem of Industry ; an old Officer breaking the Staff of Liberty ; zvith a Boy 
& French Porter, who are bringing Volumes of the Fine Arts, Agriculture, 
&c &c to add fuel to the flames. On the opposite side are a group of figures 
representing Music, Poetry, Painting, Weavers, Smiths, Carpenters, Husband- 



meti, &c. driven out of the Kingdom as useless Members of Society; near the 
Temple is erected a Statue, raised on the Foundation of Murder, Cruelty, 
Cowardice, Treachery & Sedition, agreable to the French Idea of Freedom, 
this figure represents an intoxicated Female with a Blunderbuss in her right 
hand, & a dagger in her left, a bandage over her Eyes, as blind to Reason, 
leaning against a Pillar, that '5 broke by her weight, & at the Base is a party 
of Democrats dancing a Cotilion. The Church, once a place of Devotion, is 
now turn'd into a Theatre, in which that Bloody Massacre on the loth of 
August, 1792, at Paris, is going to be represented. In the back Ground of this 
Picture, the Houses of Industrious Tradesmen are falling to ruin, their unhappy 
Tenants being driven from their Homes for want of Employment: some of the 
Banditti are destroying a Loom, & a Strong Herculean Fellow cruelly beating 
a poor Weaver, shews, when the Law of a Country is at an end, the strong 
gets the better of the weak, & Oppression takes place of Justice: on the 
ground, an Industrious Artist who supported his aged Parents, is expiring 
through Want; over the Temple the Author of the Rights of Man is supported 
on bubbles that are blown up by two Devils; this represents his work to be 
Froth & Airy Vapour: tending to delude & mislead a Nation who it is hoped, 
are by this time so well convinced of the Blessing they enjoy, as to have no 
wish to change it for any other. The different Trades leaving the Kingdom 
close the Scene. 

Also a proof, tinted with monochrome ; the title and most of the inscrip- 
tions are in pen, in the same hand, that of John Nixon,' as a dedication: 
'To M"^^ Nicol, this Proof Print is Presented by her obliged & very obed* 
Servant J N.' The explanatory description differs in certain details from 
the engraved version: the statue is 'intoxicated with success'. After 
'Massacre on the 10*^^ Aug 1792' is added '(which will ever remain a 
Stigma on the Annals of France) . . . Robertspierre, Marat & Petion are 
the Merry Andrews of the Entertainment. Punch broiling a Priest on a 
Grid Iron, on the Shew Cloth, is emblematic of the present sentiments of 
Devotion.' Above the design: 

O thou Poor Country — weak & overpow'rd 
By thine own Sons — eat to the Bone — Devour'd 
By Vipers, which, in thine own Entrails Bred 
Prey on thy Life, & with thy Blood are fed ; 

Churchill. [Independence, 11, 555-9.] 

The date would appear to be before the assassination of Marat (13 July 

1793), though the church-theatre may indicate the celebrations in Notre 

Dame of 10 Nov. 1793, and its transformation into the Temple of Reason, 

see No. 8350. 

Described, E. et J. de Goncourt, La SociSte fratifaise pendant la Revolu- 
tion, 1858, pp. 279-80. 
141^7X221- in. 

ON SUNDAY JULY 14 1793. 

[L Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥July 26 17 g3 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Charlotte Corday (r.) 
stands full-face, bending forward, a knife in her r. hand, looking towards 
' There is a letter by him in B.M. Add. MSS. 27,337, fo. 156. 

33 D 


Marat (1.), who has fallen to the ground, screaming, I. arm raised, blood 
pouring from a gash in his waistcoat. She says, Down, down, to Hell & 
say A Female Arm has made one bold Attempt to free her Country. On the 
wall behind Marat placards are indicated, two inscribed Murders and Plans. 
Below the title : Who, while he was Villifying some of the more Moderate Men 
in the Convention ami asserting that they should lose their Heads Stated him 
saying, Villian thy death shall Precede theirs. 

News of Marat's assassination (on 13 July), without details, reached 
London on 22 July. See No. 8336, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5298. 

TRIAL, . . . 

J' Gy des"* etfed 

Published July 2g^^ I793 hy H. Humphrey N" 18 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of the Revolutionar}^ 
Tribunal crowded with figures. Charlotte Corday (r.) stands at the bar, 
a raised circular stone platform, her wrists linked by a chain, addressing 
her judges (1.), who listen with alarm, as do the spectators and the two 
ruffians holding spears who stand behind her. Three judges sit on an 
elaborate throne inscribed Vive La Republique, on whose canopy are two 
cornucopias pouring out coins ; on each is a cap of Libertas. Between them 
a grotesque figure of Justice, holding scales and dagger, tramples on a 
crown. The three grotesque judges are (1. to r.): a barber, a comb pro- 
truding from his pocket ; a butcher, the most ferocious ; a tailor, with shears 
and tape. Beneath them sit four ragged officials, pen in hand, all wearing 
legal wigs and bonnets-rouges. Between them and the prisoner is the 
body of Marat, on a wooden bedstead so short that his knees are raised 
vertically ; it is covered with spots, and shows the bleeding wound. Beside 
it stand two men, one holding up a blood-stained shirt on a pike, the other 
the knife on a dish. A sea of heads wearing bonnets- rouges fills the body 
of the hall, H.L. figures fill the gallery and the seats beneath it. Charlotte, 
a buxom young woman, gaily dressed, with feathers in her hair, declaims: 
Wretches, — I did not expect to appear before you — I always thought I should 
be delivered up to the rage of the people, torn in pieces, & that my head, stuck 
on the top of a pike, would have preceded Marat on his state-bed, to serve as 
a rallying point to Frenchmen, if there still are any worthy of that name. — 
But happen what will, if I have the honours of the guillotine, & my clay-cold 
remains are buried, they will soon have conferred upon them the honours of 
the Pantheon; and my memory will be more honoured in France than that of 
Judith in Bethulia'\ The title continues: at the bar of the Revolutionary 
Tribunal of Paris, July ly'^ 1793- for having rid the world of that monster 
of Atheism and Murder, the Regicide Marat, whom she Stabbed in a bath, 
where he had retired on account of a Leprosy, with which, Heaven had begun 
the punishment of his Crimes. — 

"The noble enthusiasm with which this Woman met the charge, & the 
elevated disdain with which she treated the self created Tribunal, struck the 
whole assembly with terror & astonishment." 

Charlotte's words are those quoted in the English newspapers (e.g. 
London Chronicle, 26 July), which derive from a pamphlet published by 
Adam Lux, a German, deputy of Mayence (afterwards guillotined), the day 



after her execution on 17 July. The design incorporates some of the details 
of Marat's funeral (arranged by David), when his body was carried on a 
wooden bedstead, the blood-stained shirt raised on a pike. Ibid. See 
de Vinck, Nos. 5289-5330; Hennin, Nos, 11,519-11,567; Dayot, Rev fr., 
pp. 205-12; A. E. Sorel, Charlotte de Corday, 1930, and Nos. 8335, 8464. 
Grego, Gillray, p. 174 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 105. 
de Vinck, No. 5352. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 

8337 CORRECTION REPUBLICAINE 1793. [c. July 1793.] 


Engraving (coloured). Copy (probably reversed) of a French print in 
Jaime, ii, PI. 181, G. Pichegru (r.), holding down le due d' York, raises a 
birch-rod to thrash his bared posteriors, on which are etched (incorrectly) 
the arms of England. The duke, who has ass's ears, turns his head to 
Pichegru, his hands clasped in supplication. He wears regimentals and 
boots with long spurs. Cobourg (1.) is being similarly thrashed hyjourdan ; 
on his posteriors is an escutcheon with the Habsburg eagle. He and the 
duke are pendant figures, back to back. Coburg bites his finger, and holds 
out a clenched fist. The French generals, who wear cocked hats, are young 
and handsome. Behind them is a table, on which are materials for punch: 
bowl, bottle, lemons, &c. 

Along the upper edge of the design are views of fortified towers all flying 
a tricolour flag (1, to r.) : Charleroy, Mons, Menin, Ypres, Ostende (with ships 
at anchor). 

On I Aug. 1793 the Committee of Public Safety ordered a payment of 
livres 1,250 for 1,000 impressions of this print, a piece of propaganda com- 
pletely at variance with the military situation : Menin, Ypres, and Ostend 
were held by the Allies. Conde fell on 10 July, Mayence on 23 July. When 
Valenciennes capitulated on 28 July the garrison hailed the Duke of York 
as King of France, and Coburg and the Duke were masters of the road to 
Paris, which could have been reached by the former's cavalry in four days. 
'The position of France seemed to be, and in the presence of active and 
intelligent enemies would actually have been, hopeless.* Fortescue, Hist, 
of the British Army, iv. 116. See Sorel, U Europe et la Rev. fr., iii. 536 flF., 
and No. 8340. Cf. No. 8425, &c. 

Blum, No. 625. Van Sto Ik, No. 5136. Reproduction (of the Jaime copy), 
Fuchs und Kind, Die Weiberherrschaft, i. 202. 
6|X7^i in. B.M.L., 1266. g. 5. 


Pub Aug^ I. 1793 by S. Fores N" 3 Picadilly 

Engraving. The interior of a barber's shop. Fox, with a bald head, stands 
looking towards the barber (1.), who holds up a plain wig with a single curl 
at the back, saying : No fit you Zir, perhaps you got de Paine in you Head, 
make you tink so, dis Vigg villfit any Loyal subject give but an Eye to it zir 
as I hold it — Behind him, looking through the door and on the extreme v., 
is Burke wearing a neat wig. Fox is out at elbows and wears an apron. 
A dog tugs at his shoe. Above the barber's head it* a shelf for wig-boxes 
inscribed By the King's Patent. Wigs and tresses of hair hang in a curved 



shop-window behind Fox with inscriptions (reversed) in three panes: 
Essence of Lemon, A Seperate appartment to dress in, Violet Soap. On the 
1. is a row of wig-blocks: busts with heads (some caricatured); a lady and 
three men, 

A satire on the disruption of the Whig party, see No. 8315, &c. The 
barber accuses Fox of being influenced by the republican doctrines of 
Paine. For Burke, cf. No. 7913. 


Drawn from Life, arid Etched by Richard Newton. 

London, Published August 20, 1793, by William Holland, N" $0, 

Oxford Street Note. Some Visitors have been removed from this 

Plate to make room for Prisoners. 

Photograph of an aquatint (coloured impression). Thirteen men are seated 
at an oval table in Windsor arm-chairs, smoking and drinking. They have 
numbers referring to names engraved beneath the design. On the extreme 
1. and on a higher level than the others is i Lord George Gordon, in profile 
to the r., with a long beard, wearing a broad-brimmed hat and buttoned-up 
coat. Like most of the others he smokes a long pipe. Next him and nearer 
the spectator sits 2 William Holland, pleasant-looking and well dressed, 
who listens to 3 William Lloyd [? Thomas Lloyd, see No. 8342], wearing 
spectacles, who faces him in profile to the 1. 4 Thomas Toivnley Macan, 
his back to Lloyd, listens with amusement to the emphatic words of 
5 James Ridgway; they face each other in profile. 6 Henry Delahay 
Symonds, his spectacles pushed up on an ill-fitting wig, leans forward with 
an intent grin to listen to Ridgway, whose back is turned to him. On the 
extreme r. of the table 7 Charles Pigott, wearing a hat and holding a news- 
paper, is in profile. The remaining figures are on the farther side of the 
table. 8 and 9 have been removed from the plate and from the notes. 
10 Daniel Holt sits in profile to the 1., as does 11 Daniel Isaac Eaton (see 
No. 8500). The latter and 12 John Frost face each other in profile with 
severe expressions, 13 William Williams sits full-face, smoking ; 14 Doctor 
Watson^ (once Gordon's secretary) looks towards him, laughing. Next is 
15 Joseph Gerald (see No. 8508) in profile to the r,, his back to Gordon, 
reading a newspaper. He wears a high-crowned round hat and bulky 
neckcloth. Some are fashionably dressed, all well dressed except Frost, 
who appears to be wearing a dressing-gown. Gordon, Lloyd, Eaton, Frost, 
Watson, and Gerrald have cropped hair. On the extreme r., holding 
tobacco pipes, a comely woman wearing a mob-cap and apron stands in 
profile to the 1. ; behind her is a door. She is 16 M^^ Moore Servant. 

On the walls are prints and pictures; twelve are landscapes, the most 
prominent is a large print (comic) of the three witches addressing Macbeth 
and Banquo. The two remaining pictures (on the extreme r.) are comic 
in intention. On the table are tankards, pipes, tobacco, bottles, and glasses. 
On the floor (r,) are bottles of wine in (?) a wine-cooler. Beneath the title: 
Hence, loathed Melancholy, of Cerberus and blackest Midnight born. 

All except Gordon (see No, 7209) are prisoners for sedition or kindred 
oflFences, or friends of such prisoners, see No, 8342. On the state side of 
Newgate politicalofFenderswere'comfortably accommodated, well provided 

' '(Visitor)' has been erased but remains legible. 



for as to food, and had their friends not only to visit them but sometimes 
to dine with them'. F. Place in B.M. Add. MSS. 27808, p. 95 (cf. No. 

Rubens, No. 140. 
Original, 15! X23^ (subject). Border, c. | in. (cropped). 



[I. Cniikshank.] 

London Pub: Sep^ i6 iyg3 by S W Fores No 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Custine stands on the scaffold beside 
the guillotine (1.). Four ragged ruffians are about to bind him to the plank 
on which he is to lie ; one says, By Gar so zve will serve all de Generals who 
do not conquer de whole World, and give them de Liberie. Custine says, 
Pardon me Heaven for having been leagued with such a set of Blood hounds. 
A stout soldier pushes a weeping priest, who says Let us Pray, down the 
steps (r.) which lead up to the scaffold, saying. Go to de diable & Your 
Prayers both. Below (r.) stand republican soldiers with fixed bayonets 
much caricatured. On the extreme I. a man kneels at the guillotine holding 
his hat in place of the usual basket ; he says, Begar I will have a Drink of 
de blood. 

Custine (an ex-noble) was guillotined on 28 Aug. (in spite of his previous 
victories), accused of having treacherously caused the fall of Frankfort, 
Conde, Valenciennes, and Mayence. According to the English newspapers, 
he 'kissed the crucifix, embraced his confessor . . . and at last was brought 
to the guillotine by force'. London Chronicle, 5 Sept. Cf. No. 8337. For 
the fate of unsuccessful generals cf. No. 8514. 

de Vinck, No. 6176. 
8^X14! in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ Sep^ 21 1793 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The Duke of Rich- 
mond stands between two posts, supporting himself by a hand on each. 
He looks down and to the r., with a dismayed expression, vomiting a cascade 
of munitions of war: weapons, cannon, drums, &c., a fortress, a baggage- 
wagon, a windmill. One post (r.) is inscribed 4 Per Chaldron 20,000 
pr jifi>n^ ^j^g other, Heriditary Income D'Aubigne. A scroll floats towards 
him from the upper 1. corner of the design inscribed: Thou hast done those 
things thou ought not to have done And hast left undone those things thou 
ough^ [sic] to have done. 

Richmond (due d'Aubigne in virtue of his ancestress, Louise de Querou- 
aille) inherited a grant (by Charles II) of is. a chaldron on all coal entering 
the Port of London, the 'Richmond shilling' denounced by Paine: this tax, 
'so iniquitously and wantonly applied to the support of the Duke of Rich- 
mond . . .'. Rights of Man, ii, ch. v. Cf. Nos. 7389, 7393. As Master of 
the Ordnance he was very unpopular (cf. No. 6921, &c.). The defeat of 
the Hanoverians at Hondschoote, 8 Sept., and the consequent abandon- 
ment by the Duke of York of the siege of Dunkirk, mark the turn of the 



tide against the Allies, a result of Camot's administration, cf. No. 8345. 
See Nos. 8425, &c., 9046, 9157. The abandonment of Dunkirk caused an 
outcry against naval and transport authorities; the Duke attacked Rich- 
mond, for delay in providing heavy artillery, and Chatham. Sir G. Elliot, 
Life and Letters, ii. 160 (n Sept.); Glenbervie Journals, ed. Sichel, 1910, 
p. 45 (9 Nov.). Richmond's resignation (1795) is anticipated (cf. No. 8704). 


Designed & Etched by R Newton 

London Pub. October 5. iyg3 by William Holland N" 50 Oxford Street 

Engraving. A portrait group of W.L. jtigures, standing on a squared pave- 
ment, the background a stone wall. Numbers refer to identifications below 
the design, followed by: Note — those mark'd with a Star are Visitors. On 
the extreme 1. a head looking through a doorway is *i Peter Pindar. Next, 
a pleasant- looking man standing in profile to the r., and smoking a long 
pipe, is 2 William Holland. He holds the arm of a little girl, *22 Miss 
Holland, who gives him a rose. A lady standing beside him is * j, the name 
left blank, probably Mrs. Holland. Two men stand in profile to the 1., 
facing Holland ; they are *4 Doctor Adrian and 5 Thomas Townley Macan, 
smoking a long pipe. The next five appear to be talking together: *6 Count 
Zenobio, in profile to the r. ; 7 John Frost faces *io Af Gerald, who 
reads a newspaper; 8 Thomas Lloyd (1.), and *g John Home Tooke face 
each other in conversation. 11-13 are the central figures of the design: 
*ii Martin Van Butchell has a bushy beard and hair hanging on his collar; 
he wears spectacles and holds an umbrella to which is attached a small 
oval-shaped bat. Opposite him is 13 Lord George Gordon, smoking a long 
pipe. He has short hair, a long beard, wears a broad-brimmed hat, tartan 
waistcoat, and long overcoat. Behind and between them is the head of a 
man in profile to the r., *I2 Charles Pigott. He looks towards 14 Henry 
Delahay Symonds, in profile to the 1., who smiles, holding out his r. hand. 
He wears spectacles pushed up on his forehead. Behind him (r.) is 13 James 
Ridgway, also in profile to the 1. ; *i6 Daniel Isaac Eaton, a small man in 
profile to the 1., stands behind facing *20 M'' Collins. Nearer the spectator 
is J7 Lord William Murray, in profile to the 1. ; a lady, *i8 Lady William 
Murray, puts her r. hand on his arm, holding in her 1. the hand of a little 
boy, *ig Master Murray. Behind her is a tall man wearing a cocked hat 
and facing T.Q. to the 1., who is *2i Captain Wilbraham. All the visitors 
wear hats except 19, none of the prisoners except 13. The heads are por- 
traits, partly stippled. 

A group of radicals with their friends. For i (Wolcot) see vol. vi. 
Holland (2) was the publisher of most of Newton's designs ; for his arrest 
and that of (15) Ridgway (publisher of The Rolliad, cf. No. 6775), see 
[Hughes] Justice to a Judge, 1793 (pub. Ridgway), pp. 13-14. Macan (5) 
died in Newgate within two days of Lord George Gordon; see Case of 
Charles Pigott, 1793, p. 41 n. Count Alvise Zenobio, son of a Venetian 
admiral and a member of the Society for Constitutional Information (see 
No. 6246), was ordered to leave England in 1794 at the same time as 
Talleyrand. Frost (7)' was the secretary of the London Corresponding 
Society and its deputy to the French Convention ; he left Newgate in Dec. 

* He appears in No. 7371 as agent for Hood at a Westminster election. See State 
Trials, xxii. 494. 



1793 in a state of collapse after seven months' imprisonment, receiving an 
ovation. Lloyd (8), a U.S.A. citizen, published a pamphlet, 'On the 
improper conduct of the Jailer of Newgate', 1794. He says that the State 
Side of Newgate, open to visitors from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m., which should 
have contained only persons sentenced for offences against the state, 
was crowded with felons who could pay for the indulgence. He, Frost, 
Symonds, and Ridgway signed a certificate on the jail-fever raging Oct.- 
Nov. 1793 (of which Macan and Gordon died). For Home Tooke (9) see 
Index and vols, iv, v, vi. For Gerald or Gerrald see No. 8508. For 
Van Butchell (11), empiric and truss-maker, see vol. vi. He was committed 
in 1793 for sedition but the charge was thrown out by the Grand Jury, 
see his Case published by Eaton, 1793 ; his eccentric petition to the King 
to spare Gerald was reprinted as a handbill from the Morning Post of 
17 Apr. 1794 (B.M.L., 648. c. 26/37). In this he claims to have a bushy 
beard, eight inches long, thinking it wrong to shave. He carried a bone 
shaped like a battledore as a defensive weapon, and was a frequent visitor 
to Gordon and political prisoners in Newgate. Kirby's Wonderful Museum, 
i, 1803, pp. 202, 205. Charles Pigott (12) published radical and scurrilous 
pamphlets; a charge against him was thrown out by the Grand Jury, see 
his Case, 1793. For Gordon (13) see vols, v and vi; he died in Newgate, 
I Nov. 1793. Ridgway (see above) collected Erskine's Speeches on the 
Liberty of the Press, 18 10. Eaton (16), a bookseller, was tried 3 June and 
10 July 1793 for selling works by Paine, but acquitted. Lord William 
Murray was the third son of the third Duke of Atholl; his son, though 
looking older, was James Arthur, b. 25 May 1790. Presumably Wilbraham 
had himself removed from the plate, see No. 8342 A. See No. 8339. 
i6|X27| in. 

8342 A An altered impression, with the same title and imprint. The 
figure of Captain Wilbraham has been taken out and replaced by a man 
without a hat standing in profile to the r. The inscription '*2J Captain 
Wilbraham' is erased and replaced by D HolL ( ? Holland.) 

Rubens, No. 141. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub Oct 23 iyg3 by J Aitken N° 14 Castle Street Leicester Square 

Engraving. Marie Antoinette stands on the scaffold, a long veil hanging 
from her head, both arms extended, saying, O heaven restore peace to my 
distracted Country & have Mercy upon my poor Orphans. A confessor in 
monk's robes (1.) stands beside and partly behind her. On the extreme 1. 
is the guillotine; behind it stands the executioner in profile to the 1, On 
the r. of the scaffold are two soldiers with pikes. Below (r.) appear bayonets, 
a flag, and a bugle, held by the troops surrounding the scaffold ; in the fore- 
ground (1.) are heads and bayonets. 

News of the execution (16 Oct.) reached London on 22 Oct. The con- 
stitutional priest (Girard) was dressed as a layman. The sketch by David 
of the Queen seated in the cart, her hands tied behind her, has often been 
reproduced (copy in Print Room). See Nos. 8344, 8354, 8446. 

For the iconography of the death of Marie Antoinette see A. Marty, 



La Derniere Annee de Marie Antoinette, Paris, 1907; Gower; de Vinck, 
iii. 385-401; Hennin, Nos. 11,621-11,636; Dayot, Rev. fr., pp. 229-36. 
A black-bordered broadside similar in format to No. 8308, &c., was 
published by Lane with an engraved portrait (T.Q.L.) by S. Springsgoth 
(B.M.L., 1890. e. 18/104). 

de Vinck, No. 5481. 

FRANCE OCTR 16: 1793 


London Pub: Oct' 28 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. Marie Antoinette stands on the scaffold, her head turned in 
profile to the r., 1. arm extended, addressing the crowd below. On the 
extreme 1. is part of the upright of the guillotine, showing the windlass; 
against it leans a sword. On the r. are three women, well dressed, and 
much distressed, whose heads appear immediately below the scaffold, 
which is surrounded by the mounted men of the National Guard. The 
windows of the houses are filled with spectators. See No. 8343, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 5480. Gower, No. 97 (reproduction). 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Pub Nov 2 iyg3 by J Aitken N" 14 Castle St Leiester Square 

Engraving. The Frenchman sits in profile to the 1., on the knee of the 
Devil (r.), who kneels on one knee to support him, and steadies him by 
encircling his body with his r. arm. The Devil is nude and muscular, with 
large feathered wings; he grins delightedly, 1. arm raised. His protege, 
who is ragged but fashionable and not a sans-culotte, though wearing a 
bonnet-rouge, holds on his knee a frothing chamber-pot, and blows soap- 
bubbles from a long pipe. Other bubbles of varying sizes float to the 1., 
filled with close ranks of infantry and inscribed with their places of 
destination. Old England issues from the pipe; the others are: Vienne, 
Flanders (the largest), Rome, Prussia, Hanover, Amsterdam, Sardinia, 
Petersburg, Beneath their feet are papers : Asignets. The scene is near the 
coast ; at the water's edge sit three (Dutch) frogs, their backs to the two 
figures, saying. Oh Dear what can the matter be. I wish we was out of their 
Bloody clutches sure some infurnel Fiend Protect them. They face a burning 
town on the horizon. 

At this date, though the tide had turned (see No. 8341) with the victories 
of Hondschoote (Sept. 6-8) and Wattignies (Oct. 15-16, forcing the 
Austrians to raise the siege of Maubeuge), the allies still held Valen- 
ciennes, Conde, and Le Quesnoy. Hence the ironic intention of the 
artist (to whom French armies are figments of froth and worthless paper- 
money), necessarily ignorant of the vast importance of the work of Carnot, 
appointed war-minister 17 Aug., and of the levee en masse, ordered 
on 23 Aug. 1793, which transformed France into a camp and produced 



annies on a scale unknown in Europe. Aims of conquest had been laid 
down by the Convention in Jan. Cf. No. 8150. The Dutch wait in 
helpless passivity for protection, as in Feb., cf. No. 8299, &c. See 
No. 8425, &c. An imitation of Gillray's manner. 


John Schoehert fecit [Gillray.] 

Pu¥ Nov' 5** J79 J — by H. Humphrey N° i8 Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A comic map, inscribed A new Map of 
England & France, actually showing England and Wales, the SW. corner 
of Scotland, the north of France, just including Paris, and the Belgian 
coast as far as Ostend. England is represented by the body of George III 
(John Bull), his head in profile to the r., wearing a fool's cap composed 
of Northumberland. His 1. leg is drawn up, Norfolk forms the knee, the 
mouth of the River Thames the ankle, Kent the foot. His outstretched r. 
leg terminates as Cornwall. From the coast, at the junction of Hampshire 
and Sussex, issues a blast of excrement inscribed British Declaration, which 
smites a swarm of 'Bum-Boats' extending from Ushant to the mouth of 
the Seine. The map is divided (inaccurately, and with omissions, but with 
a rough correctness) into counties, Wales representing the flying coat-tails 
of the King, who strides across the ocean with great vigour. 

The first allusion to invasion, see No. 8432, Sec. For similar maps see 
Nos. 8045, 8397, &c. For George III as John Bull cf. Nos. 6995, 8074. 
i2|X9f i"- 


J" Gy des" etfec^ 

Pu¥ Nov'' 18^^ lygs by H. Humphrey N. i8. Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a barrack-room ; ladies 
are fitting soldiers with warm caps and undergarments. All the men wear 
conical caps with ear-pieces, some arranged to resemble a fool's cap. The 
three ladies in the foreground are young and comely ; of those in the back- 
ground, one is enormously fat, others thin and witch-like. On the wall are 
two dilapidated prints : Hannibal and Charles XII (the head torn off), com- 
manders noted for their disregard of severe weather. Beneath the title: 
To the benevolent Ladies of Great Britain, who have so liberally supported 
the new system of Military Cloathing, this Print is dedicated — 

The flannel garments sent by ladies to the troops in Flanders were the 
subject of ribald comment in the press. A depot was formed in Soho 
Square for storing these and similar badly needed comforts, but the 
Secretary at War (Sir G. Yonge), 14 Nov. 1793, appealed to the public 
rather to expend money on shoes. Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, 
iv. 901. This print {inter alia) is said to have checked the ladies' activities. 
See Nos. 8348, 8349. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 175. Wright and Evans, No. 104. Reprinted, G.W.G., 

11JX14-J in. 





Pub by W Dent N" 21 iyg3 

Sold by y Aitken N" 14 Castle Street Leicester Fields 

Engraving (coloured impression). A ladies' work-room for providing 
flannel garments for soldiers. A grenadier stands full-face, wearing a 
flannel waistcoat; a lady (r.) pulls on his breeches, saying, Our Officers have 
enough to do to take care of their precious selves poor Souls, not but they can 
Make a waistecoat or something like it with the help of an Army Taylor. A 
soldier (r.) stands dressed in flannel garments: eyes and nose are visible 
between conical cap and high collar; he says: Nice Winter Quarters these. 
On the 1. enter two soldiers in uniform, holding muskets ; expressions and 
attitude register reluctance to be dressed. Behind, a tailor's shop-board 
stretches across the room, on which two ladies sit cross-legged, sewing 
garments, with the inscription (1.): Flannel Preservatives. Caps, Chin- 
pieces, Waistcoats, Drawers, Trowsers, Stockings, Socks, Mitts, &c. See 
No. 8347, &c. 
9f Xi2f in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ N'^'' 25 iyg3 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A tall and handsome grenadier stands 
between two pretty women, an arm round the neck of each ; they stand on 
stools, in order to pull on his flannel breeches. He wears a flannel waistcoat 
and a hood under his busby. An older man (r.) watches him enviously, 
saying, Pho 0, while an elderly lady, resembling Lady Cecilia Johnston (see 
vol. vi), adjusts a petticoat round his neck, saying. Aye Aye this is making 
a good Use of ones old flannel Petticoats. On the 1. stand five soldiers in a 
row. Ready for Action, clothed in flannel; two have eye- and mouth-pieces 
in hoods which otherwise completely cover the face. A young woman 
approaches the end man. On the wall hang a large pair of breeches 
inscribed Ladies Subscription, and (r.) a group of portrait prints (H.L.) of 
European sovereigns : G. Ill, firmly placed, is flanked by P of Germany 
and K Prussia, hanging sideways from one corner, while Poland has fallen 
to the ground. Russia is aloof in the upper r. comer. See No. 8347, &c. 
9|Xi3f in. 



Pub by W Dent Dec 5 iyg3 

Sold by J Aitken N° 14 Castle Street Leicester Square, London 

Engraving. The interior of Notre Dame, with Liberty seated on Pandora's 
Box', this is supported on a mound of grass and flowers from beneath 
which snakes emerge. She holds a staff on which is a large cap of liberty 

' 'Cold' is etched above 'French', scored through but left legible. 



decorated with a guillotine ; snakes form her hair and she beckons with her r. 
forefinger to a grinning and sacrilegious crowd. Behind her (1.) is a kiln 
inscribed Torch or Volcano of Truth Diffusing the Light of Reason to tlie 
Surrounding Departments ; from it issue flames inscribed Blasphemy, Distress, 
Rapine, Murder, Rape, Annihilation, Plunder. Behind it is the arch of ( ?) the 
nave ; on each side is drawn an animal : (1.) a grotesque spotted beast, seated, 
inscribed Sacred to the Memory of Tyger Marat [assassinated 13 July 1793] ; 
(r.) a seated ape. Sacred to the Memory of Monkey Le Pelletier [assassinated 
20 Jan. 1793 for having voted for the execution of Louis XVI]. 

Liberty extends a cloven hoof towards a kneeling man ( ? Chaumette), 
who kisses it. Behind him on the right kneeling choristers sing with wide- 
open mouths, holding music books inscribed : New Ode to Liberty ; Break 
Locks Bolts ; Plunder Rob and Kill. They have three pictures on poles : 
Nature, a woman about to hurl an infant to the ground ; Liberty, a man laden 
with plunder tramples on a prostrate man ; Equality, a man holds another 
by the heels, head downwards. 

On the 1. lean and foppish Frenchmen kneel at the feet of Liberty, grin- 
ning broadly ; they say. Von Buss Pray. Behind them a crowd of exulting 
republicans advances from the 1. The foremost ( ? Gobel), wearing long 
robes and a bonnet-rouge, breaks a crozier and tramples on a mitre. A 
companion, similarly dressed, also trampling on a mitre, breaks a crucifix 
across his knee. Two pictures are held aloft: Truth, a seated woman much 
clothed, and Reason, a maniac in chains. Over the group is the inscription: 
Contrast this with Happy England Where a Man may serve God without 
offending his neighbour and where Religion and Law secure real Peace and true 
Liberty. On the opposite transept (r.) is inscribed No Religion Death is only 
eternal Sleep. Beside it is a figure of Liberty taking the place of Christ 
on a large crucifix. In the foreground lie pieces of church plate inscribed 
For the Crucible and sacks inscribed Church Property. After the title: 
Nov. 10 lygs The People of Paris, supported by a Decree of the Convention, 
Resolved to abolish all Religious Ceremonies whatever — all Priesthood — and 
to acknowledge none but the God of Nature — the ceremony took place in the 
cidevant Church of Notre Dame, now called the Temple of Reason, where they 
placed a woman in the dress of Liberty and worshiped her as their Divinity — 
Of which the above Print is, tho' a satyrical, a just representation, for however 
pleasing the Figure and Devices of those Hypocritical Monsters might appear, 
those unblinded by enthusiasm could view them in no other light than they are 
here too truly delineated. 

For the Fete de la Raison on 10 Nov. 1793, see Aulard, Hist, politique 
de la Rev. fr., 1909, pp. 469 ff. Liberty was an opera singer; she received 
homage seated on a bank. 'The Torch of Truth' burned on a small Greek 
altar. Notre Dame was henceforth to be known as the Temple of Reason. 
A decree of 9 Oct. ordered {inter alia) that over the gate of cemeteries 
should be inscribed 'La mort est un sommeil eternel'. On 7 Nov. Bishop 
Gobel had appeared at the bar of the Convention, with eleven of his vicars, 
had laid down his cross and ring, and had donned the bonnet rouge. See 
Aulard, Le Culte de la Raison . . ., 1892 ; de Vinck, Nos. 6315-28. See also 
water-colours of processions carrying and ridiculing vestments and sacred 
objects, Hennin, Nos. 11,702-5 (reproductions, Dayot,, pp. 247, 
250). Busts or portraits of Marat and Le Peletier in juxtaposition as 
martyrs of liberty were very popular in France. See de Vinck, Nos. 5335- 
46, and Schreiber Collection of Fans, Nos. 124, 125. Cf. Nos. 8334, 8702. 



IC [Cruikshank]. 

London Pub: DeC^ 7. lygj by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). Officers and men of the British army 
are waist-deep in water. The central figure is the Duke of York astride 
a gun whose carriage is half immersed. He holds up a punch-bowl, singing 
and looking down at a party, half submerged, of officers (r.). The negro 
cymbal-player (see No. 8327) stands beside the gun (1.) shouting with 
upraised cymbal. An officer in back view holds out a glass. Another seated 
on (?) a gun-carriage holds a British flag. An officer (r.) sleeps with folded 
arms. A man whose head only emerges plays a triangle. Muskets and a 
drum hang from the branches of a tree (r.). On the 1. a Highlander, astride 
a submerged tent, dips his hat into the water, singing: 

And while we can get brandy boys we'll scorn to fly! 
In the distance (1.) a soldier perched on a high sign-post inscribed Best 
Road to Dunkirk wields a fishing-rod, the line in the mouth of a soldier 
whose head and shoulders emerge from the water. Other small figures and 
half-submerged tents (1.) complete the design. Beneath the title: A new 
Song. The words beneath the design are : 

Why Soldiers Why 

Should we be Melancholy, boy; 

Why, Soldiers, why? 

Whose business 'tis to die 

What sighing fie! 

Damn fear, drink on, be jolly, boys! 

' Tis he, you or I — 

cold hot wet & dry; 

We're allways bound to follow, boys, annd scorn to fly! 
The wetness of the autumn in Flanders caused much sickness, water 
being ladled from the tents in hatfuls every morning when near Camphain. 
Narrative of the War, 1796, i. 116. There was much discontent in the 
British army and outrageous and unfounded slanders against the Duke of 
York were spread by officers on leave in England. Rose, Pitt and the Great 
War, p. 200. See No. 8327, &c. 
81X131^ in. 


f Gy ; des^'—etfec^— 

Pu¥ Dec JO** 1793, by H. Humphrey N. 18 Old Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Admiral Howe stands 
in a boat formed of a gold shell and drawn by two dolphins (as in No. 8469) 
towards the coast, where there is a stone with a hand pointing to Torbay. 
He covers his eyes with a hand to protect them from a shower of guineas 
which fill his boat and which he holds up the skirt of his coat to collect. 
The dolphins spout guineas. His large Union flag is attached to an upright 
trident ; a blast of coins strikes the flag, tearing a large hole. The coins are 
blown from the mouths of winged cherubic heads wearing bonnets- 
rouges (r.). They drive Howe's boat away from Brest, a fortress on the 
horizon towards which a French fleet is sailing unmolested. Howe says: 
Zounds, these danin'd hail stones hinder one from doing ones duty! — / cannot 



see out of my Eyes for them! — Ah! it was just such another cursed peppering 
as this, that I fell inn with, on the coast of America in the last War; — what 
a deuce of a thing it is, that whenever Fm just going to play the Devil, I am 
hindered by these confounded French storms, or else, loose my way in a Fog. 

Howe was made admiral of the Channel Fleet on i Feb. 1793. He 
occasionally sighted small squadrons of the French fleet at a distance which 
permitted their easy escape, and was frequently obliged by weather to take 
refuge in Torbay. Scurrilous writers represented him as dodging in and 
out of Torbay. In the middle of Dec. he returned to port for refitting. 
Buckingham writes (18 Oct.) of Howe's 'Torbay slumber'. Hist. MSS. 
Comm., Dropmore Papers, ii. 447-8. See also Mahan, Influence of Sea 
Power, iyg3~i8i2, 1892, i. 100-3, ^^^ ^^s, 8353, 8657. Howe acquired 
a reputation for self-regarding inactivity in the American War, see No. 
5399, &c. Cf. No. 7669 on his supposed shortcomings during the Spanish 
crisis of 1790. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 175. Wright and Evans, No. 109. Reprinted, G.W.G,, 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub DeC^ 10 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly & ^i S* Pauls 
Church Yard 

Engraving (coloured impression). Howe (r.), astride a dolphin, holds the 
end of a large Union flag which serves as a sail. He drives before blasts 
issuing from two pairs of bellows (the nearer inscribed Marats Lungs) worked 
by Frenchmen standing in the stern of French men-of-war, belonging to 
a fleet in full sail outside Brest, a fortress on the extreme 1. His coat-tails 
blow about his head. He and his fleet (sailing off to the r.) are enveloped 
in a dark cloud of smoke issuing from a cauldron inscribed Republican Oil, 
which two demons are stirring and which rests on the back of a sea-monster 
with webbed wings or fins. This cloud is inscribed (1.): Citizen Pluto* s 
Plan for raising a fog. Wind, or Hurricane at Pleasure, to annoy the Ennemy. 
Decreed. And (r.) : When our Admiral wants to Show fight he is always lost 
in a Fog. Howe says : Oh Lord, when I get to Torbay How folks will gape and 
Stare, Are you come back? The Lord knows How. And been? the Lord Knows 
where!!! In the water beside him is a paper: 300 £ Reward Lost in a Fog. 
In the foreground (r.) is a rock inscribed Torbay. 

See No. 8352. For the pun on Howe cf. No, 5399. 


Published DeC^ 12^'' iyg3 by John Fairburn, Map, Chart & Print 

seller, N° 146 Minories, London. {Plate II) 
Mezzotint. Marie Antoinette stands on the scaff^old turning her head in 
profile to the 1. to look at the guillotine. One man holds her, a cord in his 
mouth, another kneels (1.) with plank and rope. A third stands by the 
guillotine. Two well-dressed soldiers stand on the r. regarding the Queen 
with expressions of distress. Behind are houses forming two sides of a 



square, roofs and windows crowded with spectators. Beneath the title: 
This Beautiful Princess was conveyed from the Prison of the Conciergerie to 
the Place de la Revolution, . . . amidst the whole armed Force of Paris; she still 
preserved her natural Dignity of Mind, and Ascended the Scaffold with seeming 
composure, looking Firmly round on all sides. . . . The common Executioner 
immediately tyed her to the Board, and the Groove being fitted to her Neck, 
the Axe was let down. . . . Thus died in the j8 Year of her Age, the Daughter 
of an Emperor, the Wife of a King, & the Mother of a Prince called the 
Dauphine at his Birth. See No. 8343, &c. 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

PuM Dec. 14. 1793 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where may be Seen 
the Completest Collection of Caricatures in Europe. Also a correct 
Model of the Guillotine 6 Feet high Admitt^^ i Shilling 

Engraving (coloured impression). A military officer wearing a cocked hat 
sits in profile to the 1., opposite a blazing fire. He reads a newspaper headed 
with a star {The Star, an evening paper) through an eye-glass held in his 
r. hand. Over the chimney-piece is a framed map or plan: New Road to 
Coventry. From his coat protrudes a bunch of Reports. On a round table 
behind him (r.) are a candle, a bundle of Returns, a book of Orders, and 
a box of Pills. On the wall hangs his sword next a print inscribed F[ox E]R, 
a bust portrait of (?) the subject of the print. 

Possibly a portrait of the Duke of York, but (perhaps intentionally) a 
poor one : it is less unlike Prince Ernest. He wears no marks of rank other 
than epaulettes. The British army entered winter cantonments on 9 Nov. 
at Tournay, whence they went to their settled winter quarters at Ghent, 
entering it on 16 Dec. Narrative of the War, 1795, i. 116, ii. 2. For 
attacks on the Duke see No. 8327, 8425, &c. Prince Ernest served with the 
Hanoverians in the campaigns of 1793-4. 
8^X71 in. 


J" Gy des*" et fec^ 

Pu¥ Dec 26^^ iyg3 by H Humphrey N. 18 Old Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The King and Queen, seated on the 
throne (1.), receive with astonished horror a deputation from Turkey. An 
arrogant Turk stands proffering a large rolled document with pendent 
seals on which are crescents: Powers for a new Connexion between the Port, 
England & France. Beside him (1.) another Turk grovels on the ground. 
Fox and Sheridan, kneeling with crouching humility, hold up the long 
cloak of the Turkish emissary; their bonnets-rouges are decorated with 
crescents. Behind them Priestley bows low (r.). Turks with spears and 
banners stand behind him. To a spear topped with a crescent is attached 
a tricolour flag inscribed Vive la Republique. 

Pitt, a naked mannikin, one foot on the royal dais, clutches the King's 
knee in terror: a chain from his wrist is attached to a royal crown lying 
on the ground. Behind him, and beside the throne, stands Dundas in 
Highland dress, tall and impassive, holding a pike. The King and Queen 



are much caricatured: the King stares, biting his fingers and clutching the 
Queen; she puts her fan before her face but looks through its sticks (as 
in No. 9528) at the Turks. The three elder princesses (not caricatured) 
peep from behind the throne on the extreme 1. 

The print has little political relevance and probably derives from jests 
on the Turkish plenipotentiary, cf. Nos. 7935, &c., 8423. The attitude to 
Pitt is exceptional (cf. No. 8363) and probably non-political, as in No. 8054. 

/. Kay fecit 1793 

Engraving. Dundas sits in profile to the r. on an ass, leading a second ass ; 
both have human heads with asses' ears and wear clerical bands ; they turn 
their heads in profile to face him, saying, Lo, are we not thine asses on which 
thou hast Rode these 30 years, and Have we not served thee in Religion & 
Politics. Dundas answers, flourishing his whip : Yes, but are ye not Asses 
still! A tree is partly visible on the extreme r. Beneath the title : A Whim. 

A bill for improving Scottish parochial stipends was introduced in 1793, 
but withdrawn at the desire of the landed proprietors. At the General 
Assembly Dr. Alexander Carlyle (see No. 7580) and Dr. Henry Grieve (the 
asses) charged the Government with ingratitude towards the moderate party 
in the Scottish ministry. Dr. Bryce Johnstone thereupon blamed them for 
their subservience and compared their position to that of Balaam's ass. 

'Collection', No. 165; Kay, No. ccxi. 


/ Kay. 1793 

Engraving. Two men walk together in profile to the 1. The nearer and 
taller (Rowan) wears a cocked hat, has a fierce expression, and carries a 
massive stick inscribed A Pill for a Puppy. His companion wears a round 
hat and holds a cane. Beneath the design : dedicated zoithout permission to the 
Swine, the rabble, & the Wretches. 

During the trial of Muir (see No, 8359), Dundas of Arniston, Lord 
Advocate of Scotland, spoke contemptuously of the leaders of the United 
Irishmen. Rowan, then on bail in Ireland, went to Scotland to demand 
satisfaction, arriving in Edinburgh with Butler on 4 Nov. ; he was arrested, 
released on bail, and returned to Ireland after a stay of eight days, no 
charge being brought against him. About the same time he was the bearer 
of a challenge from Butler to Fitzgibbon, the Irish Lord Chancellor. The 
dedication is an allusion to Burke's unfortunate phrase, 'the swinish multi- 
tude', see No. 8500, &c. For Rowan see No. 8466. (Title from Kay.) 

'Collection', No. 172; Kay, No. ccxxx. 

8359 [THOMAS MUIR.] 
/. Kay 1793 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Bust portrait in profile to the r. on a dark 
background, simulating low relief. Beneath is engraved: 

Illustrious Martyr in the glorious cause 

Of truth, of freedom, and of equal laws. 



Muir was tried in Edinburgh 30 Aug. 1793 for sedition, and sentenced 
to fourteen years' transportation. State Trials, xwiii. 117 if. ; Cockburn, 
Examination of Trials for Sedition in Scotland, i. 144 ff., ii. 247-52. Kay also 
etched in 1793 a portrait of Braxfield (No. Ixxi), the notorious Lord 
Justice Clerk, who conducted the Scottish sedition trials. See No. 8360. 

'Kay's Caricatures', No. 170; Kay, No. cxxv. 
3 X 2 in. 


/ Kay iyg3 

Edire Published as the Act Directs by J. Robertson lygs 

Engraving. W.L. portrait of Muir declaiming at his trial. He stands 
directed to the 1., head turned in profile to the 1., r. arm outstretched, hold- 
ing a sheaf of documents. He is behind a low barrier against which rests 
a slab with book and writing-materials inscribed 1793. 

Probably engraved for an edition of the trial published by James 
Robertson. Protests against the conviction were made by Lord Stanhope 
and others, Pari Hist. xxx. 1298 ff. (31 Jan. 1794), i486 ff. (10 Mar.), 
Muir was rescued from Botany Bay, 1796, by an American vessel, and after 
many adventures reached France, gave advice as to the pending invasion 
(1797-8) and the best means of supporting a revolution in Scotland. 
Meikle, Scotland and the French Revolution, 1912, pp. 172-7. See No. 8359. 

'Collection', No. 265. 
5^X3f in. 


/. Kay lygs. 

Engraving. A man wearing clerical bands with spurred top-boots stands 
directed to the r. on an open Bible. His r. hand is thrust in his waistcoat, 
his 1. holds close to his eyes an open book. Essay on the management of Bees. 
Bees fly thickly above his head. The Bible is inscribed Revelation XIII 
And the World Wondered after the Beast. 

A portrait of the Rev. James Lapslie (author of the book on bees), pilloried 
for his part in the prosecution of Muir, see No. 8359. He was so active 
in procuring evidence, identifying himself with the prosecution, that his 
evidence at the trial was successfully objected to. He was one of those who 
opposed Sunday schools, cf. 9435. See State Trials, xxiii. 141. Kay, ii. 
1 12-14. 

Kay, No. ccix. B.M.L., 1303. m. 14. 

61X31 in. 


1. Kay 1793 

Edinburgh published as the Act directs by W. Skirving. 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Palmer (H.L,), seated behind a table or 
shelf, holding a document in his r. hand, his head turned in profile to the r. 
His hair recedes from his forehead and falls on his high coat-collar. He 
has a neat shirt-frill and a dignified appearance. 

Palmer {c. 1 747-1 802), Unitarian minister in Dundee, was sentenced at 
Perth to seven years' imprisonment, 13 Sept. 1793, for sedition. State 



Trials, xxiii. 237 ff. This pi. was a frontispiece to his Trial, published by 
W. Skirving, see No, 8506 (B.M.L., 1131. i. 14/1). The sentence roused 
much indignation and Lauderdale, Stanhope, Fox, and Sheridan tried to 
obtain its reversal. Pari. Hist. xxx. 1300 (31 Jan. 1797), 1449 ff. (24 and 
27 Feb.), i486 ff. (10 Mar.). See Cockburn, Examination of Trials for 
Sedition in Scotland, i. 184 ff. 

'Collection', No. 266. 
Oval, 3f X 2f in. 

COURONNfiS). [Dec. 1793] 


Engraving. A French emblematical design, with numbers referring to an 
explanation engraved below the print. The sovereigns of Europe surround 
a rectangular council-table on three sides. On the table is a map, inscribed 
Rdpublique franfaise une et indivisible, in the centre of which is a cap of 
liberty emitting rays : i. Le bonnet de la liberie rayonnant de gloire pose 
sur la Carte geographique de la Republique Franfaise son eclat ebloui et 
surprend tons les tyrans rassembles. A cock enters by an oval window above 
the door, grasping a level (cf. No. 8639), which emits flames and thunder- 
bolts directed against the crowns of Catherine 11, Francis II, Charles IV, 
and George III : 2. Le Coq embleme de la vigilance et de la Republique franfaise 
penetre dans V enceinte avec le signe de Vegalite d'ou part une foudre qui les 
decoejfe. Immediately behind i stands Francis II, his crown, clutched by 
a double-headed Habsburg eagle, falls from his head; serpents emerge 
from it. One hand holds the map, the other is raised with a predatory 
gesture : 3 Le tyran autrichien (dit Empereur) coeffe a la coblentz souleve la 
carte pour der anger la bonnet de la liberte, mais son aigle superbe frappe de 
la foudre entraine par sa chutte sa couronne sous la qu'elle sont les serpens de 
Venvie appanage de la maison d'autriche. Beside him (1.) is Frederick 
William II, pointing to the map, his 1. hand on the shoulder of Francis II, 
looking round at Catherine II, who is seated at the head of the table; his 
(broken) crown falls from his head: 4 Le tyran Prussien dit a la Cateau du 
nord qu'il soutiendra le tyran d'autriche, quoi qu'il ne I'aime pas. On a throne 
(1.), on a dais, and under a canopy of heavy draperies, sits Catherine II, 
her 1. foot planted on the council-table, her arms held out towards the 
map: 5 La grosse et vielle Cateau (ditte madame Venjambde [see No. 7842]^ 
voulant tenter de faire encore une sotise, mais la foudre de Vegalite attaque 
la pompe ridicule qui fait tout son bonheur. Ses beaux projets sont an pied de 
son trdne designes par unfeu de paille et un vaisseau demdte. The dismasted 
ship and burning straw are in the foreground on the extreme 1. Behind 
Catherine, lurking in the draperies of her throne, stands Stanislaus II of 
Poland on the extreme 1., frowning over his shoulder at the council-table, 
his crown is broken (as in No. 4957): 6 Le buttor ou tyran de la Pologne 
relegue derierre le rideau de la vielle Cateau, montrant du doigt sa couronne 
ddja dechiree par elle [in the First and Second Partitions]. Between and 
behind 3 and 4 is Victor Amadeus III of Savoy, his crown obscured and dis- 
placed by a small solid cloud ; he has a grotesquely long nose : 7 Le tyran 
Amende ou roi des marmottes, ayant un pied de nez de voir les esperances 
de ses deux gendres [Monsieur and d'Artois, afterwards Louis XVIII 
and Charles X] au neant. (Savoy and Nice were overrun by the French 
in 1792, cf. No. 8143.) Charles IV, his crown on fire and horns sprouting 

49 E 


from his forehead, stands beside Francis II, his hand held before his face: 
S Sire d'Espagne tyran des deux mondes voulant se garantir avec sa main de 
Viclat du bonnet glorieux. Next (r.), at the end of the table facing Catherine 
stands George III, his crown on fire and threatened by a small solid cloud, 
his expression one of foolish vacuity. Before him on the table are piles of 
coins, which extend across the map of France ; he holds two in his r. hand, 
which rests on the table. Behind him stands Pitt, his fingers ending in 
talons, his legs in hoofs ; he directs the King's actions and pushes a hooked 
pole resembling a boat-hook on to the map, beside Toulon. They are: 
9. George dandin tyran d'angleterre dans les bras de Vinfernal Pitt, qui luifait 
verser de V argent pour corrompre. lo. Pitt agissant pour le benet George veut 
accrocher Toulon, ses pieds et ses mains ergotees designent son caractere 
diabolique. On the extreme r. sits the Pope, holding his triple cross, his 
crown partly obscured by a small cloud. In his 1. hand he holds a scroll 
headed Bulle and ending with nulla. At his feet the dove of the Saint- 
Esprit, the head irradiated, lies dead : 12. Le tyran de la chretiente connu 
sous le nom de S^ Pere! tenant dans sa main une Bulle qui termine par le 
mot nulle. V esprit qui lui dictoit etant a plat sur le dos a ses pieds. un nuage 
^jface Veclat de la thiare. 

In the foreground, emerging from under the table-cloth, is a monkey, 
Ferdinand IV of Naples, the order of the Golden Fleece hung round his 
neck; he looks towards the Pope. Beneath him is a (damaged) heraldic 
shield with the arms of the House of Bourbon. On the ground beside him 
are a toy horse on wheels and a crown pierced by a stag's antlers : ii. Le 
singe Napolitain apres Stre longtems reste sous le tapis declare sa coalition pour 
imiter ses confreres, le double ornement de sa tite est aupres de lui ainsi que son 
joujou, la haquenee qu'il a I'honneur de presenter au Pape. (The annual tribute 
of a white hackney from the King of Naples to the Pope had been abolished 
in 1776. de Vinck, No. 878.) 

An illustration of the French obsession with the gold of Pitt, see also 
Nos. 8464, 8845. The British are accused of intending to keep Toulon 
(occupied 28 Aug.), the artist ignoring its evacuation on 18 Dec. 1793. A 
small force was sent from Naples to help the Austrians against the French, 
but arrived in small detachments, and so late as to effect nothing. Camb. 
Mod. Hist. viii. 585-6. For George III as Georges Dandin, cf. No. 8464. 
For a survey of the characters and abilities of the sovereigns opposed to 
France see Fortescue, British Statesmen of the Great War, 191 1, pp. 65 ff. 
For other French satires on Pius VI see de Vinck, Nos. 3437-65, Blum, 
Nos. 252-68. 

The Committee of Public Safety ordered (22 Dec. 1793) a payment of 
1,000 livres to the artist for the cost of engraving this design. Blum, p. 197. 

de Vinck, No. 4358; Hennin, No. 11,854; Blum, No. 609. A copy 
(reversed) in Jaime, ii, PI. 40 H. 


[After Gillray.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A copy in reverse of the British (r.) 
portion of No. 7546 (showing the slavery of Britain). The title continues: 
Ou le triumphe du Ministre Pitt, foulant aux pieds la Couronne d' Angleterre, 
dune main il tient une hache et les chaines dont il a su charger la Nation et le 



Roi, de V autre ilporte le Drapeau de VEsclavage, les impdts et les Echafauds 
sont les moyens qu'il employe pour soutenir son pouvoir chancelant. 

Blum, No. 596. Another (and probably earlier) copy of No. 7546 is 
Hennin, No. 10,544, see under No. 7546 A. 


['Printed for Citizen Lee, at the British Tree of Liberty, No. 98, 
Berwick-street, Soho']^ 

Engraving. Heading to a set of printed verses: 'Citizen Guillotine, a new 
shaving machine. Tune "Bob shave a King".' A pig on its hind-legs pulls 
the cord of a guillotine (1.) which is about to decapitate a kneeling ass. 
Another pig (r.) sniffs at a broken crown. Behind (r.) is the comer of a 
building inscribed Revolution Place. On the door is inscribed Dr Guillotine; 
above it is a placard : The Kings Evil cured Gratis. The verses begin : 

To the just Guillotine, 

Who shaves off Head so clean, 

I tune my String! 

Sweet Billy thee shall hail, 
Johnny Reeves at his Tail, 

Pride of our Days! 
Placemen, Swanlike shall sing. 
Guillotine, mighty King, 
Echoes from Crowds shall ring 

With thy just Praise. 
No, Billy shall not swing, 
An Hour upon a String, 

To stop his Breath! 

Long live great Guillotine, 
Who shaves the Head so clean. 

Of Queen or King; 
Whose power is so great, 
That ev'ry Tool of State, 
Dreadeth his mighty weight. 

Wonderful Thing!!! 

The King, Pitt, and Reeves (promoter and chairman of the Society for 
preserving Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers, see 
No. 8699, &c.) are threatened with the guillotine. For George HI as an 
ass see No. 5669, &c. The pigs are probably Burke's 'swinish multitude*, 
cf. No. 8500, &c. The date is probably after the death of Marie Antoinette, 
see No. 8343, &c. 

A similar broadside. The Farce of the Guillotine, with the King's Head 
in a Basket, with a print of the decollated head of George HI, is described 
by Brasbridge, Fruits of Experience, 1824, p. 53. This resembles a broad- 
side (non-pictorial) of A new and entertaining Farce, called La Guillotine 

' Not on the print, but taken from an advertisement appended to Give us our 
Rights! . . . (B.M.L., 1389. d. 27/1), where the price of 'Citizen Guillotine (with 
a Caricature Copper-plate)' is one penny (clearly under cost price). 



or, George's Head in the Basket . . . [songs] Ca Ira and Boh shave great 

George our /' [1794]. See State Trials, xxiv. 682-3. Wilberforce notes 

(29 Oct. 1795) : 'Papers are dispersed against property. Prints of guillo- 
tining the King and others.' Life, ii. 113. See Nos. 8515, 8516, and cf. 
Nos, 8427, 8660. For republicanism see also No. 8448. 
3i|X4n in- Broadside, 11^X51 in. B.M.L., 648. c. 26/70. 

8366 THE FALLEN ANGEL! [? 1793] 
Published by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly who has again open'd his 

Carricature Exhibition Rooms to which he has added several Hundred 
Old &' New Subjects 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox sits on the ground, full-face, his 
fingers together, scowling disconsolately. He holds the staff of liberty, 
broken, with a tattered cap of Liberty inscribed Sedition \ Equality | 
Rebell[ion] about to fall from it. Flames rise on both sides inscribed: (1.) 
A People rouz'd, and (r.) Popular Resentment. Beneath the title is etched: 

Ubi lapsus Quid feci? 
Such place eternal justice has prepared 

For those rebellious 

Vide Milton's Paradise Lost 

One of many satires on Fox as seditious. For Fox as Satan cf. No. 
6383, &c. ; for the plight of the Foxites, (e.g.) Nos. 8286, &c., 8315, 8618. 
9^X71 in. 

8367 A PEEP INTO BETHLEHEM. [? 1793^] 


Engraving. Probably a pi. to a book. Wolcot (Peter Pindar) and Burke (r.) 
face each other across a small table on which are writing-materials. Burke, 
as in No. 7529, is naked to the waist and bare-legged, wearing a rosary 
round his neck ; he declaims, with upraised r. arm. Wolcot listens, elbows 
on table. Behind and between them stands Margaret Nicholson (see 
No. 6973, &c,), crowned with straw, a bunch of straw clenched in each out- 
stretched hand. Burke puts one foot on Ode upon Ode (Wolcot's satire on 
George III, see No. 7163), the other on Rights of Man (see No. 7867, &c.) 
and Common Sense (cf. No. 8146). Wolcot sits on his {Odes to Mr] Pain[e] ; 
beside him on the ground are his Lousiad (see No. 7186) and [Peter's] 
Pension (see No. 7399). Beneath the design: 

Ah! then dismounted from his spavin' d hack. 

To Bethlehem's walls with B***e I saw him borne. 

Where the strait waistcoat close embrac'd his back; 

While Peggy's wreath of straw, did either brow adorn. 

And there they sit; two grinners, vis a vis; 

He writing Grub-street Verse, B***e ranting rhapsody. 

vide Melancholy Catastrophe by Peter Fig Esq' 
[cf. No. 7596, &c., on Peter Wheeler]. 

' Such a parody of 'God save the King' appears to have been current in revolu- 
tionary circles. Cf. Joel Barlow's parody, exulting in the guillotining of Louis XVI 
and anticipating that of George III. V. C. Miller, Jfoel Barlow: Revolutionist, 
Hamburg, 1932, pp. 39 ff. 

* Perhaps earlier. Dated 1800 by Grego, but Burke died in 1797. 



Wolcot and Burke are associated as antagonists of Paine; the former's 
Odes to Mr. Paine was published in 1791. Burke was depicted as insane 
in No. 7529 (1789); see also Nos. 7689, 7863. 

Grego, Rowlandson, ii. 13. 
8| X 6| in. 

8368 [ALLEGORICAL DESIGN.] [? 1793] 

[Fuseli del.] C Grignion Sculp. 

Engraving. Probably a pi. to a book, A man in old-fashioned dress, wear- 
ing jack-boots, bestrides a prostrate man, nude and muscular; he holds a 
rein attached to a bit in the victim's mouth, and a whip, and looks cynically 
at the spectator. In the foreground (1.) a man wearing a long fur-trimmed 
robe and holding (?) a divining-rod, points over his shoulder at the man 
with the whip. He has large erect furry ears (or cap). Behind the latter 
is a massive gibbet from which dangle the corpses of Justice with her 
scales, and Liberty with staff and cap. On the horizontal beam is a build- 
ing, a wall behind which is a windowless rotunda (? a mausoleum) 
inscribed lOUI [sic] LIBERAT (see below). 

Probably a satire on the French Revolution: under the ancien regime the 
noblesse trampled on the tiers-etat (represented by the nude man) ; during 
the Revolution Justice and Liberty have been martyred. Furry ears or cap 
are the sign of a wizard in another design by Fuseli. 

Also an earlier impression without signature. Liberia in place of 



7. Kay fecit iyg3 

Engraving. Two men clasp hands: one (1.) in profile to the r. and wearing 
a civic chain, the other with a large beard, wearing a long gown and bands ; 
both wear cocked hats. Beneath the design : 

The Elder shall serve the Younger 
Rom. ix. and I2. 

A satire on the election of Baird ('Beard') as Principal of Edinburgh 
University in 1793 when only thirty-two. He married the daughter of 
Thomas Elder, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, here depicted as helping him 
in his election. 

'Collection', No. 166. Kay, No. cccx. 

8370 [DOCTOR VERDION.] [? 1793] 
Engraving. An elderly man walks, stooping, in profile to the 1., two large 
books under the 1. arm, an umbrella under the r., a walking-stick in his 
r. hand. Books project from his coat-pocket. He wears high boots, a 
cocked hat, his queue is in a bag. Behind is the door of a shop, inscribed 
G. Riehau. Part of the adjoining shop-window (1.) is visible, inscribed 
[A]uctioner. 439. Against the panes are books, prints, and a notice: Old 
Books bought. A placard hangs outside the window: Price 6 \ Imparti[al] 
Life of Paine. (A pamphlet, 'Impartial Memoirs of the Life of Thomas 
Paine*, was published in 1793.) Beneath the design: 

Stop gentle Reader, and behold 
A Beau in Boots, who loves his Gold; 
A Walking bookseller, an Epicure, 
A Teacher, Doctor, & a Connoissieur. 

Doctor V in his Wrigling attitude, hawking old Books as Moses 

does old Cloaths. 
Actually a woman, 'Chevalier [or Miss] John Theodora de Verdion', 
a London eccentric. Similar portraits were published after her death, 
aged 58, 16 July 1802. See B.M. Cat. Engraved British Portraits and 
Nos. 8371, 9063. 
4|X4j«gin. PI. 7|x5in. 

8371 D« VE D N, 

Gratis — to the purchasers of the Wonderful Magazine Pu¥ by 

C. Johnson. [1793] 

Engraving. Wonderful Magazine, i. 406. A copy or the original of No. 
8370. The name over the shop door is missing. The inscription differs 
slightly from that on No 8370. It begins: A remarkable Walking Book- 
seller. Quack Doctor &c &c. 
4|X4Jin. B.M.L., P.P. 5153. a. 




[Miss Griffiths del.'] [i793'3 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured and uncoloured impressions). 
Two young women walk together towards the spectator, slightly to the 1. 
Both wear frilled fichus over long pelerines, and straight dresses. The 
taller (1.) holds a large muff and wears a small hat or bonnet with erect 
feathers, the other wears a bonnet from which hang long draperies resting 
on the ground. Beneath the title (attributed to the Rev. E. Mangin): 

Skill' d in all Arts that Grace the modish Fair 

The Air of Confidence the high bred Stare 

In every Trick Cosmetic stores supply 

To give new luster to a languid Eye 

For genuine Roses sport Parisian Bloom 

Like Stucco plaister'd on a modern Room 
The taller is identified as 'Miss Gubbins', the other as 'Miss Honor 
Gubbins'. Both acquired elderly rich husbands ; the former, Mary, called 
'Glory', married Thomas Panton of the Jockey Club (see No. 5421). 
Honor married Ralph Button, brother of Mrs. Coke, see A. M. W. Stirling, 
Coke of Norfolk, i. 435-6. They are described by Glenbervie as 'Irish, very 
musical, and, in frankness of manner, bordering on impropriety, and 
approaching still more closely to vulgarity'. Journals, ed. Bicknell, ii. 48-9. 
Honor is one of three charming minstrels who are the subject of an 
'Impromptu' in the Bath Chronicle for 7 Mar. 1793, beginning: 'When 
G*bb*ns sings, th' admiring Throng'.^ They acquired notoriety in 1799 
(when Mangin's verses were current), see No. 9373, &c. ; and this print 
may belong to that year; the dresses, though not impossible in 1793, 
suggest a later date, but are amateurishly drawn. 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ Jany 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly who has again opend 
his Caracature Exhibition Room to which he has recently added 
several new <Sf old Sub'* Ad^ i Shilling 
Engraving (coloured impression). A fat lady (1.), her contour almost 
globular, walks in profile to the 1. ; she holds up her petticoats, showing 
huge calves. Her footman (r.) walks behind, a thin man in livery, stooping 
forward, holding a closed umbrella. Evidently Mrs. Hobart (Lady Bucking- 
hamshire). See No. 8902. 

Reproduced, E. Fuchs und A. Kind, Die Weiberherrschaft in der 
Geschichte der Menschheit, Munich, 19 13, i. 65, as 'Die Unwiderstehliche'. 


Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i Nov. 1793] 

Engraving. A reissue of No. 7956. In the text: 'The Patriotic Pleader; Or, 
The Man of Feeling', Erskine is satirized for his speeches (and large fees) 

' Notes by E. Hawkins. 

^ Information from the Director of the Victoria Art Gallery and Municipal 



in crim. con. cases, where his eloquence and tears extort monstrous 


5iiX3iin. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 

MAGAZINE.— Parf /. [1793] 

Woodcut. From the Wonderful Magazine (a weekly publication, 1793-4),' 
ii. 351. Sixteen W.L. figures, reprinted from the covers of sixteen issues 
of the magazine, arranged in two rows, all in profile, or directed to the r. 
Each holds a bell, and personates the parish bellman who was accustomed 
to present his clients at Christmas with a set of engraved verses. The 
verses were first printed, with the woodcut, on the cover of the weekly 
issue, afterwards reprinted to illustrate this folding plate. The name of 
each is printed over his head: A Spaniard, Sans Culotte, Stephen Stupid, 
Obadiah Prim (a Quaker), C J. Fox (see Nos. 8530, 8622), W. Pitt (see 
No. 8500), The Royal Bellman (the King in his robes), Beef-Eater, A 
Welchman, Peter Pindar Esq., Sir Jeff. Dunstan (as in No. 5637), Jack Tar, 
An Irishman, A Scotchman, Harrison's Barber, A Blackguard. Pitt and 
Peter Pindar hold copies of the Magazine. 

Harrison's barber is Mr. Cluse, who, according to Alexander Hogg, 
against whom Harrison had begun proceedings for publishing a copy of 
a copyright print, was a partner in Harrison's firm. The verses are 
primarily puffs of the magazine. See Nos. 8529, 8622. 
11X17!- in. 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

Lond** Pub: June 13 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A W.L. figure stands full-face divided 
by a vertical line, one half (1.) representing a man, the other a woman. The 
background is similarly bisected, one half (1.) being a surgeon's dispensary, 
the other a carpeted room with a domestic grate on which a saucepan is 
heating. Beneath the title: or a newly discover' d animal, not known in 
Buff on' s time; for a more full description of this Monster, see, an ingenious 
book, lately publish' d, price 3/6, entitled, Man- Midwifery dessected, contain- 
ing a variety of well authenticated cases, elucidating this animal's Propensities 
to cruelty & indecency, sold by the publisher of this Print, who has presented 
the Author with the above for a Frontispiece to his Book. The surgeon, who 
is fashionably dressed, holds an instrument inscribed Lever; the woman 
holds out a small vessel. The man's bottles, &c., are ranged on three 
shelves; on the lowest, inscribed This shelf for my own use, are bottles 
inscribed Love Water, Cantharides, Eau de vie. Cream of Violets. Obstetric 
instruments are inscribed : forceps. Boring Scissors, and Blunt Hook. On 
the ground (1.) is a large pestle and mortar. 

A belated protest against the male accoucheur as a danger to female 
modesty and virtue. The controversy dates from the career of Peter 
Chamberlen (d. 1631) and was virtually decided by that of William Smellie 
(1697-1763). An indication of the unpopularity of the surgeon, cf. No. 
9092, &c. Man-Midwifery . . . has not been traced. 
8X7i^e in. 

' Vol. i published by C. Johnson, vols, ii-v by Alexander Hogg. 



8376 A A copy, by another artist, etched with greater precision, a comma 
after the title, the spelling 'dessected' corrected. Imprint: Pub: by S.W. 
Fores N° 50 Piccadilly [? 1795]. A note adds: 'Front, to Petition to unborn 
babes.' (Not traced in B.M.L.) 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub April J*' 1793 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly : who has 

just filled up his Exhibition on an entire novel stile admitance J^*^ 

N folios of Caracatures Lent out 

Engraving. Two pretty women leave a shop (1.) to enter a coach whose 
back is towards the spectator. The foremost ( ? Duchess of Rutland), 
raising her petticoats high, puts a foot on the step. She is followed by 
(?) Lady Jersey, who crosses a step laid across a barred area or cellar, also 
raising her petticoats. A little girl (1.) stands in the doorway. The legs of 
the ladies are eagerly inspected by male loungers. One man crouches at the 
back of the coach to peep through a quizzing-glass. The roadway on the r. 
of the coach is crowded. Men with telescopes are indicated in the win- 
dows of the houses (r.). Other spectators stand in the cellar or area looking 
upwards through the bars. The cover of a coal-hole in the pavement is 
pushed aside to show a profile. The artist's initials are in the escutcheon 
on the back of the coach. For the Bond Street 'lounge', cf. Nos. 8040, 8601, 
8900, 9447. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Fran in der Karikatur, 1906, p. 204. 


[L Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: April 20 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly where 
may be seen a correct Model of the Guillotine 6 feet high the Head 
& Hand of Count Strewenzee & the Compleatest Collection of 
Caracatures in Europe, to which has been recently added Several 
hundred old & New Subjects, Admitance one shilling. 

Photograph (much reduced) of an etching. A staircase spirals round a pole 
on the summit of which is a ducal coronet. Ladies eager for social prece- 
dence hasten up it. At the top is a duchess, who beckons to the next : Come 
along Marchioness make one of us. The lady answers : /'// be up with your 
Grace but the Countess is allways at my heels. On the next curve a countess 
looks down, saying, The Viscountess is Very Nimble to day. Below her, the 
latter looks back to say to a stout woman : Baroness yovCve lost your Breath 
you lag a little. The baroness says : Here comes S^ John's Wife but she shan't 
get up. The baronet's wife, some way below, stands just above the feet 
of a fat woman, who has fallen head first down the stair, her head on the 
lowest step. She says: These Mistresses are allways following Quality. The 
unsuccessful climber says: whenever I try's to Mount I always miss's my 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Karikatur, 1906, p. 356. 

Size of original (A. de R. iv. 79), 2o|x iij^ (pi.). 




G. A. Stevens in his Lecture on Heads 
[?I. Cruikshank.] 
Pub October lo 1793 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 8380. Design 
in an oval. A head with lank, unkempt hair and melancholy, twisted 
features, mouthing grotesquely, appears to emerge from a tub; this is a 
section of a tub held by the performer on a table. 

Stevens (d. 1784) disposed of his lecture in 1774 to Lee Lewis, the actor, 
who published his version of it in 1784. Editions (some illustrated) were 
published up to 1821. Cf. No. 5201. 
12JX 10 in. 


[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. The performer of 
No. 8379, wearing a large old-fashioned wig, rests his r. elbow on a table 
lit by three candles. His hands are in a muff which reaches from his chin 
to the table ; he squints. 


pu¥ march 3&^ by H Humphrey Old Bond S* g3 

Engraving (coloured impression). An elderly woman sits on a stool playing 
a small harpsichord (r.) seen in profile, a music-book upon it. She sings 
with her head turned towards the spectator, her features twisted, eyes 
closed. Her hair hangs upon her round shoulders ; the curves of her figure 
and a small waist indicate an attempt to conceal the ravages of time. The 
line is shaky throughout, to give an impression (especially in the music- 
book) of an aged, quavering voice. 

The manner resembles that of Gillray, obscured by the deliberately 
shaky line. In general character the print resembles No. 9307. 


London Pu¥ by G. Humphrey 27 S^ James's S* Jan^ i. 1822 
Drawn and Engraved by James Gillray iyg3 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 8383. A scene at the door of a Flemish church (r.) in a small square. 
A procession of little girls, uniformly dressed, wearing aprons and sabots, 
each with a large book under her arm, enters the church, the smallest in 
the rear. They are followed (1.) by a fat Flemish woman wearing a hooded 
cloak, a book in her hand, a birch-rod hanging from her wrist. On the 
extreme 1. a little boy walks between his stout parents, taking a hand of 
each. Behind, three men are indicated, also wath books. On the r. three 
nuns approach the door, skirting the wall of the church. Above their heads 
is a crucifix in a niche. In the background are gabled buildings. 
' Inscription and imprint as No. 8379. 



A line across the upper part of the plate, 3 in. from the upper margin, 
shows where the original design has been extended, see No. 8384. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 170-1 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 397. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Van Stolk, No. 5927. 


Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 8382. A scene in the market-square of a Flemish town ( ? Ghent). 
On the 1. is a row of booths, under the projecting roof of one a fat woman 
sits behind a table on which is a teetotum : an arrow swings on a dial. She 
is surrounded by men who proffer coins; a small boy gapes at this 
gambling scene. On the r. a town-crier reading from a paper and ringing 
his bell is the chief figure of a group: a peasant woman carrying milk- 
pails on a yoke, four men, two little girls, a dog. In the r. centre priests 
listen intently to one of their number who stands in back view reading 
from a paper. Behind (1.), a monk takes a woman by the chin. In the back- 
ground British guardsmen, standing stiffly at attention, are being drilled. 
Behind them are buildings with steep crow-stepped gables and a church 
spire. There is a line across the plate as in No. 8382, but 2|- in. from the 

Gillray visited Flanders with de Loutherbourg in 1793, cf. No. 8327. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 170-1 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 398. 
Reprinted, G.W.G. Van Stolk, No. 5927. 


Engraving. No inscription. The original form of Nos. 8382, 8383, both 
on one plate. No. 8382 above. No. 8383 below, with no dividing line. The 
upper part has no sky and the feet only of the crucifix appear. In No. 8383 
details of the background have been altered to adapt it to the altered shape. 
This plate was cut in two, and an additional piece of copper joined to each. 
The print is said to be almost unique. 

Upper design, 5|x i4ig; lower design, 6|x i\^\ pi. i2igX 14! in. 


London Pu¥ Feb 20 lygs^ by W. Holland N" 50 Oxford S* 
Engraving. Six couples arranged in two rows. Above and on the extreme 
1. a lady and a parson in gown and bands sit facing each other. She takes 
his 1. hand and puts her r. hand on his shoulder. He says: consider the 
dignity of my character. She answers, A fig for character a good living is 
worth ten Bishops' characters any time. (Perhaps Mrs. Cecil and William 
Sneyd, see No. 7705.) 

Next, a man fashionably dressed in regimentals and holding a bludgeon, 
puts his I. arm across the shoulders of a woman who sits beside him, saying, 
/ toasted you in ten pint bumpers last night — There's an instance of love for 
you, match it if you can! She says: You are a most delightful creature to 
be sure. 

' Imprint as No. 8382. 

^ 'Feb.' and the final 3 of the date appear to be alterations to the imprint. 



On the r. a plainly dressed couple sit together, he takes her r. hand in 
his 1. A pen and ink-bottle attached to his coat and a large book under his 
r. arm show that he is an exciseman. He says : You're certain there will be 
no damages ; she answers : Lord what a simpleton! dont you know you fool 
an Exciseman can make an entry when he likes without any kind of suspicion. 

They are evidently Mrs. Mason, wife of a tobacconist, alleged to have 
seduced Rogers, an exciseman, in collusion with her husband, for the sake 
of the damages to be obtained in a suit of crim. con. See No. 7940. 

Below (I.), a short, stout officer in regimentals embraces a woman, saying. 
There's not a more amorous little dog in our whole regiment. 

Next, an Irishman wearing the dress of the 'blood' of 1791, a bludgeon 
under his arm (see No. 8040, &c.), kneels at the feet of a lady, tears pouring 
down his cheek. He says : You think its all bother — pon my soul my dear 
Greater I've been Crying my eyes out all this morning. Cf. No. 8458. 

Last (r.), a disillusioned couple sit on two chairs; he frowns with folded 
arms, she turns her back on him, reading with a pleased smile a Trial [for] 

There are probably other allusions to recent trials for crim. con. besides 
the two suggested. The costume and the altered imprint indicate 1791 or 
1792 as the probable date. 
I7lx25f in. 


Designed & Etch'd by Richard Newton. 

London Pu¥ June 25 1793 by William Holland, A/*" 50 Oxford Street. 
Engraving (coloured impression). A crude caricature of the initiation of 
a Freemason. The candidate, his posteriors bared, stoops down to peer, 
not at, but above, a large book of meaningless symbols. The Mystery of 
Masonry clearly explain'd, held open before him by a kneeling man, who 
says, This is the whole history and mystery of our illustrious Order. Written 
by Jack in in boots. The candidate says : / can't read French, brother. Behind 
him stands a fierce-looking man, full-face, legs astride, about to apply a 
red-hot poker to his posteriors ; he clutches a masonic symbol which hangs 
from his neck. Behind him stands a man holding a coffin on his head. 
Next, a prim-looking mason looks down at the candidate. Immediately 
behind the book is a fat parson, probably the chaplain, wearing an (in- 
correct) masonic symbol. On the extreme 1. stands a thin man holding a 
lighted lantern and pick-axe; on the r. a fat man looks with amusement 
over his shoulder at the rite. All the others have grim expressions. The 
book is lit by two candles standing on the floor. A small parrot (1.) advances 
viciously towards the candidate's back. 
9|x 15I in. 'Caricatures', ix. 59. 


[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub^ Ap^^ 16. 1793 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly where may be seen 

the Completest Collection of Caricatures in Europe also a Model of 

the [Guillotine . . .] 

Engraving. The interior of a fitting-room on the wall of which are hung 
pads of different sizes, inscribed : Two Months, One Month, Four Months, 
Six Months, Nine Months. A foppish Frenchman ties one of these round 
the waist of a customer in a short petticoat, who stands (1.) before an ornate 



oval wall-mirror, her hands folded complacently over the projection at 
her waist. A little girl in back view holds up her arms eagerly towards a 
small pad. An elegant shopman, holding a pad, insinuatingly points out 
a larger one on the wall to an agitated elderly lady. On the extreme r. two 
women stand together highly pleased with their huge excrescences; one is 
pretty, the other, full-face, resembles a prostitute; her pad is inscribed 
Tzvins. Beneath the title: Mons'' Devant, Inform de Ladies dat he has lately 
Imported a Great Assortiment of his new Fashioned Belly Pieces, or Machine 
dat make de Ventre of de Ladies, for all de World like de Mama, he can refer 
to several young Ladies of Quality, who dat look one Month, 2 — j — 4 — 6 — 7 
& Nine Month defull Size, who zoill zeccommend his Abilities, he has always 
ready his tings for Ladies of all Sizes, de little Girls, de middle Size, & he 
can also fit des Gros Ladies without Delay or Disappointment, having engagee 
some habile Emmigrant Abbe who have had practice in dis way in France: — 

See No. 8388, &c. 
i2|x i8i in. 'Caricatures', viii. 28. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub May i. 1793 by S.W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly where May 

be seen a Compleat model of the Guillotine likway the Greatest 

Collection of Caracaturs in the Kingdom also the Head and hand of 

Count Streuenzee Admitance one Shilling 
Engraving (coloured fashion). A satire on the fashion for dress projecting 
in front to give the effect of pregnancy. A promenade in a park. On the 
extreme 1. is a little girl holding a doll, both dressed in the prevailing 
fashion. Next walks (1. to r.) the Prince of Wales between Mrs. Fitzherbert 
(1.) and the Duchess of York (r.), who both take his arm. Next and behind, 
an elderly hag taking the arm of a 'cit' travesties the fashion. The next couple 
are two ladies walking r. to 1., young and good-looking, who wear their 
short-waisted dresses and clinging draperies with credit ; the one in profile 
is probably Lady Charlotte Campbell. Next and in the middle distance 
is a group of three : Mrs. Hobart ( ?) and Lady Archer (the latter in a riding- 
habit) face each other angrily; a man stands between them. In the fore- 
ground Lady Cecilia Johnston stands in profile to the 1., a paroquet sitting 
on the enormous protuberance below her waist; her companion (? George 
Hanger) wears a large cocked hat and holds a club. On the extreme r. a 
couple walks off in back view. 

Elliot describes 'the modern fashion of dress for young ladies', worn at 
balls, &c. The idea was to imitate the drapery of statues and pictures, the 
dress fastened immediately below the bust. The 'slight swell of the figure' 
was imitated by pads on the stomach, 'an exact representation of a state 
of pregnancy. This dress is accompanied by a complete display of the 
bosom — which is uncovered, and supported and stuck out by the sash 
immediately below it.' Life and Letters of Sir G. Elliot, ii. 133 (25 Apr. 
1793). See also Auckland Corr. ii. 508 (30 Apr. 1793). Its introduction 
is attributed to Lady Charlotte Campbell, see No. 8719. The appliance 
causing the protuberance was called a pad ; it was ridiculed in the epilogue 
by Andrews to Reynolds's comedy 'How to grow Rich' (Covent Garden, 
18 Apr. 1793), when a pad was produced. Life of Frederick Reynolds, ii. 
162-4. A farce. The Pad (Robert Woodbridge), was acted at Covent 
Garden, 27 May 1793. See also Nos. 8387, 8389, 8390, 8391, 8571. 



J" Qy des*" etfec* 

Pu¥ April 2^ 1793 by H. Humphrey. N" 18 Old Bond Street. 

Engraving, partly aquatinted (coloured impression). The design resembles 
high relief or even a group modelled in the round, though beneath the title 
is etched: Engrav'dfrom a Basso-relievo, lately found upon some fragments 
of Antiquity. Three amoretti attend the toilet of an aged hag ; the cestus 
of Venus is a huge pad which one (1.) ties round her vv^aist, and another 
supports. A third (r.) holds up an oval mirror v^^hich reflects the monstrous 
curve of the pad. She wears a small grotesque straw hat, from which hangs 
drapery reaching to the ground, with stays and under-petticoat; from a 
pocket protrudes Ovid Art [of Love]. She crouches in profile to the r., her 
hands raised delightedly. Cupid, who ties the girdle, has a quiver of arrows 
which hangs reversed ; his bow and arrow lie beside him. Behind (r.) is an 
overturned altar of Venus, the fire still burning. Beneath the title : 

"Upon her fragrant breast the Zone was brac'd; 
In it was ev'ry art, and ev'ry charm 
To win the wisest, and the coldest warm. 

A satire on the 'pads' which became fashionable in 1793, see No. 8388, 
&c. The vestal is identified as Lady Cecilia Johnston, but the nut -cracker 
profile has no resemblance to her conspicuously receding forehead and chin. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 175. Wright and Evans, No. 394. Reprinted, G.W.G., 



Pu¥ by W Dent May 16 lygs Sold by J Aitken N" 14 Castle Street 
Leicester Fields London 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two ladies stand back to back, one (1.) 
inscribed Prominence, 1785, the other, Prominence, 1793. The former has 
the contour of 1785 (see No. 6874, &c,), with vast protuberances below the 
chin in front and below the waist behind. The other, whose bust still 
projects, but in a less exaggerated manner, has an enormous protuberance 
in front, far exceeding that of any pregnancy. One wears a wide-brimmed 
hat (see No. 7099, &c.), the other a small hat trimmed with large bunches 
of ribbon ; a piece of drapery passing over the crown meets under the chin. 
Between and behind the pair is a smaller figure, a girl standing in profile to 
the 1., wearing a high-waisted dress which falls limply to the ground. She 
is Virgin Shape. Beneath the design: 

Since all confess the nafral Form Divine, 
What need to Swell before or add behind? 

See No. 8388, &c. 
911x13! in. 

8391 THE PAD WAREHOUSE. [i May 1793] 
Engraving. Bon Ton Magazine, iii. 64. The interior of a shop. Shelves 
behind the counter are inscribed 3 Months, 4 Months, . . . 8 Months ; from 
them hang pads simulating pregnancy. In the foreground a shopman 



kneels to adjust a pad to the waist of a customer. Another customer (r.) 
stands in a dress from which the pad is still absent. On the extreme 1. 
a little girl, whose dress projects in the fashionable manner, holds out a 
doll. A shopwoman stands on (concealed) steps behind the counter, about 
to take down a pad. 

For this fashion see No. 8388, &c. ; the text (pp. 64-5) explains it as a 
means of concealing pregnancy. 
41^x3/5 in. B.M.L.,P.C. 


Rowlandson 1793 

Published by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly May 25 iyg3 
Prints & Drazoings lent on the Plan of a Circus Library Folios of 
Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). A fat man in his nightshirt, yawning, 
with insects on his bare leg, stands beside his bed, desperately scratching. 
Beneath the title, four lines beginning: 

Alas! what avails all thy Scrubbings and Shrugs 
Grego, Rowlandson^ i. 320. Reproduced, Weber, p. 69. 
io|X7ig in. With border, i2|X9| ^^' 'Caricatures', vii. 2. 


T. Rowlandson deV — S. Aiken fec^. 

Publish' d Oct. ly. 1793. by S.W. Fores, N 3 Piccadilly, where may 
be had all Rowlandson' s works. 

Aquatint (coloured impression). Five elderly barristers are grouped round 
an oblong table on which are writing-materials ; all wear large tie-wigs. The 
client sits chapeau-bras, hands on knees, in an arm-chair (1.), listening with 
gaping mouth and stupidly eager expression. He appears to be a boorish 
country gentleman in London dress. The counsel beside him reads from 
a large document: Know all men by these presents. Another also reads. Two 
others watch and listen with cynical intentness. The fifth (r.), an aged man 
wearing gauntlet gloves, sits with closed eyes in an arm-chair facing the 
client. On the wall are pinned legal notices : Court of Kings Bench Z)** 
Common Pleas . . . [&c.]. Heavy folios lie open on the floor. Below the 
title (but absent from the cropped impression described): 'Dedicated to the 
Gentlemen of the Bar.' 

Reissue of a plate published by W. Hunter, 21 Dec. 1785. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 173, 317. 
9|X I3f. With border, io|x 14^^ in. 


Dighton del^ 
Pub. Jan 21 1793 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in a circle. A version of No. 3765 
(1793) reversed, and without the elaborate setting and accessories. A 
lawyer (H.L.) is seated in an arm-chair holding a legal document headed 
Middlesex to Wit. Before him on a table is a bundle of papers. He holds 



a pen in his mouth, his head is turned to the r. and in profile, meditating 
with a fixed and sinister stare. Behind his shoulder is the Devil (1.), who 
stretches his arm behind the lawyer's back, holding his r. arm. 

Lawyers are repeatedly associated with the Devil in these prints, cf. 
Nos. 6128, 3764 (1792), 3765, 3767, 9607. 
Diam. 5I in. 


R Dighton deP 
Pub Jany 4^ 1793 

Engraving (coloured impression). An exciseman stands in profile to the 1., 
his lower lip protruding grotesquely ; his chest is much thrown out, r. hand 
thrust under his coat, 1. arm behind his back. From his pocket protrudes 
an Excise Book. His ink-bottle is attached to his coat; in it is a pen; 
another pen projects from his cocked hat. A dog (r.) befouls his leg. 

8395 A This figure, H.L. and reversed, in an oval, is the subject of a 
watercolour in the collection of Mr. A. Jaffe : the original of a mezzo- 
tint, No. 403, pub. C. Bowles, i Dec. 1792 (Broadley Coll., Westminster 
Public Library).' Photograph in Print Room. Copied in No. 8563. 


R Dighton sc 

Pub Jany 4. 1793. by R Dighton. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A buxom woman (1.), with loose hair 
and exposed bosom, hands on hips, looks alluringly towards a man (r.), who 
carries a bunch of carrots under his r. arm, a bunch of turnips in his 1. 
hand. He turns his head in profile, scowling fiercely at her. A knife hang- 
ing from her waist suggests that she is an oyster-woman. The head of the 
woman is copied in No. 8563. 


Dighton del. 

London : Printed for Bowles & Carver, No. 6g in St. Paul's Church 

Engraving (coloured impression). An adaptation of No. 8045. A grotesque 
man rides a similar dolphin, directed to the r., and looking towards the 
spectator. He holds a frothing tankard. His cape floating backwards forms 
Wales. Additional place-names have been added to those in 8045 and 
8045 A. See Nos. 8398, 8399 ; cf. No. 8346. 
7|x6i^g in. 'Caricatures', ii. 130. 

' Mr. JafT^ suggests that the subject is William Jackson, Commissioner of Excise ; 
more probably a generalized satire, like others of the series, cf. No. 8417, &c. 




Engraving (coloured impression), A grotesque figure, resembling Punch, 
kneels in profile to the 1., with a large thistle in the foreground (r.). He 
bestrides a sack or bundle which rests on the ground, one end forming 
the Mull of Galloway, the other S* Abbs Head. The coast-line from 
the Murray Firth to the Firth of Toy is formed by his hump. See 
No. 8397, &c. 
7|x6jg in. 'Caricatures', ii. 131. 


Engraving (coloured impression). A witch-like old woman floats in the 
air in profile to the 1., playing an Irish harp. An infant is at her back, 
supported by her cloak. Beneath her is a pleasant landscape with a water- 
side town and a background of low mountains. Under the title: This 
Portrait of Lady Hibernia Bull is humbly dedicated to her Husband the great 
Mr. John Bull. See No. 8397, &c. For 'Hibernia Bull' cf. No. 9532. 
7|x6/g in. 'Caricatures', ii. 131. 


Cha' Ansell Fecit C A del iy88 

Publish' d June 29'*, lygs by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Aquatint. A companion print to No. 8401. Family parties walk towards 
a sailing vessel which lies (1.) below the level of the quay, and is placarded; 
Dispatch Pack\et\ Sails for Marga[te] on Monday at 9 Oclock. A woman 
with her husband and little boy stands disputing with a coachman (r.). 
Young women, dressed in the fashion of c. 1790, with high-crowned hats, 
prepare to embark ; one is already on board. In the foreground (1.) is a pile 
of goods including long sacks ( ? hop pockets) inscribed Greenhithe, Kent, 
with other letters and symbols. The signature C.A del iy88 is on 
a packing-case. A little boy punctures a cask and sucks his finger, not 
noticing a man who threatens him with a stick. In the background is 
London Bridge and a group of crowded buildings on the Surrey side. On 
the r. is a high timber structure. 
i5|X2o| in, 


Aquatint. A companion print to No. 8400. Passengers land from the small 
single-masted vessel in boats. Tiny figures clamber from the vessel into 
a boat; another, with a single oarsman, rows to land, a third has reached 
shore, and a lady is being carried to the rough rocks covered with sea- 
weed in the foreground. Those who have already landed, carrying bundles 
and baskets, and struggling against the wind, are being assailed by well- 
dressed touts, who proffer cards. A fashionably dressed group (1.) watches 
the scene. 

For Margate as the 'cit's' watering-place see No. 6758, &c. 

' Signature and imprint as No. 8397. 
^ Signature and imprint as No. 8400. 

65 F 


[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published as the Act directs, August 5, 1793^ by T. Prattent 46 Cloth 

Fair West Smithfield, London. 
Engraving (coloured impression). An oyster-stall: two tubs filled with 
oysters are on a table (1.), a man (seated) and a young woman open oysters. 
A barber kneels upon a wig-box to eat oysters ; a small boy picks his pocket 
of a comb. A man stands behind, stiffly expectant. A woman walks off 
to the r. carrying a plate of oysters and a small covered pot to an eager 
cobbler in his stall. A knock-kneed sweep (r.) inspects an oyster in his 
hand. On the ground (1.) is an empty tub and a mound of oyster-shells. 
Behind are roofs and spires. 

St. James's day is 25 July; one of his emblems is a shell. This and Nos. 
8403, 8404 are similar in character to the 'Drolls' published by Sayer. 


[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published as the Act directs Sep'' 20 lygs by T. Prattent 46 Cloth 

Fair West Smithfield London. 
Engraving (coloured impression). Three seated customers are swathed in 
sheets: A fat man (1.) is being lathered by a woman who holds a barber's 
dish and applies a soap-ball to his chin. A hunchback stands on a stool 
cutting off the hair of a man who sits full-face ; part is already cropped. 
On the r. a barber curls the hair of a customer who yells with pain. Behind 
is a shelf holding a bottle and glass (1.) and a wig-block (r.). For the 
penny barber cf. Nos. 7604, 7605, 8027. 


[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published as the Act directs, Ocf 14 lygs, by T. Prattent 46 Cloth 

Fair London. 
Engraving (coloured impression). A pretty young woman (1.) sits in an 
upright chair holding a distaff and spindle, looking disconsolately before 
her, trying to conceal her pregnancy by the position of her 1. arm. An 
elderly woman (r.) leans forward, sternly scrutinizing; a young man stand- 
ing beside her points derisively to a print on the wall, The Broken Pitcher, 
a girl looking at her fallen pitcher. 
6| X 9 in. 

Series of 'Drolls' 

8405 GOING UP HIGHGATE HILL. [?c. 1793]' 
Engraving (coloured impression). Two fat 'cits' trudge up a country road 
raising clouds of dust. One holds his hat and wig and mops his bald head ; 

* Imprint cut off. Perhaps earlier; there is nothing in the costume to show the 



the other, with unbuttoned waistcoat, carries his coat over his shoulder 
and mops his forehead. Beneath the design: Two j Pounders in full speed 
to a Shilling Ordinary on Sunday. 

Frotn London to Highgate, behold the Array, 
Of two Hearty Trenchermen now on the Way; 
Three Pounds they' I devour besides Beer & Bread, 
Who the Devil can feed them at Twelvepence a Head. 

For the Sunday ordinary see Nos. 6745, 8415, and for 'cits' going up 
Highgate Hill on Sunday, No. 8775. Cf. Johnson's England, ed. A. S. 
Turberville, 1935, i. 192-3. 
8igX6f in. 'Caricatures', ii. 136. 

[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A stout citizen seated on a sofa drinks 
with a courtesan, while another (1.) picks his pocket. Four lines of verse 
beneath the design begin: 

The Old Booby half Muzzy, to a Bagnio ReeVd, 
A favourite subject, cf. No. 5946. L. and W., No. 58. 
7|x8f in. 'Caricatures', ii. 129. 


[? c. 1793]' 

[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A young woman sits up in bed to pull 
the nose of a fat 'cit' who sits beside her, putting her 1. arm round his neck. 
His hat and stick lie on the ground. Behind (r.) a young man in his shirt, 
wearing his hat and carrying shoes and coat, &c., slips from the room. 
L. and W., No. 59. 
7|x8| in. 'Caricatures', ii. 126. 


Publish' d 24^ OcV J79 J, by RoU Sayer, & C" Fleet Street, London. 

Engraving. The interior of a jeweller's shop, indicated only by three neck- 
laces festooned on the wall and by a door giving on to the street. A lady 
sits between two men; one (1.) points insinuatingly to a box of ear-rings 
which he holds, the other applies a boring instrument to her 1. ear. Behind, 
a weeping schoolboy with a bag of books is being birched by a young 
woman. Through the door are seen a Highlander blowing bagpipes and 
a milkmaid screaming for custom. L. and W., No. 90. 


Published NoV 20** lygj by RoU Sayer & C" Fleet Street, London. 

Engraving. An angry woman seizes the hair of the corn doctor, who kneels 
at her feet, knife in hand; she withdraws her bare foot from his knee. 

' Imprint cut off. Perhaps earlier; there is nothing in the costume to show the 
date. The numbers of the earUer prints in Laurie and Whittle's catalogue are not 
always in order of publication. 



Another woman sits beside her, grinning ; a Httle girl (1.) stands watching 
the operation. A panelled wall and carpeted floor indicate a well-furnished 
room. The words spoken are engraved beneath the title: Madam, therms 
not a Man of the profession in Europe, that can Cut a corn with that ease, 
delicacy, & safety as Myself — Oh! curse your delicacy — you've touched me 
to the Quick — You have ruined me you fumbling dog — You a Chiropedist, 
Old Susan here would have done me better — If you don't immediately 
decamp, I'll tear all the hair off your shallow pate. L. and W., No. 92. 
6^X9 in. 


Published Dec'' i&^ 1793 by Rob^ Sayer & C° Fleet Street, Loridon. 

Engraving. A lady sits on a garden seat in profile to the r., looking through 
a telescope placed on a small rectangular table. A grinning man standing 
beside her stares at her through a quizzing-glass. Among the shrubs in 
the background is a statue of a satyr whose expression is intended to reflect 
that of the man. L. and W., No. 93. Coloured impression in 'Caricatures', 
ii. 127. 
611x81 in. 


Publish' d Dec'' i&^ lygs by Rob^ Sayer & C" Fleet Street London. 

Engraving. The crier, his mouth wide open, with an angry expression, 
shakes his bell in the faces of three gaping and alarmed yokels (I.). He wears 
a long old-fashioned coat, broad cocked hat and wig, and holds a cane. 
A young man with a pitchfork (r.) loiters complacently. A path leads to 
a farmhouse (r.). Beneath the design is engraved: Oyes! Oyes! This is to 
guie Notice, That Alice Grunt has lost from out her Stye last Night at 25 
Minitspast 10 o Clock two Pigs the one a black un 'tother Caroty un whoever 
will bring Um to the said alice Grunt — Or give inflammation where they have 
stolen or strayed shall have her thanks and the first sucking Pig from the Breed 
of old Nanny at Lammas day next — God save the King. L. and W., No. 94. 


Published Dec'' j6'* 1793, by RoU Sayer & C" Fleet Street, London. 

Engraving (roulette). Four elderly men (T.Q.L.) sit close together, their 
elbows resting on a rectangular table on which is a large punch-bowl. The 
man at the r. end of the table tells the story, putting his forefingers together. 
His vis-a-vis frowns with a finger on his nose, the next man smiles 
delightedly, spilling his punch. The man on the speaker's r., a parson, 
who holds a long pipe, puflfs smoke derisively in his face (cf. No. 8220). 
L. and W., No. 95. 


Published i&^ Dec 1793, by RoU Sayer & C° Fleet Street London. 

Engraving. The interior of a milliner's shop. The milliner (1.) and a lady 
stand facing each other in profile across the counter. He is fashionably 
dressed and holds a yard-stick. She holds the end of a piece of ribbon and 



says, with raised forefinger (the words engraved beneath the design): 
Indeed M' Fribble I am not to be done in this manner, your Yard is to short by 
an Inch. A second lady (r.), seated in a chair, holding up a fan, watches the 
encounter with amusement. L. and W., No. 97. 

8414 YOUTH AND AGE. [? 1793'] 

[? Dighton del.] 

Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles N" 6g St. Paul's Church 
Yard London 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). An old apple-woman sits asleep beside 
a table on which fruit (apples and strawberries) is arranged, with baskets 
under the table. A dog sleeps beside her. A little boy (1.) pushes an ear 
of corn up her nose ; a little girl eggs him on. The children are dressed 
up, as if for Sunday, and the scene is in the fields near London, St. Paul's 
on the horizon. Behind the woman (r.) is a closed box, resembling a sentry- 
box, on which are placards including an enlistment notice, the r. part cut 
off: All able bo[died men . . .] willing to [serve . . .] five gui[neas . . .]. 

In 1793 the bounty offered to recruits was ten guineas ; Fortescue, Hist, 
of the British Army, iv. 887. 
i2f X9f in. 'Caricatures', i. 78. 

(627) See No. 3767 [c. 1793] 

[Dighton del.] 

A LAWYER AND HIS AGENT. (628) See No. 3765 [c. 1793] 

[Dighton del.] 

Another version of No. 8394. 


[? Dighton del.] 

633. London, Printed for Bowles & Carver, N" 6g S^ Paul's Church 
Yard, 2 Oct. iyg3. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A party of citizens at a circular dinner- 
table are savagely gormandizing. A young buck has drawn the chair from 
under a stout citizen, who falls to the ground, upsetting his plate and pierc- 
ing with a fork the tail of a dog (1.). Two men, both with heaped-up plates, 
dispute over the contents of a dish. A woman and little girl sit quietly. 
The host, standing in the doorway (r.), holds up his hand in disgust. 
Through an open sash-window is seen a circular lawn surrounded by an 
arcade divided into boxes for tea-drinking, cf. No. 8934. 

See Johnson's England, ed. A. S. Turberville, i. 192-3 ; see also No. 6745, 
on the same subject, and No. 8405. 
i2|X9f ^^- 'Caricatures', i. 32. 

' Perhaps earlier. C. Bowles died in 1793 and the firm became Bowles and 
Carver. See vol. v, p. xxxviii. 



8416 THE SMOAKING CLUB. [c. 1793] 
Dighton del^ 

635 London : Printed for Bowles & Carver, No. 6g S^ Paul's Church 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Thirteen men sit or stand round an 
oblong table, on which are long tobacco-pipes, wine-bottles, glasses, and 
three punch-bowls. All are caricatured ; the man at the head of the table 
is dressed as a military officer and wears top-boots; he leans towards a 
naval officer on his r. with a wooden leg who is smoking with a satisfied 
smile and holds a newspaper. The True Briton. On the chairman's 1. is 
seated an enormously fat man. The room is a handsome one, one wall 
decorated by Ionic pilasters and with two tall sash-windows (1.) between 
which is a framed board inscribed Rules and orders to be Observed in this 
Society. Most of the members are smoking vigorously and producing 
clouds of smoke. Cf. Nos. 8205, 8220. Similar in subject and manner to 
Nos. 6912, 6913. 

Reproduced, A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 1931, frontispiece. 
I2|X9| in. 'Caricatures', i. 33. 

EVER HE GOES." [? 1793] 

,^. . , , , Coldstream Guards 

[Dighton del.] 

J7 J Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver, No. 6g St. Paul's 

Church Yard, London. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. Bust character-study 

of a jovial soldier, holding a brimming glass and looking at the spectator. 

He wears a cocked hat, his powdered hair in a queue; his bayonet rests 

against his shoulder. Probably published on the departure of the Duke 

of York (Col. of the Coldstream) for Flanders on Feb. 1793, described by 

Elliot, Ltfe and Letters, 1874, ii. 1 18-19. Cf. No. 8327. For the series see 

Nos. 7819, 8053, 8237, 8418-20, 8767 A, &c., 8917, &c., 9101, &c. 

5|X4fin. 'Caricatures', ii. 125. 

8418 WHO CARES FOR YOU! [? 1793] 
[Dighton del.] 

jyy Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver, No. 6g St. Paul's 

Church Yard, London. 
Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A buxom young 
prostitute (T.Q.L.) stands with her hands on her hips looking to the 1. 
She wears a cap over her loose hair, a handkerchief on her shoulders 
leaves her bosom exposed. Cf. No. 9103. 
5^X4! in. 'Caricatures', ii. 122. 

8419 THE COUNTRY VICAR. [? 1793] 
[Dighton del] 

3y8 Printed for & Sold by Bowles Sf Carver, No. 6g St. Paul's 

Church Yard, London. 
Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A companion print 
to No. 8420. A bust character-study of a fat and jovial man, directed to 
the r. He is plainly dressed, wearing a very bushy wig, and smokes a pipe. 
SiiX-^l in. 'Caricatures', ii. 121. 


8420 THE COUNTRY CURATE. I? i793] 

[Dighton del.] 

Syg Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver^ No. 6g St. Paul's 

Church Yard, London. 
Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A companion print 
to No. 8419. The curate, wearing gown and bands, with a small wig, is 
in profile to the 1., his eyes gloomily cast down. 
5l\ X 4f in. 'Caricatures', ii. 1 2 1 . 




Pub Jan'^ I 17941- by SW Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. Caricature of an officer with a large head and small legs stand- 
ing full-face, his hands behind his back. He wears a cocked hat, has a large 
moustache, large eyes, a broad and seemingly false nose, and a fixed 
wooden stare. 

Probably the Duke of Brunswick ; cf. a French print, Brunswick saignant 
du nez; inscription: // a le nez casse. Blum, No. 486; see also Van Stolk, 
No. 5193. See No. 8125, &c. 



Pub Jan I iyg4 by S.W. Fores N 3 Piccadilly. 

A reissue (coloured), of No. 6250 (1783), on the coalition of Fox and 
North, Humphrey's imprint scored through but legible. The application 
to current politics (if intended) is obscure : Fox, saying Damn the Tories!!!, 
triumphs over Shelburne, with the help of North (d. 1792). 
13X9 in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pubijan^ i iyg4 by SW Fores No 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene at Court, the throne partly 
visible on the extreme r., the King and Queen conversing. The centre 
figure is the tall 'Plenipotentiary' or Turkish Minister, wearing a jewelled 
and feathered turban, Turkish trousers, and a long furred robe. He looks 
down at the fat Lady Buckinghamshire; she gazes up at him with both 
hands raised in astonishment. Behind him, Mrs. Fitzherbert holds up the 
skirt of his robe, as if to inspect it, her r. hand raised in astonishment. In 
the foreground (1.) is the little Duchess of York in back view, looking up 
at the Prince of Wales. A head on the extreme 1. appears to be that of the 
Duke of York. The Duke of Richmond (r.), standing chapeau-bras, in 
profile to the 1., inspects the Plenipotentiary through an eye-glass. The 
background is crowded with figures, chiefly of ladies, who gaze at the 
Plenipotentiary's back. Among them is the head of a judge ( ? Lough- 
borough). The Lord Chamberlain (Salisbury), holding his wand, faces the 
throne. Beneath the design are eight lines of verse beginning: 

When he came to the Court, oh! what giggle and sport, 

For the Plenipotentiary, see No. 7935, a similar print. Cf. No. 8356. 
11IXT4J in. 

' Written over an earlier obliterated date. 




[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub: by J. Alexander N° 323 Strand London January g iyg4 

Engraving. The forces of good (1.) and evil (r.) converge in perspective 
upon the temple of The British Constitution, a dome supported on three 
pillars, inscribed i^m^, Z<or</[5], Commonlsl, under which sits Britannia, her 
lion at her feet (1.). On the front of the dome is a profile of George III 
wearing a laurel wreath in an oval inscribed By the Grace of God. The 
temple rests on a rock which has been undermined, leaving a cavern in 
which are barrels of Gun Powder; a train of powder leads from them to 
Fox (as in No. 6389), who rushes forward holding out a torch inscribed 
Speech at the Whig Club ; in his 1. hand is a paper : The Hazard of the Die! 
He looks over his shoulder at Sheridan, who runs up behind him with a 
lantern and a dagger, to say : Thy visage & Design are refulgent! delectable! 
Under his foot is a paper: No King. No Religion No Laws. Sheridan says: 
The light of my Countenance directs thee [for his fiery face cf. No. 7528, &c.] ; 
from his pocket issues a paper: / will act my Part. They are running 
forward from the jaws of Hell, the fanged and gaping mouth of a demon 
on the extreme r. From it issues a cloud of smoke with the words : Egalite 
[Orleans], Hardy, Danton, Robertspierre, Tom Pain, Marat, Mor. Chro. 

[Morning Chronicle], L dale [Lauderdale], New — rk H — raid, Abuse 

of the Press, Margarote [see No. 8507], Daere, Redhead, Towers. From its 
nostril issues a blast inscribed Assignats. Behind are the massed forces of 
Revolution, heads advancing through smoke and flames with banners 
inscribed: British Convention Scotland, London Corresponding Society, 
Equal Representation, Derby Meeting, Sedition, Murder Treason, Anarchy 
Rapine. Two demons (over Fox and Sheridan) attack the rock of the Con- 
stitution, one with a spade, the other, who says Better to reign in Hell than 
serve in Heaven, with Reform, a barbed trident. In the upper r. corner 
a flying demon surrounded with smoke and thunderbolts addresses them 
with outstretched arms : My dear Children persevere thus till Chaos comes 
again. Small scorpion-like creatures fly among the flames. These forces 
of evil have thrown down a barrier and Fox and Sheridan are treading on 
it. Beside it are books: Laws, and God Religion, with a skull, bones, and 
a dagger. (Cf. No. 8350.) 

On the 1., behind a solid barrier, the forces of order are ranged, holding 
banners. The man nearest Britannia (presumably Pitt, but a poor portrait) 
leans forward to put an extinguisher inscribed Truth on Fox's torch ; under 
his 1. hand is a book: Association Tracts. The others in the front row 
immediately behind the barrier hold banners. That of the man next Pitt 
(probably Reeves) is Association for Preserving Liberty & Property ag* 
Republicans and Levellers. The others (r. to 1.) are: 5' Albans Tavern 
Association, Merchant Taylo[rs] Hall Association, Parish of S^ James's Ass*^, 
Parish of S^ Martins Ass", Country House Ass — n Exeter, Lloyds Coffee 
House Association, Edinburgh Association. Behind these, a sea of heads with 
banners is indicated, suggesting vast multitudes ; behind them is a pyramid 
inscribed Stability. Above their heads flies an angel holding a palm branch 
and saying: / will guard those from harm who serve God & keep the Law". 
On the barrier are three inscriptions (r. to 1.): Amor Patriae (in front of 
Pitt) ; Britannia and the Constitution. The Law and Security. Liberty and 
Property. Religion and Concord; Honi soit qui mal y pense. In the upper 1. 



corner is an eye surrounded by a star-shaped halo, inscribed Deus and The 
toicked shall Perish I will cut them off. 

Beneath the centre of the design is inscribed : Dedicated to the Associa- 
tions for Preserving Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers. 
On the 1. and r. are quotations from Paradise Lost: 

'^Seest thou what Rage 

Transports our Adversaries, whom no Bounds 

Prescribed, nor Bars of Hell, 

nor yet the main Aby^ss 

Wide-interrupt, can hold? So bent they seem 

On desperate Revenge, that shall Redound 

Upon their own rebellious Heads". 

"Impendent Horrors! threatening hideous fall 

One day upon our heads'* 

Let us destroy or we shall be destroyed. 

"To do ought good will never be our task 

But ever to do ill our sole delight 

Havock and Spoil and Ruin are our Gain". 
One of many prints of Fox and Sheridan as Jacobins. For the British 
Constitution as a rallying-cry cf. No. 8287. The first and chief loyal 
association was that founded by Reeves (see No. 8316, &c.), and imitated 
in almost every district in England and in Edinburgh. See Veitch, Genesis 
of Parliamentary Reform, pp. 230-3 ; P. A. Brown, England and the French 
Revolution, pp. 83-4. For the British Jacobins see also Rose, Pitt arui the 
Great War, pp. 164-95 ; Meikle, Scotland and the French Revolution, passim. 
Lord Daer was a prominent 'Friend of the People', ibid. For Hardy 
see No. 8814. For Redhead, or Redhead Yorke, a Sheffield radical, see 
State Trials, xxv. 1003, and D.N.B. For Towers (of the Constitutional 
Society) see vols, v and vi. For the British Convention see No. 8506, &c. ; 
for the London Corresponding Soc, No. 9189, &c. See also No. 8426. 
The symbolism of a temple for the Constitution belongs to an earlier type 
of satire or emblematic print, a late instance being No. 5984 (1782). 
I2X 15! in. 


J" Qy des^etfed 

Pu¥ Feby i&^ I794y by H. Humphrey N 18 Old Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). The Duke of York (1.), in regimentals 
and wearing a cocked hat, stands in profile to the r., tipsily swaggering; 
he hands to George III two large keys: Keys of Paris. The King, seated 
on the throne (r.) in hunting-dress, leans eagerly forward. The Duke is 
followed by soldiers bearing (worthless) trophies of victory; he says: 
Th-th-th-there's Paris for you, damme! did not I say Vd take it? -th-thats all! 
— a-a-and here's all the Plunder of France! and all the Heads of the whole 
nation of Sans Culottes, damme! — ify-y-you will do me any honor, why do it; 
— if not, why even take the next Paris yourself, damme! — look 'e I expect to 

be made either a Casar or an Alexander! , 

The King, eagerly goggling, says : What! what! Keys of Paris! Keys of 



Paris! give us hold! gads bobs, its nothing but, Veni, with you, lad, hay? 
Veni, Vidi? — ay, ay! Veni, Vidi, Vici! — ay, ay. A tricolour standard 
inscribed Vive la Liberta lies at the King's feet. Behind the Duke are 
French weapons, broken: a sword inscribed Vive la Lib . ., a cannon 
similarly inscribed, cannon-balls, a musket, and a pile of decapitated heads 
wearing bonnets-rouges, on which tramples the Duke's secretary, who 
holds out a scroll inscribed: Authentic Journal — Issuing Manifesto's — 
Taking Dunkirk [see No. 8341] 1500 Barrels of Gunpowder 32 pieces of 
Cannon, & killing 5000 Troops, — sending off loooo to the hospitals in 
Flanders — marching into the heart of France, & finishing the War without 
expence. J^ Suckfizzle Secretary. The secretary, who wears regimentals, 
a pen behind his ear, says. Here's something like a List of glorious Actions! 
— well, let them that come after us do as much as we have done, and the Cam- 
paign will soon come to a conclusion. Behind him, guardsmen advance carry- 
ing bulky burdens: bales of Assignats, a large basket of sabots inscribed 
Wooden Shoes of the Poissards, a bundle of Breeches of the Sans Coulotte[s], 
a pot from which frogs are leaping. 

Pitt sits on the dais at the King's 1. hand; he writes on papers which 
he supports on his up-drawn knees : Bricks Rum — Brandy Water Air ; new 
Taxes not to be felt by the Swinish Multitude ; loan of Eleven Millions. 
Behind the throne (r.) sits the Queen in profile to the r., gleefully holding 
out an apron into which the Devil shovels coins from a sack inscribed 
Two Millions P'' Ann"* ; only his horns, arms, and a hoof appear on the 
extreme r. Above the Queen's head are shelves on which are ranged large 
money-bags, inscribed: Spy Money 40000 />' A; for Flatterers & Toad- 
eaters [cf. No. 7548] loooo p' A ; loooo ; Pin Money 50000 p Ann ; for 
Private Whim Wham[s] 50000 p' \A\. At the King's r. hand are three 
large bags inscribed for Horses Hound[s] & other Nicknackatories. 

A satire on the futile successes and humiliating failures of the Flanders 
campaign, see Nos. 8337, 8341, 8345, 8355, 8427, 8434. Cf. No. 8496, &c. 
The Duke arrived in London on 7 Feb. with two aides-de-camp ; a military 
conference was held, Pitt and his colleagues tried unsuccessfully to secure 
his replacement as commander-in-chief by Cornwallis. Lond. Chron., 
8 Feb. ; Rose, Pitt and the Great War, pp. 204-5. For the Army's lack of 
confidence in the Duke, see Windham Papers, 191 3, i. 239 ff.; for the 
injustice of the adverse reports, Malmesbury, Diaries, iii. 17-18; cf. Drop- 
more Papers, ii. 644, 650, and No. 8327, &c. For a similar gibe at official 
optimism see No. 8458. For Pitt's budget see Pari. Hist. xxx. 1353 ff. 
and No. 8504. He proposed a loan of ;^i 1,000,000, additional taxes on 
spirits, bricks, and tiles, &c., crown and plate glass, and attorneys. For the 
'swinish multitude' cf. No. 8500, &c. For the supposed miserliness of the 
King and Queen see No. 7836, &c. For the 'march to Paris' cf. No. 8826. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 176 (reproduction); Wright and Evans, No. no. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
iif Xi4i in. 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Publ Feby 10 1294 by SW Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). English sansculottes, wearing bonnets- 
rouges and without breeches, advance with offerings towards the hideous 



embodiment of republican liberty, a woman straddling across a pyramid 
of gin-barrels. Stanhope is the foremost; a model of the House of Lords 
on his head, he offers a Bible^ sceptre, and crown, while a mitre falls 
from his hand (see No. 8442, &c.). Next is Sheridan, a model of The Bank 
on his head. Fox, next, is by his bulk the most prominent of the band. He 
carries the India House on his head (as in No. 6271) ; in his 1. hand he drags 
along the royal arms, from which the British Lion is departing in disgust, 
cf. No. 6380, &c. Behind him walks Whitbread with three barrels on his 
head inscribed Whitbreads Intire (cf. No. 8638). Next walks the immensely 
rich Duke of Bedford, carrying a staff to which is attached a bill or bank- 
note: £5 London Promise Five (erased) Noland [for Newland, cf. No. 7839] ; 
from his pocket issues a paper. Item to remember my own Poverty B — -f — 

D . Last, and on the extreme 1., is Erskine, carrying on his head a 

pile of books: Treason \ Law of \ Libel \ Misprison of [Treason]. 

The monstrous emblem of the French Republic (cf. No. 8442) has a 
wide grin; serpents writhe in her unkempt hair, spitting out a halo of 
flames inscribed: Rapine, Murder, Famine, Atheism; other serpents emerge 
from between her pendent breasts. In her r. hand is a bottle of Gin, in 
her 1. a knife; her dress is ragged, with a belt inscribed Republiq[ue]. The 
topmost of the barrels on which she sits is Hollands Gin, from a barrel on 
the r. emerges a bewildered-looking Dutchman. Her r. foot rests on a 
skull. At her feet lies Justice, decapitated, her (broken) sword beside her, 
while Stanhope kicks the scales which she has dropped. Above the design : 
The British Delegates Respectful application for Peace. Beneath the title is 
etched : Dedicated to those Lovers of French Freedom who would thus Debase 
their Country. 

An attack on the Opposition similar in spirit to No. 8424. It was 
probably inspired by Stanhope's motion of 23 Jan. 1794 to acknowledge 
the French Republic. Pari. Hist. xxx. 1287-97; ^- Stanhope and G. P. 
Gooch, Life of Charles third Earl Stanhope, 1914, pp. 126-8. Stanhope 
was in correspondence with Barere. Ibid., p. 134. Fox had made a motion 
for peace with France on 17 June 1793 {Pari. Hist. xxx. 994 ff.), cf. No. 
8437, &c. The coalition is remembered, as in No. 83 11, &c. The conquest 
of Holland, see No. 8608, &c., is foreshadowed. For Bedford's 'poverty' 
cf. No. 9167, &c. 
9|Xi4f in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub Feby 10 iyg4 by J Aitken N" 14 Castle Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). An hour-glass in which the sands have 
almost run out. The contour of the two cones is irregular and defines 
profiles of Pitt (1.) and the King (r.), their noses almost meeting at the 
waist of the glass. 

Probably an expression of the disappointment caused by the failure before 
Dunkirk, see No. 8341, and the abandonment of Toulon, see No. 8434. 
For the disappointments of 1793-4 see Nos. 8425, 8496, &c. For a more 
sinister interpretation cf. No. 8365, &c. For similar profiles see Nos. 8474, 
8475. The earliest use of 'puzzle', in this sense, in the O.E.D. is 1814. 



IC—ks Del 

London Pub Feb^ 14 [? 1794] by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly where 
Folios of Caracatures are Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving. A design in two compartments: 

Lambeth. A fat parson and two ladies are seated at a dinner-table, 
guzzling. On the table-cloth is a small mitre with crossed croziers. A 
gothic window indicates Lambeth Palace. The parson, evidently the 
Archbishop, Moore (r.), his mouth crammed, and plying his knife and fork, 
says to a young woman sitting opposite him : do you chuse any More ; she 
answers. No More I thank ye. Between them, full-face, sits a fat, gaily 
dressed lady. On the table are a large tureen decorated with a mitre, 
fish, a hare, wine, &c. A footman enters from the r. carrying a capon. On 
the wall is a framed text: Abstain from Worldly Lusts not given to Feasting 
& Gluttony. Above it is etched. Is this a fast that I have Chosen. 

Spital Fields. A destitute weaver's family in a poverty-stricken room. 
A young mother seated by a table attempts to suckle an infant ; a little girl 
clamours at her knee. The man sits in profile to the r., gloomily con- 
templating a print of a footpad and his victim pinned on the wall. He sits 
by a hearth on which there is a scanty fire; a little boy (r.) crouches over 
it, looking over his shoulder at a starving cat which gnaws an old shoe. 
Through the missing frame of a casement window is seen a manufatory \sic'\ 
falling in ruins in a snowy and desolate setting. On the wall are two large 
placards, each a subscription list: Subscibtion for Family in Distress in 
Consequence of the War ; its three columns are blank except for one meagre 
entry. A List of Subscribtion[s] for Emigrant Clergy has three columns 
closely filled, and a total of 10,000. 

There was great distress in the Spitalfields silk-trade at this time : 'whole 
families without fire, without raiment, without food.' See M. D. George, 
London Life in the XVIII Century, p. 126. Fanny Burney was active in 
the appeal for subscriptions for the emigrant clergy, publishing a pamphlet 
in 1793. For distress due to war cf. also No. 8328, &c. There were many 
squibs on the fasts, combined with prayers for the success of British arms, 
ordered by proclamation, see Miscellanies, 1829 (B.M.L., T. 1274/10). The 
print illustrates, perhaps anticipates, Coleridge (Feb. 1795): '. . . a Fast! — A 
word that implies prayers of hate to the God of Love — and after these a 
turbot feast for the rich, and their usual scanty morsel to the poor, if indeed 
debarred from their usual labour they can procure even this — ', Essays on 
his own Times, 1850, i. 45 ; cf. also 'Essay on Fasts', ibid., pp. 120 ff. See 
Nos. 8323, 8707, 8801. 

/ Cruikshank 

Loud Pub: Feb^ ig iyg4 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly where 
Folios of Caracatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). A young officer in back view tries to 
teach five lanky soldiers to present arms. They stand in different positions, 
holding their muskets in a variety of ways; one (r.) aims his musket, turn- 
ing his head away from the direction of fire. The officer points with his 



cane at a grinning soldier (r,) standing correctly. All the men are smartly 
dressed in regimentals, but wear differently shaped cocked hats, a busby, 
&c. Behind is a hedge with a stile (r.) leading to a country church. 
8^Xi2f in. 


Miss Mary Stokes deV [Gillray.] 

Pu¥ Fel/y 2&^ iyg4. by H. Humphrey N i8. Old Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an irregular oval. A French- 
man (bust) glares to the r., showing his teeth fiercely. He has long unkempt 
hair, a bristly beard, and wears a bonnet rouge with a tricolour cockade, 
and an ear-ring ; his sleeve is splashed with blood. Above the design : Vive 
la Republique! que tons les Tyrans mordent la poussiere! — Point de Religion 
(cf. No. 8350). 

A companion print to No. 8431. Cf. also Nos. 8435, 8436. Gillray 
appears to be simulating the manner of an imaginary amateur, cf. No. 
8812, &c. 

Wright and Evans, No. 108. de Vinck, No. 61 15. Reprinted, G.W.G., 



Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 8430. Design 
in an irregular oval. A woman (bust) glares fiercely to the 1., her mouth 
closed and drawn down. Her cap and fichu are decked with tricolour 
ribbons, and in her cap is a dagger, point upward and dripping blood. 
Above the design : Des Tetes! — du Sang! — la Mort! — a la Lanterne! — a la 
Guillotine. — point de Reine! — Je suis la Deesse de la Liberte [cf. No. 8350] — 
Vegalite! — que Londres soit brule! — que Paris soit Libre!! — Vive la Guillo- 
tine! — 

Wright and Evans, No. 107. de Vinck, No. 61 16. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Fuchs, p. 139. 
5|X4f in. 

[ ? Nixon del.] 

Published March i^ 1794. by I. Downes N° 240 Strand. 

Engraving. A scene at Brighton; some Frenchmen have landed on the 
beach; others are in broad clumsy boats which have left French men- 
of-war. In the foreground old women and yokels are dealing with 
the invaders. A woman resembling Martha Gunn, the bathing- woman, 
trampling on prostrate bodies, holds out at arm's length a kicking French 
soldier. Two lean and ragged fops (1.) kneel before two irate women, one 
wielding a spit, the other an oar. A yokel uses his pitchfork to raise a 
prostrate man; he is smoking a pipe. Fat soldiers or volunteers advance 
from the r., one carrying a basket of pistols. Behind (r.) is the high sea- 
front backed by houses. From this upper level guns are being fired at the 
boats, some of which founder, and at the ships. The nearest boat, half 

' Signature and imprint as No. 8430. 


sunk, displays a guillotine. In bathing-boxes inscribed Smodker (y) and 
(8) are Fox and Sheridan, furtively looking out. The figures in the fore- 
ground are burlesqued, the fighting absurd. In the distance soldiers are 
drawn up on the beach firing at the invaders under the command of a 
mounted officer. The first row kneel, the second fire standing. Spectators 
watch from behind a sea wall and from the windows of the nearest house. 
The invasion and revolutionizing of England was the declared policy of 
the Republic, and there had already been paper schemes for putting it into 
execution, all abortive through the weakness of the navy. See Desbrieres, 
Projets de debarquement aux lies britanniques, 1900, i. 13 ff. ; Rose, Pitt and 
the Great War, 1911, pp. 101-3; Sorel, U Europe et la iii. 272, 344. 
Cf. Danton, 10 Mar. 1793, '. . . si la France marchait, les republicains 
d'Angleterre vous donneraient la main, et I'univers serait libre'. Ibid. 
John Miles or 'Smoaker' was for many years 'chief bather' at Brighton, 
see True Briton, 17 Feb. 1797 (obituary). See Nos. 8346, 8518, 8642, 8979, 
9034, 9160, &c., 9164, 9165, 9176, &c., 9180-3, 9187, 9207. 
i5|X22i in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March 7 iyg4^ by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly who has 
just fitted up his Exhibition room in an Entire Novel and Elegant 
Stile admittance i shilling folios of Caricatures lent out 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Duke of York stands astride a piece 
of water, his 1. foot planted on Germany, his r. foot on England. He is 
dressed half as a bishop (1.), half as a military officer (r.), his person bisected 
by a vertical line. His mitre is poised over his r. temple ; the r. half of his 
person (the spectator's 1.) wears a lawn sleeve and black gown,' but in his 
r. hand is an uplifted sword. The other half wears regimentals with half 
a cocked hat, but in his 1. hand is a crozier. Labels issue from his mouth 
to 1. and r. : A sett of infamous Blood-thirsty Rascaly Sans Culottes, given 
to D — D Drunkenness, Gaming & all kinds of Debauchery (and) / zvill 
extirpate thee from the face of the Earth! Without the least spark of Religion. 

B 1 them, I, II order those fellows of Officers to cut them to pieces instantly, 

they shall soon know who they have t-t-to deal with. 

The Duke of York, commander-in-chief in Flanders, was Bishop of 
Osnaburgh. Many unfounded reports of his supposed debauched conduct 
in Flanders were circulated in England. See Nos. 8327, 8425, &c. For 
similar prints of militant bishops cf. Nos. 2635, 5343. 


London Pu¥ by P. Roberts 28 Middle-row, Holborn.^ [? March 1794] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (r.) sits at a table in profile to the I., 
his head supported on his hand, his hair rising from his head (as in No. 

' The 4 is perhaps etched over a 3. 

* Prints were published by Roberts c. 180 1-3, but the imprint may have been 
added at a later date. 



8517). At his elbow are three large bags inscribed Subscription Money, 
under his 1. hand are papers: The Loss of Tolon [sic], and, A Plan for 
Raising a sum to Enab[le] His Maj[esty] to Carry on the War. The King 
and Queen have entered from the 1., both wearing hats, and advance 
towards him ; the King says, Dear Dear How. How. How. How. his Spirits 
are Sinking. Both have expressions of alarmed concern; the Queen's 1. 
hand (a large ring on her little finger) rests on the table, on which are piles 
of coins and an ink-pot. Behind Pitt's chair (r.) is the Devil saying Work 
the Public Billy. On the extreme r., and looking through a door, a man 
( ? Dundas) stands gazing at Pitt, his finger to his nose. 

Toulon was evacuated by the Allies on 19 Dec. 1793 (see Nos. 9157, 
9231), Parliament met on 21 Jan. 1794. Dundas had issued circulars 
recommending that bodies of volunteers should be formed, and that a 
public subscription should be raised for the purpose. Attacks were made 
in both Houses on 'Voluntary Aids for Public Purposes without the Con- 
sent of Parliament', and Dundas's circular of 14 Mar. 1794 was laid before 
the House (24 and 28 Mar.). Pari. Hist. xxxi. 83 ff. ; Stanhope, Life of 
Pitt, 1879, ii. 33-4. A similar issue was raised in 1778, see No. 5471. For 
Pitt's budget, &c., see No. 8425; for military and diplomatic failures, 
No. 8496, &c. Cf. No. 8631. 

A French copy (aquatint) of this print (not in B.M.) has the title Guillot 
effraye ou Pitt aux Expediens. The inscriptions are emprunt de 5 millions 
pour des subsides secrets', Plans manques; Succes de la flotte de Rochefort; 
Sortie de la flotte Toulon. The Dq\iI szys, Travaille le public Guillot. The 
King says, vois, vois, vois comme il perd courage ; the Queen, Ouais! comme 
le bon homme rumine. de Vinck, No. 4390 (where the man looking through 
the door is identified as Fox). (8|x 13 1 in.) 


I Cruikshank Del 

London Pub: March 10 iyg4 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has 

just fitted up his caracature Exhibition in an Entire novel stile 

admit J* folios lent out. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 8436. A 
French ruffian, wearing ragged tricolour of a fashionable cut, stands full- 
face, his head turned in profile to the r., glaring ferociously. In his r. hand 
is a bludgeon from whose spiked head protrudes a dagger-blade ; his 1. hand 
is on his hip, negligently holding a dagger which drips blood. Another 
dagger fastens his coat across his chest. From his pocket protrudes a dead 
infant, labelled/or a stew (cf. No. 8122). Two pistols are stuck in his belt, 
which is inscribed Wa[r'\ War. Eternal War. Behind (1.) is an altar from 
which a crucifix has been thrown down; it is inscribed This is our God, 
irradiated, and with four winged heads. On it is a guillotine. In the back- 
ground (r.) is a gibbet from which three bodies hang. Bones lie on the 

The Reign of Terror was at its height from Sept. 1793 (Law of Suspects, 
17 Sept.) to July 1794. For the 'dechristianisation' of France, cf. No. 8350. 
Probably suggested by No. 8430. 

de Vinck, No. 61 13. 
ioJX7f in. 



IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March 10 iyg4. by S W Fores N. 3 Piccadilly, who has 
fitted up his Caracature Exhibition in an Entire novel stile admit J* 
NB folios lent out 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A companion print to 
No. 8435. A virago in ragged garments stands full-face, looking to the 1., 
her jaw thrust forward, with open mouth showing fang-like teeth. Her 
wrists are crossed above her waist, in her 1. hand is a pistol which she care- 
lessly fires downwards, point-blank at a poor man who lies on the ground 
(1.); in her r. hand is a dagger. Her loose hair blows to the 1.; in it is 
twined a ribbon inscribed War War Eternal War, and ornamented with 
three daggers en aigrette. A model of the guillotine hangs from her neck ; 
another tiny guillotine hangs from her ear. Over a short ragged petticoat 
she wears a piece of fringed drapery decorated with skulls and cross-bones, 
perhaps part of a church pall. 

In the background (r.) is an inn; the sign is the bleeding head of Louis 
XVI ; from it hangs a naked corpse. Outside it men are playing bowls with 

Ornaments were produced during the Terror on which a guillotine was 
depicted. See J. Grand- Carteret, L'Histoire, La Vie, les Moeurs . . ., iv, 
1928, fig. 361. Women in Tours hung little gold guillotines to their ears. 
E. and J. de Goncourt, Hist, de la Societi franfaise pendant la Revolution, 
p. 466. Probably suggested by No. 8431. 

de Vinck, No. 61 14. Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Karikatur, 
1906, p. 463. 

ySf [Sayers.] 

Publ'^ I'j March iyg4 by H Humphrey N" i8 Old Bond Street 

Engraving. The first of a set of seven prints : Outlines of the Opposition. . . . 
A satyr (1.), seated at an easel, paints a head of Fox wearing a cocked hat 
in which is a French cockade. Behind (r.) another satyr takes from a bust 
of Fox a smiling mask inscribed Patriotism, revealing his forehead, on 
which is the word Faction. Beside the easel lies a pile of four massive 
volumes of Parliamentary Speeches. Against this pile rests a large port- 
folio inscribed Outlines \ of the \ Opposition \ collected \ from the Designs \ 
of the most capital Jacobin Artists. 

See Nos. 8438-43. Sets were issued bound in coarse paper. A similar 
set was published in 1795, see No. 8636, &c. Cf. also No. 8449, &c. 
ii|X9iin. (pi.). 



Pu¥ ly March i'jg4 by H Humphrey 

See No. 8437. Fox stands on a pedestal turned from the spectator and 
lunging forward to the 1., his 1. arm extended to strike the Royal Arms. 
These, inscribed G.R, are in the upper 1. corner of the design; the lion and 

81 G 


unicorn look fiercely at Fox, In his r. hand, which is held out behind him, 
he grasps a paper as if speaking in the House of Commons. On the 
top of the pedestal is a large book on which he stands: Good Ground of 
Opposi{tion\ Subscription Book. On it and between his feet is a cylindrical 
money-box, padlocked. 

One of many satires in which Fox attacks the Crown, see No. 6380, &c. 
For the subscription see No. 8331, &c. 


JSf [Sayers.] 

Pu¥ 17 March 1794 by H Humphrey 

See No. 8437. Lord Lauderdale (r.), riding a rocking-horse (a spirited 
animal on massive rockers), turns round to look at the headless Brissot, 
who runs forward from the 1., his head under his 1. arm, his r. arm stretched 
out admonishingly. Lauderdale turns his head in profile to the 1. on a long, 
snake-like neck, his round hat flies off. The horse also turns its head ; the 
rockers are inscribed Reform, and pass over a document with a pendent 
seal : Nolumus Leges Angliae mutari. A label issues from Brissot's neck : 

To lead the Crowd midst Faction's Storm 
I rode your Hobby horse Reform 

And found my Arts prevail 
Till other Lev'llers rul'd the Mob 
And then I lost my Seat and Nob 

Take Warning L 

Lauderdale is plainly dressed in a long double-breasted coat, Brissot 
wears lace ruffles. 

Brissot, a theoretical republican who wished to save the King, was a 
leader of the Brissotins or Girondins. They were denounced by Robes- 
pierre as moderates; he and twenty-one of the party were executed on 
31 Oct. 1793. Lauderdale, one of the founders of the 'Friends of the 
People' (1792), was in France from Aug. to Dec. 1792, forming an 
acquaintance with Brissot. On his return he took every opportunity of 
protesting against the war, and is said to have appeared in the Lords on 
one occasion dressed as a Jacobin. D.N.B. Cf. a Tory tract: Brissot's 
Ghost, or Intelligence from the Other World, Edinburgh, 1794 (he visits a 
radical meeting). For Lauderdale as Brissot, see No. 8453. 
lof X9I in. 


JSf [Sayers.] 

PubP 17 March 1794 by H Humphrey 

See No. 8437. Beaupre's equestrian statue of George III (as Marcus 
Aurelius) has advanced towards the brick wall of Berkeley Square; the 
King (r.) looks through a spy-glass into the garden of Lansdowne House. 
Just above the wall appear hats with republican cockades which are being 
waved ; labels ascend enclosing the words of the invisible speakers : Vive 
Barrere ; (^a ira pa ira ; (^a ira fa ira ga ira. Behind (1.) is the pediment of 
Lansdowne House and on the r. are trees. 



A seditious assembly is supposed to be meeting in the garden of 
Lansdowne House. Lansdowne's motion for peace with France on 17 Feb. 
1794 was defeated by 103 votes to thirteen. Pari. Hist. xxx. 1391-1424. 
See also Nos. 8443, 8461. Barere, a self-regarding terrorist (cf. No. 8451), 
was in correspondence with Stanhope (see No. 8448, &c.). 
11X9I in. 



Puhl^ ly March iyg4 by H Humphrey 

See No. 9437. Sheridan stands in profile to the 1., with fallen jaw and 
disconcerted expression, before a hoarding across the front of Carlton 
House, in which is a lion's-head knocker which looks fiercely at him. Over 
the hoarding appear the huge hands, head, and shoulders of Big Sam, the 
(former) porter at Carlton House (see No. 7905), wearing a round hat with 
a curled brim and the motto Ich dien. He looks down, saying, no Admittance 
Sir We are all loyal. On the hoarding (r.) are two play-bills: Drury Lane 
The Second Part of King Henry the IV .... The Manager in Distress (by 
George Colman, 1780, here an allusion to Sheridan's position); Covent 
Garden Venice preser[ved] or a Plot discove[red] (Otway, 1682). 

For the attitude of the Prince of Wales see No. 83 11. For the Prince 
as Prince Hal, with Sheridan as Bardolph, cf. No. 6974. 
11^X9! in. 


yS [Bayers.] 

Publ'^ ly March iyg4 by H Humphrey 

See No. 8437. Stanhope, striding forward in profile to the I., approaches 
an altar to 'French Principles', while with his 1. foot and 1. hand he over- 
turns a bishop seated behind him on a bench. On the summit of a quasi- 
cylindrical altar is the seated figure of a female monster with webbed 
wings, snaky hair, and pendent breasts, a firebrand in the r. hand, a dagger 
in the 1. Behind her stands a foppish Frenchman with a simian head, 
dressed as a soldier, one foot resting on a large skull. In his r. hand is a 
headsman's axe, in his 1. he holds out to Stanhope a hangman's noose. 
Stanhope places on the altar a paper inscribed in large letters : Philosophy 
Atheism Rapine Murder. The altar itself is decorated with a headsman's 
axe and block, the word Liberte in a wreath, and shackles. At its foot lie 
a cross and an overturned chalice. 

The bishop's head is turned in back view; he topples backwards as 
Stanhope kicks his bench; he represents the bench of bishops, cf. Nos. 
7539, 7639, 8448. For 'dechristianisation' in France, cf. No. 8350; for the 
personification of French principles. No. 8426. 

Reproduced, Stanhope and Gooch, Life of Charles, third Earl Stanhope, 
1914, p. 153. 

' 'Don' is scored through but conspicuously legible. 



ySf [Sayers.] 

PubF ly March iyg4 by H Humphrey Bond Street 
See No. 8437. In the foreground is a cylindrical altar inscribed Sacred to 
Peace. Behind and above it, on a high rectangular pedestal, sits Lansdowne, 
double-headed, as Janus, wearing peer's robes. Both heads smile, one faces 
T.Q. to the L, the other is in profil perdu to the r. He points a rolled docu- 
ment at a guillotine (1.) whose cord is held by a skeleton with the head of 
Stanhope; the blade is about to be released on the neck of a bull (John 
Bull), whose head is confined in the machine, fixing the adjacent altar with 
an agonized stare. Stanhope turns his head to look up at Lansdowne, 
saying, fa ira fa ira fa ira; he waves a cocked hat in which is a French 
cockade, the word Stanhope inscribed in the crown. 

Beside the altar (r.) stands the Duke of Grafton, wearing top-boots, 
looped hat, and his accustomed tight-waisted and full-skirted coat with 
a star. He holds out a fire-brand to documents which lie on the altar: 
Magna Charta, Bill of Rights, Act of Settlement, with three volumes of 
Statutes at Large (cf. No. 8287, &c.). The altar is decorated with garlands 
of olive leaves, with a central emblem of dagger and fire-brand. Behind 
Lansdowne (r.) stands Priestley, his hands folded, looking towards the 
sacrifice with a beatific smile. 

A satire on Lansdowne's motion for peace with France, 17 Feb. 1794. 
He was supported by Grafton (and by Guilford and Lauderdale) ; Stanhope 
did not speak. It was defeated by 103 to 13. Pari. Hist. xxx. 1391-1424. 
For Stanhope's uncompromising opposition to the Government during the 
session and the consequent congratulations of the London Corresponding 
Society, see Stanhope and Gooch, Life of Charles, third Earl Stanhope, 
pp. 126 ff. Cf. Nos. 8840, 8461. 


Published April 12''* iyg4. by John Wallis, N° 16, Ludgate Street, London. 
Engraving (coloured impression). An outline map of France on which 
emblems and words are engraved; these are explained on a printed slip. 
Five fires burn on the frontiers: 'Fire in every Quarter.' Two serpents 
enclose the word France: 'France divided by Serpents.' A bare foot 
tramples on the word Honor, The word Glory is scored through ; the word 
Religion is 'cut to pieces'. Two bubbles represent 'Law and Justice'. The 
word Danger surrounds a circle enclosing the word Life: 'Life in Danger.' 
Property is similarly enclosed in Secured: 'Property in-secured.' 

The revolts against the Republic in La Vendee, Lyons, Marseilles, and 
Bordeaux had been quelled; Toulon was evacuated by the British and 
Spaniards on 18 Dec. 1793. 

A similar French satire, La France comme elle va, is de Vinck, No. 4366. 
Cf. No. 9174. 
2lJX4f in. 


London Published by W*" Holland ATo 50 Oxford Street April 21'^ 1794 
Engraving (coloured impression). Two asses with human heads stand back 
to back, each in a low rectangular box inscribed My ass, in a Band box. One 



(1.) has the head of Sheridan, in profile to the 1. He is painfully thin and 
is the smaller animal in a smaller box. Fox (r.) is in rather better case, 
his head is turned slightly towards the spectator. 

The inscription on the boxes is a coarse answer to the offer of something 
inadequate to the purpose, like a band-box for a seat. Grose, Diet. Vulgar 
Tongue, 1796; cf. No. 7793. Sheridan's position (financial and political) 
is represented as more hopeless than that of Fox (cf. No. 8331, &c.). 
9fXi3f in. 

[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Publishd as the Act directs. April 24"" 1794 by S W Fores N° 3 

Engraving (coloured impression). A small sansculotte juggler, running in 
profile to the 1., balances on his chin the hilt of a dagger, on whose point 
rests the pointed base of a large cup, across the top of which straddles a 
nude monster, with the ears and beard of a satyr. His fingers and toes 
are talons; in his r. hand he holds out by the hair the decollated head 
of Louis XVI, in his 1. hand that of Marie Antoinette. On his head are 
five daggers, their points meeting to form a Cap of Liberty. Two labels 
issue from his ferociously grinning mouth: Ca ira, Ca ira, Ca ira, and. 
Hold me well up or I will Bite ojf Your Head. The little man below, whose 
arms are folded, says. By Gar tis Var Heavy, O dear! O dear! it will Fall! 
The cup is decorated with bands of red, white, and blue. 

A satire on the Terror; for the executions see Nos. 8297, 8343, &c. Cf. 
No. 8426. For the connotation of Democracy cf. No. 8310. 

de Vinck, No. 5509. 
14^X9 in. 


Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i May 1794] 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iii. 100. A reissue of the r. part of 
No. 7753, representing a press-gang on Tower Hill. An accompanying 
dialogue indicates that a sailor goes willingly as long as he may be a volun- 
teer; the short grotesque man (an ex-sailor in No. 7753) repeats that he 
is a deformed creature, not capable of serving his country. 

The information for France drawn up in 1794 by Jackson (see No. 8713) 
on the temper of England, Scotland, and France contains the statement 
that 'There is much quietness on the part of seamen in being impressed'. 
State Trials, xxv. 844. See No. 8501. 
6|X4i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


Pu¥ May 3^ 1794. by H. Humphrey, N'^ Old Bond Street. 

Aquatint. Heading to printed verses: *A Ballad, Occasioned by a Certain 
Earl's styling himself a Sans Culotte Citizen in the House of Lords.' 
Stanhope, wearing a bonnet-rouge inscribed Liberty, tramples on a scroll 

^ 'of is etched over two notes of exclamation ; the original title appears to have 
been Democracy!! 



inscribed A Deo et Rege, beside which lies his (overturned) earl's coronet. 
He capers bare-legged, his breeches flutter to the ground from his 1. hand. 
In his r. is a tricolour flag inscribed Vive I Egalite; the flagstaff is sur- 
mounted by an ass's head, which looks down at Stanhope, who looks 
ecstatically up at it, his head turned in profile to the 1. Above the design: 
"—off, off, ye landings." 

Stanhope, his coronet, breeches, and flag, are in full light, the rest of 
the design is in shadow, clouds forming a background. On the 1. three 
members of the House of Lords flee, their backs towards him : the Lord 
Chancellor (Loughborough), in hat, wig, and robes, as the Speaker of the 
Lords, carrying a document : Vote of the House of Lords One Dissentient 
Stan[hope]. Next him is a judge carrying Magna Charta; the third is a 
bishop with a Bible under his arm. On the r. four ladies, one elderly, the 
others young (presumably his wife and daughters), hasten in alarm away 
from Stanhope. The first and third of fifteen verses : 

Rank character, distinction, fame, 
And noble birth forgot. 

Hear St****pe, modest Earl, proclaim 
Himself a Sans Culotte ! 

But, thrown away on lordly ears. 
His counsel none attend; 

No pattern take his brother Peers 
By St****pe's Latter End. 
A satire on Stanhope's speech and resolution of 4 Apr. 1794, when he 
condemned intervention in the affairs of France and read (to the bench of 
bishops) a passage from i Samuel, ch. viii, to prove that kings were a curse 
to mankind. The Lord Chancellor refused to read the preamble to the 
resolution from the Woolsack, it was negatived unanimously, and on 
Grenville's motion was expunged from the Lords' Journals. Pari. Hist. 
xxxi. 141-7, 198-205; Ann. Reg. 1794, pp. 211-12; Stanhope and Gooch, 
Life of Charles, third Earl Stanhope, pp. 130-1. Print described, ibid., 
p. 153. The (anonymous) verses are by G. Huddesford, and are reprinted 
in Crambe Repetita, 1799, pp. 73-5. See Nos. 8468, 8640. For Stanhope 
and the bishops, cf. Nos. 8426, 8442, &c. Cf. also No. 8365, &c. 
7 X 9jg in. Broadside, i8| X 1 1 1 in. 

ySf [Sayers.] 

Published 12^^ ^ May iyg4 by H Humphrey N° 18 Old Bond Street 
Engraving. Frontispiece to a set of eight satirical portraits (Nos. 8450-7), 
in which members of the Opposition are travestied as French republicans. 
With the set is a bonnet-rouge, printed in red on paper cut along the lower 
edge of the cap so that it can be fitted to the forehead, transforming the 
subject into the Frenchman of the title. A satyr sits on a pile of large 
volumes, directed to the 1., his head turned with a smile towards the 
spectator. In his r. hand he holds out a large bonnet-rouge with a French 
cockade, saying. If the Cap fit put it on. In his 1. is a large scroll inscribed: 
Illustrious Heads \ designed for a new History \ of \ Republicanism \ in French 
& English I dedicated to \ The Opposition \ 

"... mutato nomine de te" \ Fabula Narratur" 

NB The work will not be compleat \ till all the heads are taken off. On his 

' The 2 appears to have been added, the original date being *i*''. 



breast is an irradiated head, probably of Truth. The six books forming 
his seat are : Conventional Decrees ; Addresses from Societies for Reform 
in England \ Speeches of the Minority; Presbyterian Sermons; Pamphlets; 
Pamphlets. Three other volumes form a back to the seat. 

These titles stress : the aggressive foreign policy of France, and/or the 
laws establishing the Terror, see Nos. 8150, 8345, 8479; the addresses of 
the London Corresponding Society and other radical clubs to the Conven- 
tion in 1792 ; the speeches of the Opposition advocating peace with France, 
see No. 8443 ; the attitude of the dissenters, cf. No. 7690. For pamphlets 
cf. Nos. 9240, 9243, 9345. 

A set of these prints is stitched together, with a (contemporary) cover 
of rough paper. Another set is without serial numbers. 
ii|x8|in. (pL). 



Pu¥ 12*^ May 1794 by H Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. The head of Fox, looking to the 1. and frowning. 
Fox, often traduced as a would-be dictator, cf. No. 6380, &c., is compared 
with Robespierre. 
8i|X7in. (pi.). 

8451 BARRERE 2 

Publ'^ 12^^ May 1794 by H Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. The head of Sheridan in a similar position to 
that of Fox in No. 8450, scowling and deeply furrowed. Sheridan is com- 
pared with the shifty, self-seeking Barere (cf. No. 8440). 

Another impression, defaced by scrawled lines so fine that they are incon- 
8/gX7in. (pi.). 



Pu¥ i^ May 1794 by H Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. The head and shoulders of Stanhope, looking 
to the 1., r. arm raised in the attitude of an orator. He wears a large cocked 
hat. Beneath the title: VOrateur du Genre humain. Citoyen actif & Sans 
Culotte. The bonnet-rouge does not fit this head. 

The Prussian, Clootz, denounced for his ideas on a universal republic 
for all humanity, was guillotined with the Hebertists on 24 Mar. 1794. 
For Stanhope cf . No. 8448 ; for his awkward gesticulations, No. 6960. 
8/gX7in. (pi.). 

8453 BRISSOT 4 


Publ^ 12^^ May 1794 by H Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. A bust portrait of Lauderdale, the head turned 
in profile to the r., with a fixed, smiling stare, both arms raised as if in 



violent gesticulation. Beneath the title : Citoyen actif & Sans culotte. For 
Lauderdale and Brissot see No. 8439. 
8|X7in. (pi.). 

8453 A Another version, the head directed T.Q. to the r. The same title, 
no signature or imprint. 

Sixyin. (pi.). 

8454 CAMILLE DES MOULINS [12 May 1794] 5 


Engraving. See No. 8449. The head and shoulders of Courtenay, leaning 
forward to the r. He wears a cocked hat with a cockade. After the title : 
anglice Joe Miller Orateur vif & sans Culotte. 

Sayers pilloried Courtenay's verses on Dr. Johnson as deriving from 
Joe Miller in No. 7052 (1786). For the contempt with which his speeches 
were regarded in 1794 see D. Marshall, Rise of Canning, 1938, pp. 64-5. 
Desmoulins was guillotined with the Dantonists on 5 Apr. 1794. 
8/5X7 in. (pi.). 



Publ^ 12^^ May 1794 by H. Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. The head and shoulders of Philip Francis, his 
head turned in profile to the 1., with the baleful stare characteristic of 
Sayers's portraits of Francis as the enemy of Hastings, cf. No. 7292. 
Beneath the title : Citoyen actif & sans Culotte. 

Philippeaux (Pierre), a Dantonist, was guillotined on 5 Apr. 1794. 

Reproduced, K. L. Murray, Beloved Marion, 1938, p. 78. 
8|x6/ein. (pL). 

8456 CHAUVELIN. 7 


Pu¥ 12^^ May 1794 by H Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. A head of Lansdowne, looking to the r. with 
an inscrutable expression. 

Lansdowne is compared with Chauvelin, Jacobin, diplomat, and ci- 
devant marquis (see No. 8088), who was shortly to be imprisoned in Paris ; 
he was saved by the fall of Robespierre. 
8^X7 in. (pi.). 

8457 EGALITfi 8 


Pubh 12^^ May 1794 by H. Humphrey 

Engraving. See No. 8449. A head of Grafton in profile to the r. After the 
title : ci devant noble. 

Grafton, a descendant of Charles H, is compared with Orleans, a 
descendant of Louis XHL He owes his position in the series to his speech 
on Lansdowne's motion for peace with France (see No. 8440) rather than 



to consistent support of the Opposition. He also voted for the Duke of 
Bedford's motion on 30 May for putting an end to the war with France. 
Cf. No. 8479. 
8/gX7in. (pL). 


[L Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ May 12 1794 hy SW Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three H.L. figures: George III (John 
Bull) between Fox. (1.) and Pitt (r.), both addressing him through the horns 
used by news-boys for crying their wares. The King, goggling with dismay, 
stands in profile to the r., facing Pitt, who grasps in his r. hand a paper 
inscribed True Britton, saying. Great News arrivd front France, Paris taken 
and more Cannon, Cartridge, Balls, Bombs & Assignats, than they can find 
room for, also 100,000 Skelletons of Sam Culotts, Carmignoles &c &c ready 
Dried for the Surgeons!! — NB will prevent the Robbing of Church Yards, & 
to be Sold remarkably cheap — too — too — too — Rare News for Old England!!! 
Fox, in ragged coat and bonnet-rouge, holds under his arm a sheaf of the 
Chronicle. He tootles into the King's ear the words : Horrid Bloody News 
just arrived from France the Combined Armies after a Severe Engagement 
were all Cut into Cabbage for the National Convention! ! ! too — too — too. The 
King, who wears the Windsor uniform with a broad-brimmed hat and holds 
a riding -whip, exclaims: What — what — what Cabbage and Carmignoles 
Frederick killd he Frederick. Fox has the expression of a conspiratorial 
scaremonger, Pitt is blandly reassuring. 

Cf. No. 8425. The Duke of York defeated the French in the cavalry 
action of Willems on 10 May, but was left in great numerical inferiority 
to the French, pending the battle of Turcoing 18 May, when the English 
and Austrian armies were defeated in detail before they could form a 
junction. Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iv. 248 ff. 

The True Briton was a Ministerial (cf. No. 8981), the Morning Chronicle 
an Opposition paper, cf. No. 9240. The title probably derives from John 
Bull bothered. No. 8 141. Grose, Diet. Vulgar Tongue, gives 'Bothered or 
Both-eared, Talked to at both ears by different persons at the same time, 
confounded, confused. Irish phrase". Bother had also the meaning of 
blarney or humbug, both verb and noun; the earliest instance in the 
O.E.D. is 1803, but cf. No. 8385. For Fox as news-boy, cf. No. 8981. 


Published as the Act Directs May 12. iyg4. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Volunteers, wearing cavalry uniform 
and mounted on calves, gallop away (r. to 1.) from dismounted French 
soldiers wearing jack-boots. The centre figure escapes by cutting off the 
tail of his calf with his sabre, causing a Frenchman to fall to the ground 
grasping the bleeding tail. Two Frenchmen hold the tail of a calf which 
his rider vainly urges forward with uplifted sabre. A stout volunteer (1.) 
kneels in supplication behind the vanishing hind-quarters of his mount. 
A French soldier holds aloft a calf's head on a pike; behind (r.) is the 
decapitated body. In the foreground (r.) a Frenchman takes aim. In the 



background (1.) volunteers gallop off in close formation. The Frenchmen 
are lean and simian ; some wear cocked hats, others bonnets-rouges. 

A satire on the volunteer forces which were being raised by subscription 
in various counties. Rose, Pitt and the Great War, pp. 188-9. The greatest 
confusion exists as to the Yeomanry, Volunteers, local defence Associa- 
tions, formed chiefly in 1794, 1797, and 1798. Fortescue, Hist, of the 
British Army, iv. 891-5. In 1794 volunteer corps were raised either as 
companies dependent on the militia or as independent units, volunteer 
service being allowed as part of the county militia quota (34 Geo. 3, c. 16). 
'Associations' were formed (mainly as local police forces) in 1797 and 1798. 
'Essex Calves' was an old gibe at the inhabitants of Essex, cf. a Civil War 
satire, Kentish Long Tayles and Essex Calves . . ., 1648 (E. 447/22); cf. 
No. 8467. See also Nos. 8476, 8492, 8503, 8597. 
9|xi3f in. 


Published 12^^ May 1794 by Laurie & Whittle, 53, Fleet Street, 

A reissue of No. 4633 (1770). The inscription has become satirical: 

Bar bares Anglois! qui du meme Couteau 
Coupoient la tete au Roi et les queues aux cheveaux, 
Mais les Francois polis laissent aux Rois leurs tetes 
Et Encore comme vous voyez les Queues a leurs betes. 


JSf [Sayers.] 

Pubb^ 31"* May iyg4 by H Humphrey N" 18 Old Bond Street 

Aquatint. Lansdowne, dressed as a news-boy, steps through a door in the 
garden wall of Lansdowne House. Across his cap (a bonnet-rouge) is a 
paper: Gazette Extraordin^. He holds out a sheet headed with his arms 
and the title Gazette \ Extraordinary | ; Published without Authority \ 
Monday May 26^'* 1794 | Berkeley Square. Beneath, in two columns: 
Intelligence from America Lie the J*' Intelligence from France Lie the 2^ 
Intelligence from Holland Lie y 3^ Intelligence from Italy Lie y* 4*'' Intelli- 
gence from Algiers Lie the 5'* [signed] / am &c. Malagrida. In his 1. hand 
is a news-boy's horn and under his 1. arm a sheaf of his Gazette Extra- 
ordinary. Scrolls issue from his mouth: bloody News Great News and 
similar scrolls float above the gate from the garden of Lansdowne House 
(where conspirators are supposed to be shouting): fa ira Ca ira (cf. No. 
8443). Below the title: 

.... Credat Judceus Apella" 
"Non Ego". 

Lansdowne is represented as denying all reports of British successes 
(news of the capture of Martinique reached London on 21 Apr., of 
St. Lucia on 16 May). On 23 May news of the Duke of York's defeat at 
Turcoing-Roubaix (see No. 8458) reached London, on 25 May a supple- 
mentary dispatch from the Duke of York announcing the repulse of a 



French attack was published in a Gazette Extraordinary. On 30 May 
Lansdowne, speaking on Bedford's motion for putting an end to the war, 
maintained that the allied armies were unable to subjugate France. Pari. 
Hist. xxxi. 684. See No. 8440, &c. For 'Malagrida' see No. 4917. 
14X io\ in. 

8462 [ARMfiE ROYAL-CRUCHE.] [c. May 1794] 


Engraving (coloured impression). A French print without title but having 
numbers referring to an Explication engraved beneath the design. English 
soldiers (2), whose bodies are formed of earthenware pitchers, march with 
precision in two ranks on very thin legs. They wear high caps like elongated 
beehives, and have two standards: a (?) pig's head wearing a French 
crown, a small castle surmounted by a fool's head in cap and bells. Both 
are on long poles. Their leader is George III ( j), who marches in front, 
having a similar body but with very thick legs in jack-boots. He wears a 
night-cap, has ass's ears, and is led by a turkey-cock (Pitt, 3) in whose 
mouth are strings attached to the King's nose. An advanced guard (7) on 
the 1., wearing helmets, lies shattered, the pitchers are broken, and from 
them emerge snakes, toads, and rats. One man who stands without his 
pitcher has a body composed of a long neck or tube attached to two thin 
legs. The cause of the damage is the excrement which strikes them from 
the posteriors of four French sansculottes (6) who squat on the top of a 
massive but ruined (Roman) archway. A row of five large clyster-pipes 
mounted on gun-carriages (9) is in the middle distance ; on one of these 
sit three jockeys. Behind the troops (r.) a goose {8) wearing a hat (Fox) 
bestrides a man, who walks with his hands touching the ground, a trumpet 
issuing from his posteriors. The background is a landscape with bare hills. 

Explication. A*"" i. George Roi d'Angleterre commande en personne 
V elite de son Armee Royal-Cruche N° 2. II est conduit par son Ministre Pitt 
ou Milor Dindon N° 3 qui le tient par le Nez pour mieux lui prouver son 
attachement. L'avant-Garde de la Royal Armee N° 4. recoit un echec a la 
porte de la Ville N° 5, qui est occasione par la colique de quelques Sans- 
Culottes places au haut de la Porte N° 6. U avant-Garde dans sa defaite 
brise les cruches, dont il ne sort que toutes sortes de Betes venimeuses N° 7, 
qui est l' esprit qui les animes [sic]. Fox ou Milord Oie N° Sfernie la marche 
monte sur sa Trompette Angloise et qui temoin de Vechec sonne un rappel 
en arriere par prudence. Artillerie Angloise nouvelle N° 9 qui a la vertu 
d'eteindre les incendies et de delaier les fortifications. 

As is usual in French satires, George III is represented as an imbecile 
dominated by Pitt. Fox induces the populace to sound the trumpet for 
a retreat, apparently an allusion to his resolutions and speeches against the 
war with France. Pari. Hist. xxx. 423 ff. (18 Feb. 1793), 994 ff. (17 June 
1793), 1477 ff. (6 Mar. 1794); xxxi. 615 ff. (30 May 1794). Cf. No. 8437. 

David presented this and No. 8463 to the Committee of Public Safety, 
who ordered 5,000 impressions of each to be printed, of which 1,000 were 
for the Committee (500 coloured, 500 uncoloured), and a payment of 3,000 
livres to the artist. 29 Floreal an II (18 May 1794). He had been com- 
missioned by the Committee of Public Safety, 12 Sept. 1793, to provide 
prints and caricatures which should rouse public spirit and show the 
atrocity and absurdity of the enemies of Liberty and the Republic. Blum, 



de Vinck, No. 4391. Jaime, ii, PI. 54 G, a copy in reverse. Blum, 
No. 604. Cf. J. Lortel, 'David caricaturiste', in UArt et les artistes, mars 
1914 (not in B.M.L.). 
11^X19! in. 


NO 2. L'ANGLOIS Nfi LIBRE. [May 1794] 


Se trouve A Paris chez Bance, Rue S Severin N° 115. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A monster v^^ith a flayed body and the 
head of a demon is A^" i (the English Government). He strides forward 
in profile to the 1., turning his ferocious face to the spectator. He has 
serpents for hair, wears a (French) crown, has small webbed wings, and 
talons on hands and feet. He grasps with both hands a pole planted in 
the ground, and formed of a trident, a sceptre, a cross, a dove. Round 
his shoulders hangs a ribbon with the order of the Saint-Esprit. His 
posteriors are formed of the head of Georges Roi d'Angleterre in profile to 
the r. ; from the mouth issue smoke and thunderbolts inscribed : Itnpdts 
sur le Jour, Itnpdts sur la Terre, Itnpdts sur la Nouriture, Itnpdts sur les 
Vetemens, Itnpdts sur VAir, Itnpdts sur I'Eau. These are directed against 
a group of plainly dressed young men, some of whom have been thrown 
to the ground while others flee to the r. They are A^" 2, the free-born 
Englishman. On the extreme 1., behind the monster, is a pile of bales 
and barrels inscribed Itnpdts. Beneath the design : 


Ce Gouvertietnent est represente sous la figure d'un Diable ecorche tout vif, 
accaparant le Commerce et revetu de toutes les decorations Royal, le Portrait 
du Roi se trouve au derriere du Gouvernement lequel vomit sur son Peuple une 
multitude d'Impdts avec lesquelles il lefoudroye. Cette prerogative est attache 
au Sceptre et a la Couronne. 

One of two prints presented by David to the Committee of Public 
Safety on 18 May 1794, see No. 8462. 

Blum, No. 605. 

ANGLAIS. [May 1794] 


Engraving (coloured impression). A French print. Pitt (r.) leans forward 
to sharpen a dagger on a grindstone which is turned by a large wheel (1.). 
Within the wheel George III is walking as if in a treadmill, his hands rest- 
ing on the ascending curve, his tongue protruding. He is much carica- 
tured, wears a (French) crown with plain clothes and ungartered stockings. 
He is Georges Dandin, the foolish and elderly husband, tricked by a young 
wife, of MoHere's play. Beside Pitt and between the wheel and the grind- 
stone are daggers and bags of gold in groups (1. to r.): a dagger with four 
bags, one inscribed Cordai; a dagger with three bags, one inscribed Assasin 
Paris ; a similar group, the bag inscribed V Admiral; two daggers ; a dagger 
longer and more ornate than the others, inscribed Aittide Cecile Regnault, 
lies across a sceptre close to a crown. Beneath the design : Le fameux 



Ministre Pitt aiguisant les Poignards avec lesquels il veut faire assassiner 
les defenseiirs de la liberte des Peuples, le gros Georges Dandin tournant la 
roue et haletant de fatigue. 

The gold of Pitt (cf. No. 8363) is alleged to have paid for assassinations 
and attempted assassinations in France. For Charlotte Corday see No, 
8336, &c. Cecile Renaud visited Robespierre on 22 May 1794, intending 
to kill him; she was found in possession of a small pen-knife, and was 
guillotined on 17 June. On 23 May one Admiral fired two pistol shots 
point-blank at Collot d'Herbois without wounding him. For the theme of 
the domineering Minister and foolish King (Georges Dandin), cf. Nos. 
8363. 8517, 8674, 9164. 

The Committee of Public Safety ordered, 11 Prairial an II (30 May 
1794), a payment of 1,500 livres for i,ooo impressions. Blum, p. 192. 
Cf. Aulard, Etudes et kfons sur la, i^^ serie, 1893, p. 264. 

de Vinck, No. 4386 ; Blum, No. 594. 

A copy (coloured), reversed, without inscriptions, in Jaime, ii : Georges 
Tournant la Meule de pitt. 

8465 THE REFORMING PEER. [i June 1794] 

Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iii. 173. A reissue of No. 7895 
(1791). The text suspends judgement on Stanhope's attitude to France. 
Cf. No. 8442. 
5iX3i«8in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 

SMOKE. [i June 1794] 

Engraving. PI. to the Hibernian Magazine, 1794, i. 444. A prison (1.) is 
indicated by a large building, having an open Jailor's Room, with the 
occupant in bed asleep, 500 Sleeping Draft At Sight, beside the bed. 
Beside the prison is a sentry-box, the sentry asleep, a tankard at his feet. 
In the foreground are two turnkeys asleep, with coins and large keys 
beside them. A dog barks Police! Police! The escaping prisoner rides off 
to the r., saying. Liberty for ever, a label inscribed £35,000 hanging from 
his pocket. He rides through the smoke of a bonfire, round which men 
are huzzaing, one shouting Huzza for the May Bush. A woman looks from 
an ill-drawn coach to say to a double of the fugitive, who walks towards 
the prison. You look vastly like him ; he says Smoke him. 

Rowan (see No. 8358) determined to escape from the Dublin Newgate, 
where he was imprisoned for a seditious libel, on news of the arrest of 
Jackson (see No. 8713) which portended a charge of treason against him- 
self. He bribed a jailor to allow him to visit his Dublin house, and escaped 
thence to France. State Trials, xxii. 1 186-7; D.N.B. Cf. No. 8563. 
6 X 8f in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154. k. 


Puhlishd by W Brown King S* C. G" June 5 1794.'^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene in a country town (Chelmsford). 
Four men in a wagon are being assailed by a jeering crowd. A fifth 
clambers down but is pricked with a bayonet by a soldier. A man holds 

' Date uncertain: the final figure is not clear — perhaps 1799. 



up a noose of rope. Beneath the title, verses are etched in four columns 
beginning : 

Oh Charley! What mishaps awaited 

At Chelmsford those you delegated 

To puddle up the Calves petition. 

For Billy Pitt & Co^ dismission. 

They narrate that the rabble broke up the meeting, and dragged their 
rostrum, a wagon, towards the town gibbet ; the delegates, fearing disaster, 
managed to escape 'astern'. For 'Essex calves' cf. No. 8459. 
9jx io| in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub June 10 iyg4 hy S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Stanhope crouches in profile to the r., 
his elbows resting on his thighs ; he excretes into an inverted earl's coronet, 
and urinates upon an inverted mitre in which a small tree ( .'' of Liberty) 
is planted. Beside it are a book of Homilies and a Book [of] Common 
Pray[er]. He tears a profile bust portrait of George HI, dividing the head 
from the body. He wears a bonnet- rouge, a tattered tricolour blouse, a belt 
round the waist in which a dagger is thrust inscribed A Deo et Rege (his 
family motto). His legs are bare. The head is a very fair portrait, but his 
finger-nails and toe-nails are talons. 

One of several satires on Stanhope as a republican and an enemy of the 
bench of bishops. See No. 8442, &c. 


/ Cruikshank Del 

London Pub: June 16 iyg4 by S.W. Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has 

just fitted up his Exhibition in an Entire Novel Stile admittance one 


Engraving (coloured impression). Admiral Lord Howe stands in a shell- 
shaped car drawn by dolphins (as in No. 8352), a trident in his r. hand; 
in his 1. he holds cords attached to the prows of six French ships (r.), which 
advance in a row with tattered sails, British flags flying above the French 
tricolour. Under his feet is a tattered French flag. A mermaid with an 
olive branch and a merman with a bunch of oak-leaves rise out of the 
water (1.) on each side of the car. In the air (1.) flies a cherub with a British 
flag, blowing a trumpet from which emerges a large label : The Gods have 
Witnessed the scene & bear full Testimony to the Undaunted Spirit of the 
British Tars; & While Unanimity & Confidence reigns in the Fleet the 
British Flag shall ever Ride Triumphant!!! Another cherub holds a wreath 
above Howe's head. 

From the water in the foreground (r.) emerge heads and bonnets- rouges 
of drowning French sailors. A dolphin threatens with cavernous mouth 
a head which rises above the surface to cry Vive la Republique. Behind the 
captive ships two other ships are sinking. On the horizon (1.) battered 



French ships approach Brest, indicated by a tiny jetty flying the tricolour 

Official news of Howe's victory of the First of June reached London on 
10 June after many rumours; on 13 June Howe towed his six prizes into 
Spithead. The French convoy of food-suppHes from America, which it 
had been one of Howe's objects to intercept, reached Brest. See Mahon, 
Influence of Sea Power, iyg3-i8i2, 1892, pp. 122-61. See also Nos. 8470, 
8471, 8489, 8657, 9416. There are in the B.M. prints and plans of the 
action, and of the prizes being brought towards Spithead. 

Rd Newton del. Pro ...'[? bono publico] 

London Pub. by W'" Holland N° 50 Oxford St June 20, 1794 
In Holland's Exhibition Rooms may be seen the largest Collection of 
Caricature Prints in Europe. Admif^^ One Shilling 

Engraving. Howe rides (1. to r.) towards the coast on a rampant and fierce 
British lion, crowned and with tail erect; in the beast's mouth are cords 
attached to six French ships ; all but one are battered hulks. Howe turns 
his head to the 1. towards his prizes, frowning; he waves his cocked hat. 
On the shore in the background is a group of four sailors, waving their hats 
and cheering frantically; one has a wooden leg. In the foreground (1.) 
floats a cask of French Spirits whose contents gush out into the sea. 

See No. 8469, &c. In the Victoria and Albert Museum there are two 
drawings by Rowlandson of excited spectators watching the prizes being 
brought to Portsmouth. (Reproduction, Oppe, Rotolandson, his Drawings 
and Watercolours, pi. 62.) 

JUNE 1794 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: June 25 1794. by SW Fores N° 3 Piccadilly, who has 

just fitted up his Exhibition in an entire novel stile admittance one 


Engraving (coloured impression). Two sailors (1.), wearing jackets and 
striped trousers, attack with their fists two bare-legged sans-culottes who 
put up their hands and scream. A bulldog worries a Frenchman (r.) in 
whose belt is a dagger ; the nails on his fingers and toes are talons. Another 
Frenchman lies on the ground, while three flee in terror. The Frenchmen 
are lean and ragged. See No. 8469, &c. 


Pen drawing, probably intended to be engraved. Francis II and Mack 
drive rapidly uphill and to the 1. in a car drawn by four horses (1,). A sign- 
post in the foreground points (1.) To Vienna and (r.) To y Rhine. They 
are pursued by two horsemen, the foremost being Cornwallis, galloping 
on the extreme r. Cannon and tents on a hill above them indicate a camp. 
' The signature is almost obliterated. Attributed to West by E. Hawkins. 



In the foreground lies a Habsburg eagle ; one head and tail-feathers have 
been shot off; beside it (r.) lies a fallen standard. The Emperor holds up 
both arms, a feathered crown falls from his head; he says: O Mack, Mack 
is this the triumph you promised me! Why my imperial diadem is off — infamy 
& ruin — Vienna itself may bejacobinized. To his pursuers he cries : No, no, 
you dont get us to stop yet depend upon it indeed, indeed we dont zvant to go 
to Paris. Mack says to the postilion: Drive on, drive on, we must be safe, 
before I can chalk out another road to Paris. Comwallis shouts, with out- 
stretched arm: Hola! stop, stop. We are friends — you may hear of something 
to your advantage — my name is Corn — w — // — s, Zounds I have follow' d you 
till Fm tired to death. A Subsidy projects from his pocket. His companion 
says: My Lord give up the business, yoiCl never get at them — every thing they 
hear, even the cracking of their whips sounds like a French Army. Beneath 
the title : The imperial visit to the Rhine. The indian Hero in pursuit of the 
Knight of the Black eagle. 

On 23 May Mack, disgusted (after Turcoing, see No. 8458) with the 
failure of his elaborate plans for a march on Paris, resigned his post as 
Chief of Staff, declaring his opinion that the re-conquest of Belgium was 
hopeless. On 24 May the Austrians defeated the French right wing, and 
the Prussians had a victory on the same day. The first payment of the 
Prussian subsidy was at last sanctioned by Grenville. Cornwallis was sent 
to Prussian head-quarters to concert operations, with orders to consult the 
Emperor and Duke of York on his way. On 29 May the Emperor declared 
his intention of returning to Vienna, actually determined to quell the Polish 
rebellion and to abandon the Austrian Netherlands (see No. 8477), but 
declaring that his object was to hasten recruiting. The consequent dis- 
couragement and apathy of the Austrian army led to the defeat of Fleurus 
(25 June), after which the Austrians evacuated Belgium. Fortescue, Hist, 
of the British Army, iv. 273 ff. ; Camb. Hist, of Foreign Policy, i. 246-7 ; 
Rose, Pitt and the Great War, pp. 208-9. ^^^ ^o- 8496, &c. Cf. No. 8791. 

8473 THE REPUBLICANS ON A MARCH. [i July 1794] 
Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iii. 216. A reissue of part of No. 
7561. The party of burlesqued French soldiers who were originally the 
(stage) assailants of the Bastille are even more absurd by their isolation 
from the other figures. Some stand at attention with the Standard of 
Liberty. A soldier capers with outstretched cane, which in the original was 
applied to the touch-hole of the toy cannon. 

The letter of one 'Edward Bennet' is printed, professing to send his 
drawing to be engraved for publication. The other part of the original 
design is No. 8678. 
6| X 4J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


Published July 14 iyg4 by Jee & Eginton 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 8475. Eight puzzle portraits 
defined by the contours of emblematical objects. A rock supports a goblet 
of irregular shape silhouetted against an irradiated disk. The two sides 



of the goblet are formed by the profiles of Catherine (1.) and Francis II (r.). 
The 1. side of the rock below is the profile of George III, the r. side is 
that of Queen Charlotte. The branch of a tree (r.) contains the profiles 
of Frederick William II, Louis XVI, and (facing the ground) Marie 
Antoinette. A portion of the branch terminates in a serpent's head, the 
fang pointing up at Frederick William. In the centre, facing the ground, 
is the profile of the King of Poland, looking into a tomb, and close to a 
partly sheathed sword. On the 1. is a military trophy of flags, cannon, &c. 
Similar profiles of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, defined by branches 
of weeping willow, were popular in France before the fall of Robespierre, 
though treated as seditious; they also decorated fans. Grand- Carteret, 
Les Mosurs et la Caricature en France, 1888, p. 55. Similar fans were pro- 
duced in England, see Schreiber Coll., Nos. 53, 329. SeeL' Urnemyste'rieuse, 
reproduced, Dayot, Rev. fr., p. 234. Cf. Hennin, No. 12284. A similar 
group of profiles was published at Neuchatel, see facsimile, A. Marty, 
La Derniere Annee de Marie Antoinette, Paris, 1907, No. 53. For similar 
German prints see Van Stolk, Nos. 5162, 5163. Profiles defined by violets 
were common in Napoleonic prints of 1815. Cf. also No. 8427. 


Published July 14 1794 by Jee & Eginton 

Engraving. A companion print to No. 8474. A man wearing a cocked hat 
and quasi-military but slovenly dress, stands (1.) holding a reversed fire- 
brand and looking down at a terrestrial globe in which the arrangements 
of land represent four profiles. From his moustache he appears to be a 
German. Three other profiles are formed by the branches of a leafless tree. 
A pendant tree (r.) contains three other profiles. Between the two trees 
is a landscape in which are ruined and burning buildings. In the fore- 
ground church plate and other looted objects are heaped together: a mitre, 
a crucifix, a censer, a crozier, &c., and a money-bag inscribed 1 00000. 

Cf. Hennin, Nos. 12018, 12019. 


IC [Cniikshank.] 

London Pub July^ if^ ^794 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Men in uniform are 
riding in a riding-school, while a dismounted man holding a long whip 
stands on the extreme 1., saying. Keep your Seat Sirs!!; on his sleeve are 
three chevrons and a crown. Above his head is a placard: Royal Salloon 
Taylor Riding to Brentford by M* My — ars being his first apearance in that 
Character Tumbling Vaulting &c &c. In the foreground a 

man lies on his back, clutching his posteriors and exclaiming Oh! My ars 
— My ars. His mount stands over him, kicking violently and looking 
round viciously. The other riders are all in difficulties: one (r.) has lost 
his stirrups and clutches his horse's mane, saying, what, I suppose you 

' Apparently etched over an almost obliterated 'August'. 

97 H 


thinks to frighten me by going backwards. On the 1. three men are being run 
away with, the most prominent puts his arms round his horse's neck. 
Behind, a man raises a cane, saying, come up Neddy. In the background 
on the extreme r. a horseman blows a trumpet. Above an archway is 
inscribed Cowlings Stables Horses Broke. 

The Light Horse Volunteers, first formed by well-to-do London mer- 
chants in 1779 and disbanded in 1783, were re-established in May 1794 
as the Light Horse Volunteers of the Cities of London and Westminster. 
Cf. No. 8991. In 1779 they had used Cowling's riding-house and stables 
near Moorfields for keeping and training horses, and for riding-lessons. In 
1794 there were also three other riding- houses (for different parts of the 
town) where riding-lessons and drill took place. They were a select and 
self-important body, with entrance-fees and an expensive equipment, their 
chief object the suppression of civil disobedience. See CoUyer and Pocock, 
Historical Record of the Light Horse Volunteers, i843,/)<w«m, and No. 9238. 
For the favourite theme of City horsemanship cf. No. 7524, &c. 


[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Pub July ly 1794 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A huge bull, snorting fire, rushes with 
lowered head towards a French fort (1.) from which cannon-balls descend 
upon him. Beneath the fort sansculottes on one knee fire at the bull while 
standing French soldiers, correctly dressed, also fire. On the fortress stand 
Frenchmen, firing and waving their hats ; they shout : Vive la republic. Blood 
& plunder, no Quarter to John Bull! A huge tricolour flag has a staff sur- 
mounted by a skull. 

To the bull's baok is strapped a bundle inscribed Debt Debt. One horn 
has been shot off and lies on the ground. To his 1. hind leg is chained a 
heavy weight inscribed Subsidies. Nevertheless, he cries: Now my brave 
Allies let us all stand firm together & make a bold push, & I'll be Answerable 
for the Event. But behind him (r.) his allies have all turned their backs 
and are departing in directions indicated by signposts. A fat Dutchman 
smoking a pipe goes To Amsterdam, saying, / care not who beats, F II join 
the Strongest Party. Frederick William II (father-in-law of the Duke of 
York) walks off To Berlin, saying, Fvefingerd the Cash from both Sides, & 
will now employ it to Secure the Partition of Poland; Negociate with Roberts- 
pierre privately & then — Damn Relationship!!! Next, a Spanish don, 
Charles IV, goes To Madrid, saying, Whats the Bourbon Family to me when 
they Impede my Interest. Hush!! I am now treating for a Separate peace 
with that Blackguard Roberspere to Secure my own Crown — / must enlarge 
the Powers of the Inquisition. On the extreme r. Francis II and Mack in 
a two-wheeled gig, on which is the Habsburg eagle, are driving off To 
Vienna. The Emperor says : Well Mack we have made a Glorious Campaign 
of it; of what use are the Low Countries without they continue to fill my 
Coffers? As for John Bull, let him settle the business as he can he loves to 
be meddling. 

A well-informed satire on the diplomatic situation in 1794, see Camb. 
Hist, of Foreign Policy, i. 239-53 5 Rose, Pitt and the Great War, pp. 195 ff. ; 
E. D. Adams, Influence of Grenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1904, pp. 26 ff. 



Francis II was believed (May 1794) to be secretly negotiating with 
Robespierre. Sorel, U Europe et la Rev. Jr., 1909, iv. 81. He had left 
Flanders for Vienna on news of the Polish revolt (see No. 8607, &c.), 
showing that Austrian interests were in Poland and that he would surrender 
the Netherlands and possibly make peace with France, see No. 8472. 
Prussia obtained a subsidy from England for services which were not 
rendered. For the Dutch attitude to the war cf. No. 8299, &c. The 'almost 
open avowal of the French cause' by Spain in May 1795 (Rose, op. cit., 
p. 274) is anticipated. For the campaign in Flanders see Fortescue, Hist, 
of the British Army, iv. 231-324. The Austrian troops proclaimed that the 
abandonment of Flanders (by Austria) was due to French gold. Ibid., 
p. 290. See No. 8496, &c. For the burden of subsidies cf. No. 8821, &c. 
9X151^6 in. 


London Pub: July 24 1794 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has 
lately fitted up his Exhibition in an entire novel stile admitance one 
shilling. NB folios of Caracatures lent out 

Engraving. In the foreground three fat and unsoldierly Dutchmen sit on 
clumsy horses. On the 1. man and horse are in back view. Next, the rider 
holds a pitcher in his 1. hand; kettle-drums are slung to the horse, an 
enormous trumpet extends above the rider's shoulder and nearly touches 
the ground. The next horse (r.) stands in profile to the r., so over- 
weighted that foam falls from his nostrils. From its rider's bulging 
breeches protrudes a bottle. In the middle distance (r.) a stout Dutchman 
swings in the air from a pulley, his legs astride, and is about to descend 
upon the saddle of his horse. The windlass of the gibbet-like structure 
is turned by a man stripped to the waist. The three soldiers whose faces 
are visible are all smoking pipes. Cf. No. 8633. 
8|xi5 in. 



Pu¥ July 25** 1794. by H. Humphrey N° 37, New Bond Street 

Aquatint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Vesuvius in eruption 
ejects an inverted cone of flame, while streams of flaming lava pour down 
its sides and have already surrounded Flanders and Holland (both indicated 
by windmills (1.)). Another stream has almost reached London, which is 
directly in front of the mountain and is represented by St. Paul's and the 
gateway of St. James's Palace. In order to avert the calamity a ramshackle 
procession advances in the foreground from the r. Sheridan, as a cardinal, 
walks in profile to the 1., holding up the head of Fox in both hands. His 
hat has the crown of a bonnet-rouge. His tattered robes are held up by two 
train-bearers, the diminutive M. A. Taylor and Lord Derby; their rents 
reveal a bare thigh and ill-gartered stockings over bare feet. Beside 



Sheridan walks a dog with a human profile, Grafton, as in No. 8457.' In 
front of Sheridan walks Lauderdale, carrying bell, book {Lauderdale' s Jests , 
a paper emerging from his pocket), and candle (a conspirator's lantern). 
Behind (and towering above) the two train-bearers are the Duke of Norfolk 
holding up his cap of Libertas on his staff of hereditary Earl-Marshal, and 
Lord Stanhope holding two bundles of flaming matches. Their followers 
on the extreme r. are indicated by caps, spears, and a tricolour flag inscribed 
Vive la Repub[ltque]. Heavy clouds cover the sky, from it fall stones or 
lava upon Vienna and Berlin. A thunderbolt descends upon Rome, which 
is in flames. All the sansculottes are literally without breeches and all have 
bonnets-rouges. They appear more ready to welcome the catastrophe than 
anxious to avert it. In the coloured impression the flame and lava from 
Vesuvius and the robes of Sheridan are tricolour. 

The head of St. Januarius is impotent to avert the eflFect of the eruption 
of the Mountain, the extremists of the Convention (cf. allegorical design 
by Litz, Le Triomphe de la Montagne, reprod. Dayot, Rev. fr., p. 213). 

Grego, Gillray, p. 177 ; Wright and Evans, No. 1 14. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
12 X 14! in. 

8480 THE FOX CHASE. [? July 1794] 
Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, grotesquely thin and much carica- 
tured, bestrides George III, whose hands are on the ground, his legs in 
the air; he holds a rein attached to the King's nose. He wears enormous 
spurs, his hair streams behind him, and his bag has flown off, giving an 
impression of rapid motion. He holds out a coin towards a small fox (1.) 
with the head of Fox, yelling. Tally ho! Tally ly ly ho! Keep on bonney 
boy we shall soon be rewarded for our Trouble Here Here CharVy here's a 
Dollar for you topay for your Watch damme why don't ye stop what are you 
affraid of. Fox says: ha Dam you for a son of a bitch, it won't go now you 
know very well arid be damn'd to you but come on Fox is never affraid of a 
Goose but when his Master is with him, which is the reason I run from you 
now come on I'll warm ye, keep moveing Dam ye keep moveing. The King, 
on whose back is a saddle, shouts: Oh Measter billy I don't think it will 
be of any use for us to presue this devil of a Fox any further, but According 
to Custom ril be Ruled by your superior Judgment, if you don't Spur me so 
d-d-d-ddam damnably .if you do I per Chance may throw you off. A building 
(r.) is intended for St. James's Palace. 

The theme is that of No. 8139 (Dec. 1792) ; the manner suggests a rather 
later date, perhaps July 1794, when the Portland whigs joined the Ministry. 
For the relations between Pitt and the King cf. (e.g.) Nos. 8102, 8496, 8812, 
6f X loj in. 

8481 EVACUAT^ION OF OSTEND. [i Aug. 1794^] 

Engraving. PL to the Hibernian Magazine, 1794, ii. 4. A crowd of fugitives 
hurry from a castellated gateway to the sea-shore to embark in boats for 
ships at anchor. They resemble caricatures of French emigres, and include 
a monk and courtesan (or nun) arm in arm, a fiddler, a ragged man wearing 

' Identified by Wright and Evans as General Fox, who was serving with dis- 
tinction in Flanders. 

* A French print of Aug. 1794 has been misplaced, see No. 8674. 



a star carrying z. plan for a Monarchy , a miser with money-bags, and a fat 
bawd in a carrying-chair clasping a bottle of gin. In the background are 
buildings enclosed by a fortified sea-wall. 

The text relates that the town was evacuated on 20 June owing to the 
surrender of Ypres and the retreat of Clerfayt, the baggage of English 
regiments being embarked. Actually Moira was sent by Dundas to defend 
Ostend, where he found (26 June) the commandant embarking his troops 
with a view to retreat. Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iv. 281 ff. Cf. 
No. 8496, &c. 
8f X 6| in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154. k. 

8482 THE BAKERS SUNDAY TRIUMPH. [i Aug. 1794] 

Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. 

Engraving. A reissue of part of No. 8022 (showing three bakers dancing 
in delight while the Albion Mills blaze in the background). They are repre- 
sented as rejoicing at the Act of 34 George III, c, 41, forbidding the baking 
of bread on Sundays. To celebrate this triumph the bakers issued a half- 
penny token in 1795 with the inscription *To lessen the slavery of Sunday 
baking and provide for public wants an act was passed a.d. 1794' (repro- 
duced. Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 684). 
6| X 4I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448 (iii. 258). 


London Pu¥ August 5 1794 by R Newton N" 20 Walbrook. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The sovereigns of Russia, Prussia, and 
Austria take hands and dance round a circle of tiny soldiers on parade. 
Catherine II stands full-face, taking in her r. hand the 1. hand of Frederick 
William II {Prussia), in her 1. the r. hand of Francis II {Germany [sic]). 
She scowls, looking down at the Poles; the other two smile. They sing, 
their words etched above their heads: 

Now we caper round the Poles a! 

We're the Trio with great souls a! 

Doodle doodle doo. [Prussia.] 

Soon ril kick great Kosciusco 

From his scurvy camp to Muscow 
Doodle doodle doo [Russia.] 

Here you see a pretty dance [a!] 

Now we've turn'd our thought[s from France a!^] 
Doodle doo[dle doo.] [Austria.] 

The tiny Polish soldiers are drilling with their backs turned to the three 
colossal dancers who are about to crush them. A drummer wears a fool's 
cap, indicating the folly of the Polish revolt of Mar.-Apr. 1794, led by 
Kosciusko, against the Second Partition of Poland. After the revolt, Poland 
was invaded by Prussia, Austria, and Russia, the preoccupation of Prussia 
and Austria with Poland being fatal to the allied campaign in Flanders (see 
No. 8477). On 8 Nov. 1794 the Russians entered Warsaw, and the final 
Partition followed. See No. 8607, &c. Cf. No. 4957, &c., on the first 
9f X15 in. 

' Mutilated. 



[I. Cniikshank.] 

London Pub. August 26 1794 by G: Andrews, Comer of Tyler Street 
Carnaby Market 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a bare and dilapidated 
room in which four exhausted men (one half naked) are chained to the 
wall. Three smartly dressed soldiers wearing feathered hats are maltreat- 
ing a sailor: one (1.) holds a rope which is round his neck, another clutches 
him by the hair, the third (r.), standing behind his back, raises a bludgeon. 
The sailor cries Murder — Murder oh. The three soldiers (1. to r.) say: 
come along & fight the French, an be hanged to you by J ... s man you dont 
know when you are used well; So you won't be a Gentleman Soldier you thief; 
B . . . t you what do you call Murder for! A woman holding a key stands 

in a doorway on the r,, her r. fist clenched; she says, D n him. strip him. 

The four chained captives sit with closed eyes, too exhausted to notice the 
turmoil. Three scampering rats and an enormous cobweb indicate the 
character of the room. 

Recruiting was carried on by the aid of crimps who kept houses (usually 
public-houses) in which recruits were confined. On 15 Aug. a recruit, 
one Howe, threw himself from a house in Johnson's Court, Charing Cross, 
kept by a Mrs. Hynau, or Hanau, and was instantly killed. Riots against 
such houses followed. Lond. Chron. 16 and 19 Aug. ; Ann. Reg. 1794, p. 40 ; 
Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, "• 62-4. See No. 8486. 


[I. Cniikshank.] 

London Pub: August 26 [1794] by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly who 

has jus fitted up his Exhibition in an entire Novel stile admittance 

one shilh NB Folios of Caracatures lent 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales, very stout, sits on 
a sofa (r.) with an aged crone (Lady Jersey) on his knee, whose breast he 
fondles, singing: 

Fve kissed & Fve prattled with fifty Grand dames 
And changed them as oft do ye see. 
But of all the Grand Mammys that dance on the Steine 
The zoidow of Jersey give me &c &c. 

Lady Jersey takes a pinch of snuff". On the 1. Mrs. Fitzherbert walks 
off to the 1. with a tragic gesture, her r. hand to her forehead, in her 1. 
she holds out a deed inscribed 6000 P' A*^. She exclaims: Was it for this 
Paltry Consideration I sacrificed my — my — my — ? for this only I submitted 
to to — to — oh shame for ever on my ruirHd Greatness!!! Drapery hangs 
from her head, and a cross is suspended from a necklace on her (uncovered) 
breast. On the wall is a bust portrait of the Prince wearing beard and 
draperies as Solomon, inscribed, and Solomon had 300 Wives and yoo 

The first appearance in the Catalogue of Lady Jersey as the Prince's 
mistress. Gossip had associated them in 1782. Hist. MSS. Com., Carlisle 



MSS. 1897, p. 575- She was a grandmother (m. 1770), but not a widow 
(cf. No. 8487). 

The Prince after the marriage had settled ^3,000 a year on Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert and had made a will in her favour. This was commuted (i6 Mar. 
1808) for an annuity of ;(^6,ooo a year secured by a mortgage on the Pavilion 
at Brighton. W. H. Wilkins, Mrs. Fitzherbert and George IV, i. 147, ii. 126, 
227. The (prophetic) sum of ,^6,000 recurs in satire, see No. 8661 (cf. 
No. 8673). The separation between them took place (after the liaison with 
Lady Jersey) in June 1794, and was known by 15 July 1794. Cf. reports 
in The Times, July-Aug., quoted J. Ashton, FlorizeVs Folly, pp. 178-9, and 
No. 8499. Cf. No. 8806, &c. For 'Jersey Jig' cf. No. 8983. 
Sj^X i2| in. 


[i Sept. 1794] 

Engraving. Bon Ton Magazine, iv. 199. Three soldiers maltreat a well- 
dressed man, one holds his arms behind his back, one strikes him, one 
holds his leg. A virago (1.) stands beside them holding up a lighted candle. 
The room resembles a dungeon with slits for windows, A man (r.) stands 
against the wall, to which he is closely chained. In the background (1.) is 
a seated prisoner. 

Illustration to 'Remarks upon the late nefarious practices of the crimps 
and kidnappers; increased by the lamentable death of the unfortunate 
Mr. Howe'. The writer wishes that 'the infamous Mrs Hanau might be 
publicly whipped'. See No. 8484. 
3|X5|in. B.M.L., P.C. 


IC [L Cruikshank.] 

London Sep" 26 iyg4 hy SW Fores N 3 Piccadilly, who has jus fitted 

up his Exhibition in an entire Novel stile admittance one shilling 

NB Folios of Caracatures Lent 

Engraving (coloured impression). The stout Empress of Russia sits on a 
throne, whose seat she completely covers, facing T.Q. to the 1. towards the 
Prince of Wales, who bows before her, hat in hand, in profile to the r. He 
says, adapting (as in No. 7380) Falstaff's words (2 Henry, IV, v. 5): Oh 
what a thing it is to be in Love, To ride day and night; not to deliberate not 
to remember, not to have patience to shift me, but to stand stained with travel, 
& sweating with desire to see thee: Thinking on nothing else; putting all affairs 
in oblivion, as if there were nothing else to be done, but to see thee. He wears 
riding-dress with spurred boots. Behind and on the extreme 1. stands John 
Bull, full-face, a plainly dressed citizen wearing top-boots ; he says : There 
my Lad is a fine buxom Widow, aye and warm too, if you' I have her you need 
not ask Dad, or any of your Acquaintance for any Thing, she'll finish your 
house, & furnish it too for you, aye & keep you warm in cold frosty weather 
with her fur skins, a rare match my Lad especially as you are fond of Widows!! 
(cf. No. 8485). The Empress, who clutches the fur (a tiger-skin) which 
trims her draperies, has an inscrutable expression. On her r. is the bust 
of Fox by Nollekens (see No. 7902, &c.), peering forward at the Prince 



with an anxious expression. On her 1. and on the extreme r. stands a 
courtier, holding a long staff, wearing a bear's skin, his profile showing 
through the beast's open jaws. Behind is the back of the throne decorated 
with a double-headed imperial eagle. 

The Prince's debts had driven him to declare his readiness to marry, 
the only terms on which George III would increase his income. By Aug. 
1794 he had promised the King to give up Mrs. Fitzherbert (cf. No. 8485) 
and marry the Princess of Brunswick. See No. 8673, &c. 



Published Oct. i iyg4 by R^ Turton, Manchester & to be had of all 
the Booksellers in Town <Sf Country. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). John Bull, who 
resembles George III and wears tattered clothes, stands in his farm-yard 
scattering guineas with both hands to a flock of standing birds (1.) with the 
heads and talons of birds of prey ; behind the birds stands a (Russian) bear 
on his hind legs, looking greedily towards the coins. Beside John Bull 
stands a basket full of guineas, which a horse is eating; on its flank is 
branded a small white horse of Hanover (cf. No. 8691). In the foreground 
(r.) the watchdog lies in front of his kennel, chained to the ground. He 
is the British lion ; a Gallic cock stands on his head pecking fiercely at his 
closed eyes. The farm buildings are dilapidated, the windows broken, the 
house is on fire. 

The 'chickens' are evidently Prussian eagles, greedily devouring the 
British subsidy, while John Bull is unconscious that his own house is on 
fire. A satire on the diplomatic and military misfortunes of 1794, see 
No. 8496, &c. For the burden of subsidies cf. No. 8821, &c. The supposed 
subservience of British policy to Hanoverian interests was an ancient 
theme, cf. (e.g.) No. 3087. 


[Ceilings del., Barlow f.] 

Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i Oct. 1794] 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iii. 341. A reissue of part of No. 
7684, showing three men seated with the Gazetteer and The Times, one 
angry, one despondent, one pleased, the last with Pension issuing from his 
pocket. The man behind them regards the wall map, on which Nootka 
Sound and Pacific Ocean are engraved as before, but Toulon (much mis- 
placed) has been added. The text is a dialogue in which the gains of Santa 
Lucia, San Domingo, Corsica (see No. 8516), and Guadeloupe, as well as 
a naval victory (see No. 8469, &c.), are adduced to controvert 'the domestic 
enemies of Britain' who say that she is ruined. Cf. No. 8496, &c. 
6^X4i in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 

' E. Hawkins notes: 'his only caricature.' 



G M Woodward Del*'' [I. Cruikshank f.] 

London Pub Oct 12. 1794 by S.W. Fores N° 3 Piccadilly who has 
just fitted up his Exhibition in an Entire Novel Stile Admittance i\ 
where may be had complete Collections of Caracatures on the french 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull, a stout, grotesque citizen, sits 
on the edge of his chair (r.) goggling in terror at a deputation of ten head- 
less Frenchmen. The foremost, bending forward politely, holds out a Plan 
of La Guillotine. Others stand behind, chapeau-bras ; one has a large rolled 
document under his arm inscribed Com\inittee\ of Public Welfare. John 
Bull holds a foaming tankard inscribed Intire Butt ; the contents of his long 
pipe fall to the ground from his shaking hand. 

The print suggests that the fall of Robespierre (July 27) had made little 
impression in England: there is no English satire in the collection on the 
Thermidorian reaction. Cf. No. 8479. 


Pu¥ OcV^ 139^ by W Brozvn N" 43 Rupert street, 

Engraving. Fox and Sheridan, as demons, are seated, one in the pillory, the 
other below him in the stocks, so arranged as to represent a pulpit with the 
clerk's desk below it. Their hands are posed as if in prayer to the Devil (1.), 
who faces them seated on an inverted crown which rests on the upper 
beam of a guillotine inscribed "In te Spes Nostra. All three have horns 
projecting through their bonnets-rouges, and all have barbed tails with the 
legs and hoofs of a satyr. The Devil is naked, the other two wear coats. 
Fox sits on a platform supported by spears ; he leans forward, his head and 
hands confined, saying, The Prayers of this Congregation are desired for one 

Tooke ^ dangerously Afflicted In sedition privy conspiracy & Rebellion. 

Sheridan, his hoofs thrust through the holes of the stocks, his hands 
together above an open book inscribed Fox's Book of Martyrs (cf. No. 
6657), says. Dear Daddy Deliver us. The Devil, who holds a sceptre in 
both hands, looks at him with an anxious scowl. 

Home Tooke had been arrested on 16 May 1794 on account of corre- 
spondence which was believed to show that he was engaged with the 
Corresponding and Constitutional Societies in promoting a rising. A true 
bill was returned on 6 Oct. against Thomas Hardy, Tooke, and ten others 
for high treason. In spite of Hardy's acquittal (5 Nov.) Tooke was tried 
but acquitted (22 Nov.), and the other prosecutions were dropped. Fox 
protested against measures to repress non-existent or exaggerated sedition, 
but spoke of the accused persons as his 'personal and political enemies' 
(this applies particularly to Tooke, author of Two Pair of Portraits, see 
No. 9270). Pari. Hist. xxxi. 921-9. For the trials see Nos. 8502, 8624. 
10^X13! in. 

' The *e' is scored through. 




[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pul^ Oct 20 1794 by J Aitken N° 14 Castle 5' Leicester Square 

Engraving (coloured impression). An officer in back view (1.), mounted on 
a large pig, drills a row of five men (r.) similarly mounted, and all in diffi- 
culties with their mounts. Three raise their sabres. In the background 
four men gallop their pigs (r. to 1.) in an orderly line. All wear yeomanry 

Similar in intention to No. 8459, the Hampshire hog (cf. No. 6016) 
taking the place of the Essex calf; see also the Suffolk rats of No. 8597. 
The Fencible regiments, for home defence, differed from the Militia in not 
being chosen by ballot. See Fortescue, The County Lieutenancies and the 
Army, 1909, pp. 4, 6 ; I. H. M. Scobie, An Old Highland Fencible Corps, 
1914, pp. 3-7. 
8|xi3f in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ Ocf 24 1794 by J Aitken N" 14 Castle S^ Leicester Sqr 

Engraving (coloured impression). A line of buxom Flemish women 
recedes in perspective diagonally from 1. to r. across the design, forming 
the edge of a sheet of water through which French soldiers advance, some 
aiming their muskets. Copious streams issue from the bared posteriors of 
the women, producing the water which checks the French advance. In the 
foreground is a group of three, at the near end of the line : a stout Dutch- 
man (also urinating), in profile to the r., holds a large bottle of Gin, to 
which a stooping woman puts her mouth. Next her a woman facing the 
water turns her head to the 1. The man is smoking hard, a second pipe 
is thrust through his hat-band. The women are typical Flemings, wearing 
wide-brimmed hats over lace caps, with necklaces and ear-rings. 

After Fleurus (25 June) the Austrians retreated, leaving the British flank 
bare and forcing the Duke of York to evacuate Antwerp (July) and retire 
across the Dutch frontier. The Dutch, influenced by the Patriots (cf. 
No. 7172, &c.), made little attempt at defence and even obstructed the 
efforts of the British. Eventually the frost neutralized the naturally strong 
defences, the French crossed the Waal on 14 Jan. 1795, and the hostility 
of the Dutch, including Orangists, to the English, facilitated the conquest. 
Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iv. 300 ff. ; Rose, Pitt and the Great 
PFar, pp. 213-16. See No. 8608, &c. Cf. Nos. 8299, 8327, 8496, &c., 9421. 
813X13 J in. 


Pu¥ OcV 26 1794 by y Aitken N° 14 Castle Street Leicester Square 

Engraving (slightly aquatinted). Pitt, his hair rising in terror, runs in 
profile to the 1. towards the Devil, who stands before the flames of Hell. 
With his 1. hand he throws behind him coins towards the three greedy 
heads of Cerberus, who is chained to a stone wall on the extreme r. The 
Devil stands expectantly, holding a long trident. He is naked, with bird's 



wings, and the feet of a bird of prey. Above his head flies a winged monster 
with a barbed tail. On the horizon is a burning town. 

The three heads of Cerberus have moustaches, one very long. One paw 
rests on a purse. He appears to represent the allies, on whom Pitt was 
squandering money, i.e. a subsidy to Prussia, an allowance to the Austrian 
commander Clerfayt, a grant to the Dutch (18 Oct.). Cambridge Hist, of 
British Foreign Policy, i. 246-5 1 ; Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, 
iv. 309-10. A satire on the military and diplomatic failures of 1794, see 
No. 8496, &c. For subsidies cf. No. 8821, &c. 


Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i Nov. 1794] 

A reissue, with an altered title, of No. 7887 (1791). Priestley as a revolu- 
tionary and atheistic firebrand. 

B.M.L., P.P. 5448 (iii. 359). 



Pu¥ Nov" 5 1794 by J Aitken N" 14 Castle Street Leicester Square 

Engraving (coloured impression). Heading to a printed song of twenty- five 
verses with a printed title. A bull, John Bull, lies down ; two large birds 
of prey have settled on his back ; his expression is one of patient melan- 
choly. One (1.), having a human head with long moustaches (Prussia), 
grasps each horn in its talons and bites at his head. The other (r.), with 
the head of an eagle (Austria), bites his back. In the background (1.) a stout 
John Bull walks in profile to the 1., coins pouring from his person for the 
benefit of a stolid Dutchman, who watches him, smoking a pipe. On the r. 
a Dutchman kneels to ( ?) French invaders. The verses are a violent 
attack on Pitt and his policy: 

[12] Dont you think it's a pretty, political touch — 

To keep shooting your gold in the damms of the Dutch ! 

Sending troops to be swamp' d, where they can't draw their breath ? 

And buying a load of fresh taxes with death ? 
[13] Then, your friends, who've been sucking the sap of your skull 

Now choose to be fed on your fat. Master Bull ! 

Oh! your whisker- mouth 'd Prussian's a Hell of a Bite 

And your Eagle of Austria's a damnable kite. 
[17] Yes; Laurels you have, John, to tickle your ear — 

For you've conquer'd a Corsican mountain, I hear; 

And the Carribee Laurels — Oh fortunate lot! 

You've reap'd, and a fine yellow harvest you've got. 
[25] Too long, John, I've told you, the helm would break down. 

With this foul-going Pilot, that steers for the Crown, 

But, I've done ; for, now, ruin hangs over the elf; 

So good luck to your King — and long life to yourself. 

The accusations against Pitt, 'this Jenky-nurs'd Jackall' (cf. No. 6801), 
of aiming at royal power current during the Regency crisis (see No. 7382, 

' So attributed by E. Hawkins. 



&c.) are revived, cf. No. 8480. The policy of war with France is con- 
demned. The self-seeking demands of Prussia and Austria in their rela- 
tions with England, and the self-regarding inactivity of the Dutch (cf. 
No. 8299, &c.), were fully known only to the Cabinet. For the West 
Indian campaigns, with their appalling casualties from yellow fever, see 
Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iv. 134-5, I39~40> ^5^> 3^6 ff. For 
the military and diplomatic failures of 1793-4 see Auckland's letter to Pitt 
(28 Nov.) on 'the disastrous events of the last twelve months' {Auckland 
Corr. iii. 266-75) and Nos. 8425, &c., 8434, 8472, 8477, 8481, 8488, 8489, 
8493, 8494; for Corsica, No. 8516, &c. Cf. No. 8672. 
81X9^ in. Broadside, 17X loj in. 

8497 FREEDOM 15 
Pu¥Nov'' 17. 1794 by T Prattent 46 Cloth Fair and J Evans 41 Long 

Lane West Smithfield London 

Engraving. The interior of a smithy. Four hearty fellows are hard at 
work; one (r.) at a bench, another at the furnace (1.), while in the back- 
ground two work together at an anvil. On the 1. a stout citizen wearing a 
hat stands in profile to the 1., his mouth wide open, apparently singing: 

Rule Britannia Britannia rules the waves 

Britons never shall be Slaves. (Engraved below the title.) 


8498 THE RAGE. 

W. Hintin sculp. [? O'Keefe del.] 

Published November 21^ 1794 by H. Humphrey N° 37 New Bond 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Mrs. Fitzherbert (1.), 
stout and matronly, and Princess Caroline of Brunswick (r.), slim and girl- 
ish, stand facing each other, the former irate and dishevelled, with clenched 
fists, the latter surprised but scarcely hostile; the elder woman is carica- 
tured but not the younger. Under Mrs. Fitzherbert's feet are the Prince 
of Wales's coronet, feathers, and motto. The Princess wears the coronet 
and feathers, with a short-waisted dress and ribbon sash. Her rival's dress 
has a pointed corsage. The background is a wall with a striped paper, in 
the middle of which is a small window framed by heavy curtains. Two 
oval seascapes hang on the wall: behind Mrs. Fitzherbert a boat with a 
flag approaches a crowd standing on the shore; behind the Princess a 
woman standing on the shore holds out her arms to a ship in full sail. 

Malmesbury was dispatched in Nov. 1794 to Brunswick to make 
a formal proposal for the marriage of the Princess to the Prince of Wales 
(who had already deserted Mrs. Fitzherbert for Lady Jersey, see No. 8485). 
The Rage was a comedy by Reynolds, first played 23 Oct. 1794, cf. 
No. 8570. 

Reproduced, J. Ashton, FlorizeVs Folly, 1899, p. 177. 
Six 11^ in. 

8498 A A water-colour (no title), the original or (perhaps) a close copy 
of No. 8498. 
9X11J in. 



W. Hintin sculp* [? O'Keefe del] 

Published Nov'' 21^* I794 by H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Mrs. Fitzherbert, a 
weeping penitent, kneels before a priest (1.) seated in profile to the r., who 
holds up a birch-rod and points an accusing finger. He says: 
You know I'am your priest, & your Conscience is Mine, 
And you know you have been Wicked & that is a bad Sign. 
His head is tonsured, the hair resembling a garland. He wears an embroidered 
cope over elaborate robes, with bare feet and sandals, and sits in an ornate 
chair on the back of which is a crown. The crown and some resemblance 
to George HI suggest that he may be intended for the King. Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert holds a rosary in her r. hand, and puts a handkerchief to her face, 
looking away from the priest. Behind her is an altar with two candles. 

For Mrs. Fitzherbert, Lady Jersey, and the Princess of Brunswick see 
No. 8498 and index. 

Reproduced, Fuchs und Kind, Die Weiberherrschaft, i. 241. 


'[Copied from the Courier, Friday, Nov. 28, 1794.] Sold by all News- 

Printed sheet in the manner of a play-bill with a woodcut of Pitt from the 
block used in No. 8375. His head is in profile to the r., holding a hand- 
bell in his 1. hand, in his r. a sheaf of papers headed Wonderful! The text 
(abridged, capitals, &c., not reproduced): 'The sublime wonder of the 
World!!! Condescends to inform the Public .... that he has now opened 
his Grand Hall of Exhibitions at Westminster, with a grand display of his 
astonishing and magnificent Deceptions . . . First — The Signor will bring 
forward a Magical Alarm Bell, at the ringing of which the Company shall 
become Mad or Foolish. 

Secondly — He will produce his justly celebrated curious spy glasses 
which distort and misrepresent . . . and occasion ... a sudden and social 
dismay; such as has never before been witnessed in this Country. . . . 

Fifthly — He will make some Marvellous Experiments upon his own 
Memory, By forgetting the most Material Incidents of his own Life. . . . 

Sixthly — By his Oratorical Efforts, he will in the Course of a few 
Minutes persuade the greater Part of his Audience ... to give him three 
cheers and nominate him the Heaven-born Conjuror, . . . 

The whole to conclude with a Dramatic Piece in one Act, called The 
Humbug; or John Bull a Jack Ass . . . Signor Pittachio will close his 
Wonderful Performances by exhibiting his own Person on The Tight 
Rope. For the Benefit of the Swinish Multitude. 

Vivant Rex et Regina.' 

Two woodcut impressions of the Royal Arms decorate the page. 

A satire on Pitt's policy of repression and the proceedings (cf. No. 
8491) against members of the London Corresponding Society (see No. 
9189, &c.) and others. It also reflects military and diplomatic failures, cf. 
No. 8496, &c. Pitt is accused of forgetting that he had advocated Parlia- 
mentary Reform (cf. No. 8635, &c.). Burke's unfortunate phrase gave 


much copy to the radical press, e.g. Politics for the People, or Hop's Wash 
^L^tr 7mT fe' ^ n^?39) being tried for a sedLus libef 24F^b' 
lit A f^l^^ ^^."^T^" '"^^"'^^^ ''' ''' ^hen counsel for th; Crown 
apologized for the words 'Swinish Multitude' as escaping «in the heatTf 
debate m parliament' (actually in Burke's Reflections, see No. 7675 &c) 
State Trtak fcxv. 1019. Spence published Pig's Meat; or Lessomfrom 
the Swtntsh Multitude by the Poor Man's Advocate, 1793, 4, 5, for wW^ 
he was imprisoned without trial 17 May to 22 Dec. 1794 See Nos ^.c8 
8365, 8425'. ^^/ij ^^55, 8696, 8707, 8712, 8949. 9230 927! aalso^ a 
song. Burke's Address to the Swinish" Multitude {BM.^ 806 k 16 iiot 

seTro"9';;4%? """'" ""'' " '"' ^'' '' TaUon'.-'Folihe cillt 
Reprinted, Spirit of the Public Journals for lygy, 1798, pn -,qi_. See 
S.,%738;4o '" ''"'^ '""^'"^ Ejbitiol^:. frLX'^J/^j^" 

8500 A. An earlier edition, without the Royal Arms and the final nhra«^ 
relating to the 'Swinish Multitude'. P^"^^^ 

B.M.L., P.P. 806 k. 1/26. 

[Collings del. Barlow f.] ^' ^^"^^ '794] 

N^FVnc^'.u''"^''^ ^''"'' ^^Sazine, iii. 425. A reissue of the 1. part of 
No. 7753, showing a press-gang at work, one man kneeling to imnlore 
mercy another dragged off by his neckcloth. The text asserts thTve^ 
httle force has been used to recruit the navy during the present wa7 
augmented rewards having been sufficient. A contrast's drawTv^h the 
ancient methods depicted. See No. 8447 
'^^3|in. ^^- B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub by S W Fores No 3 Piccadilly December 13 lyg^ 

Engraving. A portrait (not caricatured) of Erskine in wig and gown leaning 

forward and to the 1., his 1. hand on his hip, holding up in his r Sd f 

ElkTnetf '^'TT;, ^' '°°'; J^^^^y '^'^^^ ^i- frowning slight^ 
Erskine s successful defence of the persons prosecuted for constmctive 

Se'eTw" '^;^/ 'Tr^'V^?;' ^"' ^^^"^^ ^'- -"-h f--e and popuTarh^^^ 
frf. IfT' -^^ "^ K-^'f ^^'^""' '^44, i. 268. He defended the prisS 
free of charge see his letter to the Corresponding Society, BM AdT 
MSS. 27813. fo 3. The title probably satirizes hiLhetori^l appeals to 
the jury. See Nos. 8264, 9208, 9282, 9741 appeals to 

iSXiofin. ^^^^' 


G. M. Woodward Im^ [Rowlandson f.] 

Publishd Decenf 18. iyg4 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Mounted yokels, riding r. to I. make 
havoc m a farm-yard. One only wears unifo^i; he shouts at diem fr^ 



the r., with upraised hand. A man riding a horse with blinkers fires a 
blunderbuss, shutting his eyes; he damages a pigeon-house and kills 
pigeons. He is riding up to a well in which a terrified man has sought 
shelter, clutching the rope and looking over the top. Two other inexpert 
horsemen use clubs, one a flail, one a pitchfork. A witch-like old woman 
holding a broom lies on her back ; her basket of cocks and hens has been 
overturned and the birds escape. A bull and a bulldog face each other 
belligerently. In the background (1.) a fierce engagement between farmers, 
labourers, and horsemen is in progress. 

One of many satires on the militia, yeomanry, and fencibles, see No. 
8459 and index. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 324. 
8|x 18 in. The r. portion of the print, c. 8^ in., has been torn off. 

Woodward, del. [Rowlandson f.] 

Publi^ as the Act directs by S.W. Fores N° 3 Piccadilly Dec" 26. 1794 
Engraving (coloured impression). A stout John Bull sits in an arm-chair 
holding a long pipe in his 1. hand which rests on a circular table beside a 
glass and bottle of Coniac. He looks up with an anxious scowl at an elderly 
man who stands (r.), saying, / 'am come again about the Taxes Sir — if agree- 
able to you to discharge them. The tax-collector holds a large open book, 
New Taxes for the Year iyg6,^ in which he writes with his 1. hand. He 
wears a hat in which a pen is thrust, an ink-bottle hangs from a button, 
in each pocket of his greatcoat is a large book, one being Additional Taxes 
on Window Lights. Under his arm is another large book: \T'\axes Receipts 
Taxes. Beside the taxpayer sits a dog, who glares up at the tax-collector 
with an expression resembling that of his master. 

A satire with little application to actual taxes. Pitt's budget of 1794 was 
uncontroversial. Pari. Hist. xxx. 1353-62. There was, however, in 1794 
a new tax on crown or plate glass, described as an article of luxury. Ibid. ; 
see No. 8425. The window-tax on houses with less than seven windows 
was repealed in 1792 (cf. No. 8065) and rates were not raised till 1797, 
while dairies were exempted in 1796. Dowell, Hist, of Taxation, ii. 210 f. 

Woodward del. [Rowlandson f.] 

Published as the Act directs DecC^ 28^^ iyg4 by S.W. Fores N" 3 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of the Royal Exchange, 
showing part of two sides of the arcaded quadrangle, and the statue from 
the waist downwards of Charles II (by Grinling Gibbons) on a high 
pedestal surrounded by an iron railing. It is crowded with men, talking 
in couples, or walking off in deep dejection. All are elderly and caricatured 
and their dress is old-fashioned ; one has a Jewish profile. 

There was a fall in the stocks during Dec, the 3- and 4-per-cent. 
Consols reaching the lowest point for the year. Ann. Reg. 1794, p. 342*. 
Cf. No. 8496, &c. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 325. 

' The last figure is doubtful. 



/. Kay fecit 1794 

Engraving. Design in an oval. H.L, portrait of a plainly dressed man 
looking to the r., standing behind a table on which are writing-materials. 
In his r, hand is an open book ; his r. arm rests on a long document and a 
pile of three books. Beneath the title: Secretary to the British Convention \ 
A Tried Patriot and an Honest Man. Used as a frontispiece to James 
Robertson's edition' of The Trial of William Skirving (B.M.L. 1131. 
i. 14/3) and probably a representation of Skirving at his trial for sedition, 
6 and 7 Jan. 1794, when he defended himself. The British Convention 
was the name assumed by the third General Convention of the Friends 
of the People which met in Edinburgh on 19 Nov. 1794. See Veitch, 
Genesis of Parliamentary Reform, 191 3, pp. 243 flF. ; W. P. Hall, British 
Radicalism, lygi-iygy, 1912, pp. 182 fF. ; Pari. Hist. xxxi. 865 ff. ; Meikle, 
Scotland and the French Revolution, 1912, pp. 140 ff. ; Cockburn, Examination 
of Trials for Sedition in Scotland, i. 222 ff. Cf. Nos. 8362, 8424, 8507-12. 

'Collection', No. 267. Kay, No. ccclix. 

I. Kay fecit 1794 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Margarot (H.L.) stands directed to the 1., 
r. arm outstretched oratorically, the hand cut off by the 1. margin. His 1. 
arm rests on books: Magna Charta, Bill of Rights, Government always 
improveable. Original Power of the People. On the table or shelf in front 
of him are also writing-materials and other books: Hanging Judges, Sedi- 
tion, Universal Suffrage. In his 1. hand is a sheaf of MS. inscribed: Did 
you not say that the Mob would be the better for losing a little blood! Beneath 
the title : Delegate from the London Corresponding Society to the British 
Convention. (See No. 9189, &c.) 

Margarot (see No. 8424) is evidently depicted conducting his own 
defence in court, when tried for seditious practices in Edinburgh, 13 and 
14 Jan. 1794. He opened by attacking the judges: *My lords, we all 
know that Cambyses ordered an unjust judge to be flayed. . . .* His speech 
of four hours to the jury, according to Braxfield's summing up, 'was 
sedition from beginning to the end'. State Trials, xxiii. 603-778. He, 
Gerrald, and Sinclair were the delegates from London to the British Con- 
vention, Browne the delegate from Sheffield and Leeds. He was sentenced 
to transportation for fourteen years. See Cockburn, op. cit., ii. 1-33. 

'Collection', No. 269. 
Oval, 3-I X2| in. 

/. Kay 1794. 

Engraving. Design in an oval. A bust portrait in profile to the r. on a 
dark background, simulating a cameo. Above the oval : omne solum forti 
PATRIA. Used as frontispiece to the shorthand Trial of Gerrald (revised 
by Gerrald), published by James Robertson,^ Edinburgh, sold in London 

' Printed and sold for William Skirving and prefaced by an Address to the 
Public by himself. 

' Sentenced 18 Mar. 1793 to six months' imprisonment for printing and pub- 
lishing a seditious libel. State Trials, xxiii. 79 ff. 



by D. I. Eaton, see No. 8500, and others (B.M.L., T. 108/1). The Preface 
ends: 'When it is considered that in a matter of so much moment to the 
rights, liberties, and privileges of every Briton, as this celebrated trial 
involves ... it is presumed that no blame can be attached to the Publisher, 
whose aim has been to have the Trial impartially stated and accurately laid 
before the Public' The trial v^^as on 3, 10, 13, 14 Mar. before Braxfield, 
Gerrald being sentenced to fourteen years' transportation. He actually 
wore French costume (Cockbum, op. cit. ii. 43), not here depicted. See 
ibid. ii. 41-132. Beneath the title: A Delegate to the British Convention 
[see No. 8506]. 

'Collection', No. 268. 
Oval, 3X2jin. PI. 4II X 3/5 in- 


/. Kay fecit 1794 

Engraving. Design in an oval. Bust portrait of a distinguished-looking 
man in profile to the 1., on a dark background, simulating a cameo or 
medallion. Above the design : Les privileges finiront, mais le peuple est 
eternel. Beneath the title: A Delegate to the British Convention. 

See No. 8506. Sinclair was arrested and indicted with Skirving and 
others on a charge of sedition, but was not tried. He was a delegate from 
the Society of Constitutional Information, see State Trials, xxv. 216-20. 
He was one of three whom the Directory intended to nominate (Jan. 1798) 
as a 'Scotch Directory' after a successful invasion. Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Dropmore MSS. iv. 69 f. A H.L. portrait of Sinclair at the bar is 'Collec- 
tion', No. 187. 

'Collection', No. 185. Kay, No. ccxxxvii. 
3 X 2| in. 


J Kay fed iyg4. 

Engraving. Design in an oval. A bust portrait in profile to the r. and on 
a dark background, simulating a cameo, of a stout middle-aged and well- 
dressed man wearing spectacles. Beneath the title: Delegate from the 
Sheffield & Leeds Cons^ Soc^ to the British Convention. Above the oval: 
Dulce et decorum est pro Patria mori. 

William Cammage gave evidence at Thomas Hardy's trial that he had 
taken ,^10 from Sheffield and ,^10 from Leeds to Edinburgh for Matthew 
Campbell Brown (their delegate) apparently for his defence. State Trials, 
xxiv. 589-90. Said by Baton to have introduced most of the 'obnoxious 
republican phrases' of the Scottish Convention in 1793, but see Meikle, 
Scotland and the French Revolution, p. 144 n. Apparently one of those 
who were arrested but discharged without trial. Probably the author of 
the pamphlet, A leaf out of Burke's Book: being an epistle to that Rt. Hon. 
gentleman in reply to his letter to a Noble Lord, on the subject of his 
Pension, 1796 [cf. No. 8788]. See No. 8506. 

'Collection', No. 186. Kay, No. ccxxxi. 
Oval, 3iVX2i in. PI. 5x3! in. 

113 I 



I.K. fecit iyg4 

Engraving. Oval bust portrait of Watt in profile to the r. He is neatly 
dressed, his hair in a small queue. Beneath the oval are two crossed 
pikes, between them a spear-head. 

Watt, with Downie, see No. 8512, was convicted of high treason in 
Edinburgh, Aug. and Sept. 1794. He had ordered pikes to be made 
and some were discovered in his house. He confessed his scheme 
for a simultaneous rising in Edinburgh, Dublin, and London, and was 
executed on 15 Oct. State Trials, xxiii. 1 167-1403. See Kay, i. 354 n. 

'Kay's Caricatures', No. 200. 
4fX3^in. Oval, 3X2 in. 

/. K fecit 

Engraving. Oval bust portrait of Downie in profile to the 1. His hair 
falls on his coat-collar. 

Downie was Treasurer to the 'Committee of Ways and Means', formed 
after the dispersal of the British Convention to organize a rising, and paid 
for the pikes which Watt ordered, see No. 851 1. He was a respectable 
goldsmith of some standing in Edinburgh. He was found guilty of high 
treason, 6 Sept. , but pardoned on condition of leaving the British dominions. 
State Trials, xxiv. 1-200. 

'Collection', No. 188. Kay, No. cxli. 
Oval, 3 X 2 in. 

/ Kay 1794 

Engraving. An officer (r.). Col. Patrick Creighton (the adjutant), standing 
in profile to the 1., his r. arm and forefinger extended, drills a body of stout 
volunteers who march (r. to 1.) in a serried triangular mass in the middle 
distance. Behind (r.) a stout officer. Captain Coulter, stands in profile to 
the 1. with drawn sword. Three men march stiffiy from r. to 1. In the 
background a body of volunteers, described as the awkward squad, stands 
full-face. The men are conspicuous for civic portliness, and the neatness 
and uniformity of their dress, in contrast with contemporary satires on 
English militiamen, &c., cf. No. 8503. 

The Edinburgh Volunteers were embodied in 1794, paying their own 
expenses and entry-money, the Lord Provost being Colonel ex-officio. 
They were styled the Bellygerents by their sergeant-major. Kay, i. 236-41 ; 
ii. 44. The Scottish Volunteers, and especially those of Edinburgh, were 
(until 1802) political rather than military bodies, their object being to 
repress sedition. Meikle, Scotland and the French Revolution, pp. 148, 
153-4, 2^4- ^^ t^^s they resembled the London Volunteers, especially the 
Light Horse Volunteers of London and Westminster, whose regulations 
were used by the Royal Edinburgh Volunteer Cavalry. Collyer and 
Pocock, Hist. Record of the Light Horse Volunteers, 1843, p. 91. (See 
No. 8476.) 

Other etchings by Kay of Volunteers are Kay, Nos. xcviii, cxvii, cxxxviii, 
cclxxx, and Nos. 8731, 8733, 8734. 

'Collection', No. 183. Kay, civ. 




London, printed for the Author, by H. Reynell, No. 21 Piccadilly, and 

sold by S. W. Fores, No. 3, Piccadilly, near the Hay-market. — Price 

three shillings. 
Engraving, partly aquatinted (coloured impression). Pasted to a list printed 
in four black-bordered columns, the (printed) title as above. Fortune, 
blindfolded, with winged feet, pushes her wheel on the summit of the 
globe, which emerges from clouds and is decorated by three large fleur-de- 
lis. She runs in profile to the r., her draperies floating behind her. On the 
lower 1. circumference of the wheel, about to move upwards, are a crown 
and a cross; on its summit are two papers inscribed Tallien and Merlin. 
On the r., and beginning to descend, is a bonnet-rouge. On the lower r. 
circumference, about to be crushed, are papers inscribed Collet d'Herbois 
and (almost at the lowest point) Barrere. 

Each column is again divided into four, headed: 'Names', 'Departments', 
'When arrested', 'Fate'. Beneath this long list are two shorter ones: 'A 
List of those, who, without having Voted for the King's Murder, have 
made themselves eminent in the French Revolution, and have been recom- 
pensed', i.e. have been guillotined or have committed suicide. This is 
followed by a list of 'French Republican Generals, who have received a 
reward for their services, during the French Revolution'. Most have been 
guillotined, others have died by suicide or otherwise, some have merely 
been arrested. 'Dumourier' appears as 'Deserter'. 

Cf. No. 8340. The last date is 19 Dec. 1794, the death of Isambert. 
A supplement is announced 'every Three Months'. 
7X i6| in. Whole sheet, 34|x 19 in. 

Woodcut (coloured impression). George III stoops in profile to the 1., his 
breeches lowered, his hands together. On the extreme 1. is part of a tree. 
Beneath are printed two verses: 

Is Looby only fit 

To dung the verdant plain ? 

Yes, Looby has got wit 

to sack the golden grain. 

A Toast 

May every Tyrant fall from power and state, 

To be made Ploughmen quickly be their fate ; 

But that some care of these fine Lads be taken 

May Kate be made to boil their broth and bacon. 
Kate presumably connotes Catherine II. A savage attack on George III, 
comparable with Nos. 8365, 8516. For the King as a farmer cf. No. 
6918, &c. A crude and cheap print probably sold for a penny. 

CORSICA. [? 1794'] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A bust of George III in an oval medal- 
lion, the profile (1.) an obtuse angle, the face blank, giving an impression 
' 'Famine' would suggest the year 1795. 



of complacent imbecility. The background is shaded to simulate a cameo. 
From behind the medallion two figures look out: Averice (1.), a hag with 
pendent breasts and serpents for hair, leans forward in profile to the 1., 
holding up a money-bag. On the r. is Famine, a thin man wearing a shroud ; 
both are shouting. 

This is described by Huish as one of the most severe caricatures against 
the King ever published; 'not more than twenty copies . . . were sold, the 
plate having been privately purchased'. (See, however, No. 8365, &c.) It 
satirizes the occupation of Corsica in 1794 and the acceptance of the offer 
of the crown to George III (when he was solemnly proclaimed King). It 
was evacuated in Oct. 1796. See J. H, Rose, Pitt and Napoleon, 1912, 
pp. 60 ff., and Nos. 8496, 8599, 8626, 9157, 9231. For discontent in 
England cf. Nos. 8500, 8664, &c. For the King's supposed avarice see 
No. 7836, &c. For a similar attack on the King cf. No. 8652. 
5HX7jin. (pi.). Oval, 4iX3f in. 

VOISfi. [c. 1794] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A French print. On the sea-shore the 
English leopard {U Angleterre) stands on a platform which rests on a pile 
of casks and bales. On his back sit the royal family. His nose is held by 
Pitt, who stands (1.) on high stilts and in his 1. hand extends horizontally 
a long sceptre. Pitt, the leopard, and its riders are burlesqued; the 
animal's tail extends to the margin of the design, and nine members of the 
family are supported on it. Pitt is very thin ; his hair rises on his head in 
terror (cf. No. 8434). George sits next the animal's neck, wearing spurred 
riding-boots and a crown, which is falling from his head ; he flourishes a 
staff with the head, cap, and bells of a fool, turning his head in profile with 
a melancholy expression. Charlotte Femme de George sits beside him, full- 
face, hunched together with folded arms; her fingers are sharp talons. 
Next, straight and lank, his feet nearly reaching the ground, is Yorck, weep- 
ing copiously, a finger to his eye ; he holds with his 1. hand the hilt of a 
large sword whose point is bent up in a hook (cf. No. 8341). Behind him 
sits astride the Femme d' Yorck. Next sits the [Prince] de Galle wearing 
a large hat, less caricatured and less distressed than the others. The 
remaining nine on the leopard's tail are styled les Enfans de George [bis], 
and have little relation to the age or sex of the princes and princesses. The 
first and third wear long trousers and gnaw at large ( .'') loaves with fang- 
like teeth. The second is a young woman drinking from a bottle ; the fourth 
resembles her on a smaller scale ; the fifth is a boy drinking from a bottle. 
Behind him sits a boy in trousers gnawing a loaf. The last three are naked 
infants, one with a bottle, one with a loaf. All the royal children except 
the Prince of Wales have long ass's ears. 

The bales and casks which support the leopard are spilling out their 
contents. On the ground, 1. and r., are two brawny Frenchmen, each 
inscribed Sans-culotte Franpais, not caricatured, but wearing sabots, a 
bonnet-rouge, and having the naked thighs of the sansculottes in English 
caricature. One (1.) kneels in profile to the r., sawing through one of Pitt's 
stilts. The other (r.) stands in profile to the 1., hauling a rope which is 
attached to a bale supporting the leopard's platform. Two other sans- 
culottes in the middle distance approach the sea, one carrying a bale, the 
other rolling a barrel. A boat waits to take the goods to a ship in full sail : 



Vaisseau de la Ripublique Franpaise. She is of a curious square shape, the 
head of Liberty symbolizing the French Republic forming the bows. 

The date is evidently before the marriage of the Prince of Wales. The 
Duke of York mourns military disasters, see No. 8496, &c. For the 
theme of the imbecile King and the domineering Minister cf. No. 8464, &c. 
For the (supposed) loss of commerce cf. Nos. 5724, 5726, 5859, &c. (Dutch 
and French prints on the American War.) 

de Vinck, No. 4388. 

L'Echafaudage pret a crouler de la puissance brittanique, Blum, No. 599, 
is a similar subject ( ? the same with another title). Chaudet, the artist, 
was ordered by the Committee of Public Safety, 7 Germinal, An II, a 
payment of 1,440 livres for 1,200 impressions. 
18x23! in. 

8518 FOX ET PITT. 
dess. a Londres. Grave a Paris par Adam 

a Paris Chez Depeuille Rue des Mathurins S^ Jaque. Deposse ala 
Biblioteque [sic]. [} 1794] 

Stipple. Design in a circle. Profile masks of Fox (1.) and Pitt (r.), back 
to back. Fox, scarcely caricatured but a poor portrait, smiles ; Pitt, carica- 
tured, weeps with drawn-down mouth. Beneath the title : 

// est bien terns Mons Pitt de pleurer quand Fox rit. 
Uorsque les Franpais de tot seront en face 

Bon Dieu qu'elle grimace 
feras-tu done alors? quel sera ton depit! 

Trompe dans ton attente, 
Pour ton pays, qu'en resultera fil? 
Une descente, 
The satire may relate to a vague threat of invasion, such as that of 1794 
(see No. 8432), and to British disasters, cf. No. 8496. For the reactions 
of the Opposition to victory and defeat cf. No. 9248, &c. 

de Vinck, No. 4383. Outline copy, reversed, Jaime, ii, PL 55 bis. 
Diam. 4^! in. 




[I. Cruikshank.] 
Pub^JarC 1 1 794 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. Bottom sits in an arm-chair directed to the 1., wearing spectacles 
on his ass's forehead. In his r. hand is a piece of charcoal in a holder, in 
his 1. is a paper, which he is studying. Above his head is etched Apollo. 
On the 1. stands a man looking over Bottom's shoulder, his fists clenched. 
Behind (r.) two students (seated) draw from the antique, a nude male 
statue on a pedestal just above the level of their heads. Below the title: 

W — hen Phidias or Raphael shall chuse to repair, 
I — ncog to our fine modern Artists' f am' d School, 
L — ost in wonder to see stuck in Genius's Chair 
T — he Block which now fills it) a formal old Fool — 
O — -ff again with this sneering Remark they will go 
N — o marvel your Pupils old Friend are so so" 


Wilton, the sculptor (1722-1803), indicated by the acrostic, was Keeper 
of the Royal Academy from 1790 till his death. The standing man has 
been identified (A. de R. iv. 129) as 'Secretary'. John Inigo Richards (see 
D.N.B.) was Secretary to the R.A. By the 'Instrument' of Institution 
(1768) the Keeper was (and is) in charge of the Schools of Design. 
W. Sandby, Hist, of the Royal Academy, 1862, i. 51. 
9Jx8|in. ^ 


I.C [Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ by P. Roberts 28 Middle-Row, Holborn [? 1794^] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A well-dressed man (not caricatured) 
stands holding out a lantern in his 1. hand. He turns his head in profile 
to the r., his r. hand extended. He wears a round hat, swathed neck- 
cloth, double-breasted waistcoat, long closely fitting breeches with half- 

Lord Abingdon made a speech on 17 June 1794 on 'Pettifogging 
Attornies', a tirade against Mr. Thomas Sermon, who had declined to 
continue to act as his solicitor ('black as this qui tarn gent, is ... he is 
not half so black as those rotten limbs of the law . . . who have aided and 
assisted him . . . but let them and him know, that unprofessional as I am, 
they will find me more than a match for them'). This he sent to the news- 
papers, some of which printed it, in one case at a charge of £^. 4s. od. He 
was tried on a criminal information in the King's Bench, Erskine appear- 

' The imprint may have been added later. 


ing for Sermon. He was convicted (6 Dec. 1794) and on 12 Jan. was 
sentenced to three months' imprisonment in the King's Bench and a fine 
of ;^ioo. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 932-5; Lond. Chron. 5 July 1794, &c. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: May 2d^ 1794 ^y ^' W- Fores N 3 Piccadilly zvho has 

just fitted up his Exhibition in an Entire Novel Stile admittance j** 

NB folios of Caracature lent out 

Engraving. Lady Buckinghamshire (1.) (formerly Mrs. Hobart, see vol. vi) 
and Mrs. Fitzherbert (r.) seated in an opera box, indicated only by the 
ledge on which the latter rests her 1. hand, which holds an opera glass. 
Both wear dresses whose decolletage shows the breasts and reaches a point 
at or below the waist, and both wear trellis-work necklaces ; from that of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert hangs a miniature of the Prince of Wales. They wear 
caps trimmed with a single ostrich feather curling forwards over the face. 
Mrs. Fitzherbert gazes fixedly to the 1. ; in her 1. hand is a play-bill : All for 
Love . ... As you like it. Lady Buckinghamshire, who partly covers her 
decolletage with a fan, turns her head in profile to the r., looking fixedly 
at her companion. After the title : NB in a few days will be given a Peep 
into the Pit the Naked Bodies of those women who had committed suicide in 
Rome were Exhibited as a Public spectacle, this had such an effect on the 
Delicacy of the roman Ladies that suicide was ever after unknown among them. 
No so with the Engish Ladies; instead of being shocked at the sight of each 
others Naked Body they strive who shall shew most of their own. 

Cf. No. 8571, &c. For Mrs. Fitzherbert and All for Love cf. No. 6930. 


Cruikshank iyg4 

London Pub Oct^ ly 1794 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly and to be 
had at Tetbury Glouster and every Town in the County 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene on a race-course, horses gallop- 
ing in the background. Amused spectators crowd to watch a duel : a man 
in riding-dress (r.) lies on his back, his smoking pistol falling from his 
hand, saying, / have not Killed him by God. In the middle distance a man 
stands full-face, his arms folded, a cocked pistol in his r. hand, saying, 
with a smile: Don't be frightened Squire Stand up like a Man & receive 
my fire. Two balls fly past his head. The spectators are in rows bordering 
the line of fire. On the r. are four mounted men, the nearest a jockey, 
saying, he has got the staggers. On the 1. the nearest figure is a grotesque 
jockey with a profile like that of Punch, his saddle slung from his shoulders, 
who stands grinning down at the fallen duellist. Behind him is a man on 
horseback saying, The coward woiCd have Twenty Paces!!!. Other men 
peer forward. 

In the background is a scene which explains the quarrel. The 'Squire' 
kneels with clasped hands at the feet of his antagonist, who raises his whip. 



A lady takes the latter's arm. The kneeling man says : / humbly ask this 
Lady's Pardon & if you will forgive me this time, I will never do so any more. 

'Brought down* appears to be a pun on the duellist's name. 
8Jxi4f in. 

8523 A LACK WATER CANAL [c. Feb. 1794] 
[? L Cruikshank.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). On each side of a canal stands a parson 
holding aside his gown to direct a gush of water into the canal, on which 
is a masted barge drawn by a team of horses. They face each other in profile. 
One (1.) says: If we cannot use the Springs of the Irk we will use Our Own. 
Behind him a signpost points (r.) to East ham. The other says: We defy 
the Mill Owners! Brother we must have a Patent. Behind him is a sign- 
post: To i?oc/i</flfe. In the background (1.) is a ruinous church. Beneath the 
title: A new mode of Supplying a Canal with water where it cannot be 
obtained without Injuring the Mill Owners. 

The Rochdale Canal Bill was petitioned against by owners of mills on 
the Roach, Irwell, and Irk. The Bill was supported by petitions of 
'Gentlemen, Clergy . . .' and mill-owners; it was passed on 4 Apr. 1794. 
Commons Journals, xlix. 20, 156, 162, 265 (24 Jan., 12, 13 Feb., 3 Mar. 
1794). Cf. No. 9 13 1, &c. 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: Jan 20 1794^ by SW Fores N^ Piccadilly where may be 
seen a compleate model of the Guilotine, the Head and hand of Count 
Streuenzee & the Largest Collection of Caracaturs in the World 
Engraving. A design in two compartments. On the 1. is the interior of 
a church, the pulpit in the foreground (1.) with the head of the clerk below. 
In the background are the pews in the body of the church and a gallery 
with a congregation (freely sketched). A good-looking young parson stands 
in the pulpit, his eyes raised sanctimoniously. Beneath the design: Good 
Precepts \ do as I say. 

On the r. the parson, very drunk and dishevelled, is leaving a brothel, 
his arm round the waist of a prostitute with whom he has exchanged hats. 
He flourishes a cane ; his pockets hang out empty ; from them fall playing- 
cards and a Book of Common Prayer. The girl has picked his pocket and 
holds out his watch and seals to a woman in the open doorway (r.) behind 
her. Over the door : Dealer in Spiritual Liquor, and beside it : Lodging for 
Gentlemen. In the background under an arcade which indicates the Piazza, 
Covent Garden, a watchman walks with a lantern. Beneath the design: 
But bad Examples \ — fwt as I do — . No. 9647 has the same title. 

[I, Cruikshank.] 

Pub^ Sepr 26 1794 by S W Fores A^" 3 Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). A very fat man sits (1.) at a dinner- 
table holding a knife and fork and about to take a mouthful. He gazes 
' The 4 may have been etched over another figure. 


apprehensively at his wife (r.), who has risen from the table, overthrowing 
her chair and a bottle of Gin whose contents stream to the ground. She 
leans forward, clenching her outstretched r. fist, a glass in her 1. hand, 
shouting, You Think indeed!! You Brute, I wonder at your Impudence, never 
was so Mild so Meek a Temprd Woman so III used as I am, & all because 
I'm the most Tender Affectionate Wife living, but I wont be treated so I wont 
no, ril tear your Eyes out first, I know what you want, to set me in a Passion 
you do, but I wont be in a Passion to please you, you Cross III Temperd 
Quarrelsome, Passionate Wretch. On the table are a joint of beef (opposite 
the man), pudding, a bottle of Brandy (next the woman). On the ground 
at her feet are a broken glass and a knife. They face each other in profile, 
as do the couple in a picture behind her head: a virago (r.) threatens a thin 
and trembling man with a broom. 

R. Dighton. 1794. 

Pub by R Dighton March 25 1794 

Engraving (coloured impression). A H.L. portrait of Christie standing in 
his auctioneer's rostrum, the upper part of which forms the base of the 
design. He leans insinuatingly to the 1., his head in profile, spectacles on 
his forehead, his hammer delicately raised. Beneath the design: Will your 
ladyship do me the honor to say £50-000 \ — a mere trifle — a brilliant of 
the first water. \ an unheard of price for such a lot, surely. Cf. No. 6101 

Reproduced, H. C. Marillier, "Christie's" 1766 to 1925, 1926, p. xu; 
H. M. Hake, Print Collector's Quarterly, xiii. 136. 


Drawn & Etc¥ by R Dighton. 12 Charing Cross Pu¥ Dec* &■ 1794. 
Engraving (coloured impression). The enormously fat Stephen Kemble, 
as Hamlet, gesticulates, r. arm extended, 1. arm thrown back, fingers (very 
large) pointing awkwardly ; his head is turned in profile to the 1. He wears 
quasi-contemporary dress, much dishevelled, with a star and ribbon from 
which hangs the elephant of the Danish order. Beneath the title : A Large 

manager in a Great Character that I have thought some of nature's 

journeymen had made men, and not made them well; they imitated humanity 
so abominably. 

Stephen Kemble, after quarrels over the tenancy of Edinburgh theatres, 
opened the Theatre Royal on 18 Jan. 1794 when John Kemble played 
Hamlet. Stephen rarely appeared, though he played Hamlet when eighteen 
stone. D.N.B. 

[Ceilings del., Barlow f.] 

Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i Oct. 1794] 

Engraving. A reissue of the 1. part of No. 7831 (1791). The scene in 
revolutionary Paris serves as the representation of a quarrel between artists 
at the exhibition of the Royal Academy. 
6^X4^ in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448 (iii. 327). 



MAGAZINE— Part II. [1794] 

Woodcut. From The Wonderful Magazine, v. 275. Fourteen W.L. figures, 
as in No. 8375, all in profile to the r. : A Nut-Cracker (labourer with a nut- 
cracker profile), A Hogs Friend (a Jew), Old Lingo (hump-backed), Sam 
Soak, The Gallant Welchman, Death's Harbinger (a quack doctor). Dame 
Clackit, Poor, Dame Clackit, Rich, Simon Snip (a tailor), A Dull Dutchman, 
An Old Codger, The Musical Wonder (holding two violins), A Well Known 
News-man (with a sheaf of the Wonderful [Magazine]), The Giant of the 
Bank (larger than the other figures): he is 'Mr Jenkins, the celebrated 
bank clerk' (pp. 450-1). 
11^X17^ in. 

8530 [FOX AS BELLMAN.] [1794] 
Woodcut on cover of No. 51, The New Wonderful Magazine, a reissue of 
The Wonderful Magazine, where the print of Fox appears to have illustrated 
No. 14. Beside the print are verses spoken, not by Fox, but by Peter Pindar 
as bellman ; they include the lines : 

"I, who was Con, mean, do you see. 
Pro Rege, for the King to be [cf. No. 7399]- 
For Fox's verses see Wonderful Magazine, ii. 364-5. The woodcut is 

from the same block as No. 8375, also used in No. 8622. Cf. No. 8989. 

Cover ( ? cropped), 8| X 5I in. 


Rowlandson 1794 

Pu¥ Jariy I. 1794 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly, where may be had 
all Rowlandson' s Works 

Engraving (coloured impression). A German soldier sits in the front row 
of a theatre gallery, his hands in a muflF. He has moustaches, wears a high 
fur cap, a cloak, the braided tunic of a hussar, and looks fixedly to the r. 
with a contemptuous frown. Those sitting in the same row turn their 
heads to look at him ; a stout man on the extreme r. starts through a glass ; 
those behind stand and stare. Some of those seated below look up. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 322, 323 (reproduction). 

8532 NEW SHOES. 
Rowlandson lygs 

Pu¥ I . . . 1794 by S W Fores No 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of a dairy. A young under- 
graduate (I.) stoops low, cap in hand, to admire the shoes of a pretty young 
woman, who pulls up her petticoats to display her legs. Her breast is 
uncovered. Beside her is a slightly damaged pitcher. A cat drinks from 
a bowl of cream on a shelf. Her back is towards a casement window 
through which an elderly man peers angrily. 
Grego, Rowlandson, i. 320, 324. 

'Caricatures', ix. 9. 
' Publication line partly cut off. 

Two designs on one plate 

8533 LUXURY. 

T Rowlandson 

Pu¥ Dee 20^^ 1794 by SW Fores N" 3 Piccadilly. 
Engraving (coloured impression). A young couple sit in a large curtained 
bed; the man embraces the pretty woman. Both hold cups; a maid- 
servant (1.) (disregarded) hands them food on a small dish. The head of 
the bed and the curtains form the background. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 185-6 (reproduction),^ p. 325. 

8534 MISERY 

T Rowlandson 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two men cling desperately to a broken 
mast floating in a rough sea. 

Grego, ut supra. 
5|x8| in. 'Caricatures', ix. 4. 

Rowlandson G. M. Woodward Im^ 
Published by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly SepV 25. iyg4 

Engraving (coloured impression). A lean old woman in night-cap and 
shift sits in an arm-chair pouncing on an insect on her upraised knee. A 
cat sits on the arm of the chair. Bedroom furniture and utensils, with 
clothes thrown to the floor, are in the foreground. The bed-curtains 
form a background. Four lines of verse beneath the title begin : 
On record Bold Flea with Columbus youll stand, 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 320, 324. 

'Caricatures', vii. 3. 


[? 1794] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two elderly and bearded Jews, T.Q.L., 
are seated facing each other across the table, greedily expectant, while a 
third (r.) stands to carve a sucking-pig. Beside the table (r.) is a wine- 
cooler holding six bottles. For Duke's Place cf. No. 5468. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 324-5. Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Juden in Kari- 
katur, 1 92 1, p. 47. 


H. Bunbury Esq* Delin* W. Dickinson Excudit 

London, Published March 5** 1794 by John Jeffryes Ludgate Hill 

Stipple. Sportsmen in a bare breakfast parlour, with a small round table 
on which are tea-pot and cups, a loaf, and a wine-bottle. A stout man (1.) 
sits beside the table, holding a wine-glass, his r. hand on a dog's head; 

' Describing an impression published 7 Mar. 1786 by E. Jackson, 14 Maryle- 
bone Street, Golden Square. 



a boy kneels at his feet fastening on spurs ; a yawning valet dresses his hair. 
He talks to a man standing on the extreme 1., holding his hat and whip. 
Another man, a whip under his arm, stands at the table cutting a piece of 
bread. A short man sits with his back to the table examining the lock of 
his gun. Two men enter from the r., yawning violently. A pair of coupled 
dogs (r.) prance in their eagerness to start. On the wall and hanging from 
the ceiling are antlers, a bird in a cage, a ( ?) saddle, a game-bag, a pair 
of pistols, a hat and whip, a fowling-piece. A companion print to No. 8538. 
Reissued with the imprint Published April 21, 1803. by Jn" Harris N" 3 
Sweetings Alley, Cornhill, & 8, Old Broad Street, London 


Stipple. A companion print to No. 8537. Five men and two ladies seated 
at a dinner-table. The host (1.) holds a curiously shaped goblet; a footman 
stands at his elbow with a salver. The man on his r. takes wine with the 
lady at the foot of the table (r.), on whose r. a fat woman sits holding up 
a wine-glass. On the hostess's 1. a parson ( ?) in back- view is carving ; a 
footman stands with a plate. The two other men sit (full-face) on the 
opposite side of the table. Behind them a butler stands at a side-table. 
On the wall are three sporting pictures: a huntsman about to mount is 
flanked by circular pictures of fox-hounds. In the foreground (c.) two 
small dogs greet each other, a terrier and a clipped poodle or lap-dog. 
iSfxiyf in. 

H. Bunbury Esq^ del^ 

Published as the Act directs June i^ 1794 by J. Jones N" 74 Great 
Portland Street 

Stipple, resembling a pencil drawing. St. Bernard, a circular halo above 
his head, stands with admonitory upraised thumb addressing two shame- 
faced men who, like himself, wear monk's robes; behind the Saint is a 
seated dog. In the background are three other monks. Two doorways, one 
gothic, are indicated. 


Stipple, resembling a pencil drawing. A scene of the ancien regime : two 
elaborately dressed Frenchmen wearing swords stand chapeau-bras, facing 
each other in profile; one (1.) wears a ribbon and rests his hands on a long 
cane. A monk (1.) walks off in profile to the 1. A stout elderly lady (r.) 
holding a fan walks off to the r. 


Designed by G.M. Woodward Etched by I. Cruikshank 

Published June i^ iyg4 by S.W. Fores N" Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). Eight pairs of persons in conversation, 
arranged in two rows, words etched above the head of the speaker. The 

' Signature and imprint as No. 8537. 

* Signature and imprint as No. 8539. ^ PI. i in A. de R. iv. 152-3. 



flatterer gains approval or material benefit from his (or her) words, how- 
ever gross the flattery. Appearance, charm, judgement of horsemanship, 
literary merit, generosity (in a miser) are praised. One of a set of similar 
designs, see Nos. 8542-5, 8780, 8802, 8838, 8925-8, 8977, 9104-9, 9313-14, 
9416, 9418, 9529, p. 617, 9643-8. Later impressions are numbered serially 
and were grouped in 'volumes'. Nine other plates (not in B.M.) of the 
series are in A. de R. (three of 1794, six of 1796, one of 1797). 


G. M. Woodward DelM [I. Cruikshank f.] 

Publish- d Novemr i^ iyg4 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly. y 

Engraving (coloured impression). Eight pairs of persons in conversation, 
arranged in two rows, words etched above the head of the speaker, e.g. a 
doctor hopes his gouty patient is better, the patient hopes the doctor has 
not come for his bill; a gardener (in blue apron and over-sleeves) hopes 
to be paid that trifle for Gardening, the employer hopes to see him in the 
round house. One of a set, see No. 8541, &c. 
i2|x i8| in. 'Caricatures', viii. 45. 


G. M. Woodward Delin. [I. Cruikshank f.] 

Pu¥ Novemr j*' 1794 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly.]^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). Eight pairs of persons in conversation, 
arranged as in No. 8541 above. The boasts of a soldier, a traveller, of a 
dissenting minister (who says, I preaches and I knows things, I prophesys 
and all things comes as I says! the times are dismall and somthing must come 
to pass) are believed ; so are the false vows or threats of lovers (three). The 
others are a fashionable attorney or banker who says (to his pupil's mother) : 
/ dont get a farthing by the articles, — pon honor!, and an artisan who tells 
his wife (who has a spinning-wheel) a tall story. One of a set, see No. 
8541, &c. 
1 1 1 X 1 8 in. ' Caricatures', viii. 44. 


G. M. Woodward Delin. [I. Cruikshank f.] 

Published Novenf V^ 1794 by S. W. Fores N° 3 Piccadilly.]^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). Eight couples or groups of three 
arranged as in No. 8541 , &c. An obsequious clerical tutor recognizes Nobility 
in the undistinguished features of a boy who is heir to a dukedom; a 
doctor who has become fashionable refuses to dine with an old friend. 
A bookseller assures an elderly woman of title that her name is alone sufficient 
to make her maiden effort go through a dozen editions. A man who is 

' Title and imprint from A. de R. iv. 162-3. 

* Ibid. iv. 156-7. 3 Ibid. iv. 158-9. 



turned Gentleman finds himself forced to dine not earlier than 5 o'clock. 
A couple of cockneys walk arm in arm : What with the Prize in the Lottery 
and the snug Box at Islington I defy all Thames Street to know either I or 
my Vife . One of a set, see No. 8541, &c. 
I2X i8| in. 'Caricatures', viii. 32. 


G. M. Woodward Delin. I C [Cniikshank.] 

Pu¥ Nov i^ iyg4 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly. Y 

Engraving (coloured impression). Eight pairs of persons arranged as in 
No. 8541, e.g. a poetaster in rags solicits a subscription to a small Ode 
to Benevolence; an author's manuscript is rejected because he is unknown 
in the Fashionable World. A young woman is taken to the watch-house 
by a watchman who answers her plea for help : Yes III help you to go before 
his honor at the Watch house and would not let you slip off for two shillings 
[cf. No. 7810]. For the set see No. 8541, &c. 

Two other plates of the same set are dated 1 Nov. 1794: The Effects of 
Disappointment. PI. 3 (A. de R. iv. 164) ; The Effects of Truth. PL 4 (A. de R. 
iv. 154). 
12 J X i8| in. 'Caricatures', viii. 53. 


Plate first 
IC^ [Cniikshank.] 
Lond** Pub May 3, 17 94"^ by SW Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has fitted 

up his Exhibition in an Entire Novel stile admittance one shilling. 

NB Folios of Caracatures Lent out. 

Engraving. A design in eight compartments arranged in two rows, each 
containing an approximately H.L. figure. These are caricatured and in 
character resemble figures in A Rout, No. 7746. [i] Cupid's Drummer. 
A man wearing a coat with epaulettes stands chapeau-bras in profile to the 
r., his aquiline profile caricatured. [2] Ther's a shew. A fat lady seated in 
profile to the 1., with a grotesquely projecting nose, looks with pleasure at 
her hand of cards. [3] Lewd. Above the ew (erased) 00 is written. An 
elderly and scraggy woman turns up her eyes in pained disapproval. 
[4] Four by Honors. A man seated in profile to the 1., rather hunchbacked, 
holding cards, stares eagerly towards his vis-a-vis. [5] / Can't Crack it. 
A man in profile to the r. holds his 1. hand before his (grotesque) nose. 
[6] A Comfortable pinch. An ugly frowning woman of spinsterish appear- 
ance looks to the 1., holding a closed snuff-box. [7] As soft as Possible! 
A thin man bends forward in profile to the r. with an insinuating half- 
smile. [8] Very Pretty indeed. A man stands chapeau-bras, his head 
thrown back and turned to the 1. 

' Title and imprint from A. de R. iv. 160-1. 

' The 4 appears to have been etched over a 3, and just to have been erased 
before fitted. 




C Ansel Del. et Fecit. 

Pu¥ Januy i'^ iyg4 by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly & N" 51 S^ Pauls 
Church Yard. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Ten archers, each with 
a caption, arranged in two rows. Five verses are engraved beneath the 
title; the first and fourth are: 

Lo! these are the Yeomen and these are the Bowmen, 

And if thou wilt be one of the Train 

Take Quiver and Bow and Feathers also 

And Coat of the Brightest Green. 

To Blackheath then repair, the resort of the Fair; 
To veiw Attitudes, figures and Graces. 
Where Bold Archers let fly, to hit the Bulls Eye, 
Or the Eyes in their Visitors Faces!!! 

All except a capering Scot in Highland dress wear belted coat and half- 
boots, a hat with a round crown, and brim turned up with loop and 
button, and trimmed with a feather or a sprig of foliage. A quiver is slung 
from the belt and the limp cover of the bow is passed through the belt 
at the back. 

There had recently been a revival of archery. The Sporting Magazine 
published a print of lady archers at Hatfield and gave a list of twenty 
'principal societies or companies of archers', i. 54 (Nov. 1792). The 
frontispiece to vol. iv (1794) is an engraving of a 'Meeting of the Royal 
Surrey Bowmen on Epsom Downs': a 'splendid exhibition of rank and 
fashion*, p. 293. 
i2|X2o in. 

[J. Nixon del., ? I. Cruikshank f.] 

London, Publish'd June 7, 1794, by Will*" Holland, N" 50 Oxford 
Street. In Holland's Exhibition Rooms, may be seen the largest 
Collection of Caricatures in Europe — Admittance One Shilling. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The centre portion of a strip design, 
see No. 8549. The text of an advertisement is engraved beneath the figures, 
the words spoken above their heads (not transcribed in full). 

[i] Domestic Hack. Wanted a Young Man of light weight as a Postilion 
to drive and look after a pair of Horses, he must be perfectly sober, chaste 
in behaviour, and attentive to both his Religious and Moral Duties — read 
Prayers and sing Psalms every Sunday Evening to the Family, clean Boots, 
Shoes, and Knives. . . . The applicant, fat, clumsy, and tipsy, is rated by 
the sour-looking advertiser, M*" John Bunyan. 

[2] Patty Rosey. Patty Rosey, from the name of its Ingenious Inventor, 
is the most delicate, elegant, & efficacious Lozenge ever yet offered to the 
Public, they subdue that teazing Irritation in the Throat, heals the Fluxions 
from the Brain, & makes the most offensive Breath, as sweet as Violets, by 
taking three or four occasionly, as they Melodize the Voice, in a most astonish- 
ing manner, those who belong to the Pulpit, Bar or Stage shou'd never be with- 
out them. 



A woman singer stands full-face, bending forward, her hands resting 
on a low ornamental balustrade, holding a music score. She says, in spite 
of Lady Dale's Decoction of Honey and the Pattey Rosey — / am still Hoarse, 
I cannot Sing without pain to myself, or to my Hearers, therefore, hope for 
your usual indulgence. She resembles caricatures of Mme Mara, see 
No. 7067. 

[3] Scotch Dancing. M" Jemmy Macjigg, lately arrived in this Town from 
Inverness, teaches the Scotch Steps, Reels, Strathspeys &c. in their true 
native Purity, with that Grace & Dignity, none but himself ever attempted 
before; ... A short, stout, plainly dressed man (1.) capers clumsily, his 
hands held up, snapping his fingers. The dancing-master, playing the 
bagpipes and taking a similar but less clumsy step, looks down ; he wears 
English dress except for tartan stockings. The pupil says: Zounds M^'Jigg, 
I shall never hold out, flagging work, to keep Arms, Legs, Head, & Fingers, 
in Motion at the same Instant. The answer: Dinna fear — vary weel me 
Lord, ye are queete a Cheel of Parfact — ion. 

[4] Washing Machine. M^ Savesoap's Washing Machine, saves Coals, 
Candles, Soap, & Labour, a Child of 2 Years old, will wash more Linen, 
in an hour, than ten thorough bred washingwomen cou'd do in a Week, it is 
now become a genteel amusement, & so perfectly safe from wearing out the 
Linen, that you may throw in a Bank Note, which after being so washed, 
comes out without even a letter being defaced: Sold only by the Patentees, 
Water Lane. 

An old crone in profile to the r. holds up a tattered garment, inspecting 
it nearsightedly. She addresses a buxom young woman who walks off (r.), 
looking over her shoulder at the shirt : Why you have Washed this Shift into 
a thousarui holes, if it had been shot at by a City Train Bandman, it cou'd not 
have been more abused. 
10X25 in. 


/. Nixon Esq' delin. [? I. Cruikshank f.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). Probably, but not certainly, part of the 
same strip design as No. 8548. 

[i] Matrimony. A Young Gentleman advertises for a wife who must be 
Tall & Handsome neither too fat, or too lean. ... A hideous bandy-legged 
man (1.) is approached by two ugly women, saying, / hope you dont think 
me too tall, and nor me too fat. He laughs rudely: ee ee' I dont think there's 
a Pins difference between ye. A good-looking young woman (r.) walks off, 
saying : Such a Rabbit Back'd Bandy-Legged Beast, I wou'd not Marry him 
to be Queen of England. 

[2] Read this ye British Fair. An advertisement of cosmetics. Choice 
presents of Venus: Cream of Cucumbers, Essence of Asparagus, Rouge, 
Extracted from lettuces. Fat of Nightingales. These are said to restore 
youthful beauty to age, and make hair grow even where it never grew before. 
A hideous old crone looks at herself in a glass, saying to her comely maid : 
Why Betty! this Cucumber Cream has drawn my Face into Blisters. ... A 
cat plays with a wig of girlish curls. 

[3] Thirty Thousand Pounds!!! He that never Ventures never Wins, . . . 
In order that all Ranks and Classes of People may have a Chance of either 
Gaining or Improving a Fortune, Mess. Gain & Rich offers their Chances to 
the Public, at a Price, Infinitely lower than any other Office, in Tozvn. Here 



the Poor, and neady, for the Trifling Sum of 2 16 may get a Prize, of a L.iooo. 
set up a Gig and Drive a Poney! if L 5000 retire into the Country, and Kill 
their own Mutton! if L loooo buy an Elegant little Villa! & if the 30 000 
buy a manor! keep a Pack of Dogs!! support Old English hospitality!!! and 
make the Whole Country Happy round ye!!!! that's your sort [cf. No. 8073]. 
A ragged surly clerk sits behind the counter of Gain & Rich's Old 
Established Lucky Lottery Office, which is besieged by angry 'prize- 
winners': a butcher, a young woman, a chimney-sweep's boy, a barber, 
a pot-boy. 


Drawn & etcKd by R Newton 

London Pub. April 22 iyg4 by Will'^ Holland N° 50 Oxford Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A sequence of fifteen figures arranged 
in three rows, [i] On a Journey from the Highlands to Edinburgh. The 
Scot, barelegged and barefoot and wearing a very short kilt, walks in 
profile to the 1., carrying only the thick stick with which he walks. [2] Wha 
Wants me. He stands facing the 1., screening with his tartan cloak a man 
seated on a bucket whose bare knee, feet, and profile alone are visible. 
His face is distorted by his cry, that of an Edinburgh character to whom 
Dundas was compared, see Nos. 8103, 8146. [3] Running two miles for a 
Halfpenny. He runs in profile to the 1., his breeches bestride a staff which 
he carries against his shoulder. Though barelegged he wears shoes and 
socks. [4] Sweep Hell for a Farthing. He stands directed to the 1. holding 
two small heather-brooms against his 1. shoulder; he shouts with gaping, 
twisted mouth. [5] On a Journey to London. He leans against a post to 
rub his back, scratching his shoulders with a twisted expression. His staff 
and breeches (as in 3) lie beside him. [6] Booing to a Scots Servant, to get 
him into a Place. He bows low, cap in hand. [7] Marching after his Mistress 
to Church in his new Livery. He walks stiffly in profile to the r. with a long 
tasselled cane, the r. leg almost horizontal, a book under his r. arm. He 
wears livery with tags on the shoulder, cocked hat, ruffled shirt, and 
powdered hair. [8] Gets to be a Nobleman's Porter — won't take in a Petition 
without a shilling fee. He stands in profile to the 1., his head thrown back, 
arrogantly taking a pinch of snuff from a mull. He has grown obese. 
Epaulettes take the place of tags. [9] Gets to be Steward — Lending his 
honest savings to his Master. He bends forward in profile to the r. with an 
obsequious grimace, his r. hand on his breast, holding out a money-bag. 
[10] Insults his Master when he knows he can't return the money. He stands 
with hands on hips, his head turned in profile to the 1. and thrown back 
with an arrogant scowl. [11] Rules the Roost in the Family and Horsewhips 
the Servants. He stands, legs wide apart, arms raised, flourishing a whip. 
[12] Makes love to a rich Widow and Marries her. He kneels on one knee, 
his hands on his heart, his back curved, with a smile of obsequious cunning. 
He wears a bag-wig and sword, his hat is on the ground. [13] An Essay 
to be a Member of Parliament making a Speech from the Hustings. He stands 
in profile to the 1., leaning forward, legs apart, holding out his r. arm, and 
clutching his cocked hat in his 1. hand. [14] Gets into the House and assumes 
an air of importance. He stands in profile to the 1., his head thrown back, 
his stomach thrown out, his arms behind his back. He has a bag-wig and 
chapeau-bras. [15] Thus ends this strange eventful History. He sits full-face, 

129 K 


wearing a baron's coronet, in an ornate arm-chair whose back and arms 
are decorated with coronets. 

The first six figures wear tartan with a Scots cap. The second figure, 
imitated from No. 8103, connects the subject with Dundas. 

Newton etched a companion plate, Progress of an Irishman, pub. 
Holland, Apr. 1794 (A. de R. iv. 146-7), of which No. 8562 is probably 
a copy or adaptation. 
15JX20J in. 


Draton & Etch'd by R, Newton. 

London, Pub. October, i. iy94y by Will"" Holland, N° 50, Oxford Street, 
In Holland's Exhibition Rooms may be seen the largest Collection 
of Caricatures in Europe, Admittance, One Shilling. 

Engraving. A design in eight compartments, arranged in two rows. The 
words spoken are etched above the heads of the persons. 

[i] A Good Customer. A pretty young woman, floridly dressed and wear- 
ing a feather hat, stands (r.) smiling at a young man, who walks off, hat 
in hand, putting a banknote on a small table, saying: There's a ten pound 
note, Maria: I cannot be as liberal as I used to be for money is very scarce. 
She answers : Your Lordship is very good. When shall I have the pleasure 
of seeing your Lordship again ? pray let it be soon for I love you dearly. 

[2] Lust and Avarice in the hands of a Tarter. The 'tarter', a flamboyantly 
dressed, good-looking woman with feathers in her hair, stands (1.) arms 
akimbo, coarsely upbraiding a lean and ugly little man, who gropes in his 
breeches pocket. She ends : Send your watch to the Pawnbroker's this minute 
for a couple of guineas or I'll blow you to hell you old Quiz. He says, Bless 
me! I thought I'd half a guinea but I find I've but half a crown and some half- 
pence. . . . 

[3] A sham Arrest. A buxom young woman (r.) kneels on one knee, her 
hands clasped, beseeching a young man in riding-dress, who with a shocked 
expression holds an open pocket-book. Two bogus bailiffs stand behind 
her. She says: Dear Sir, for mercy's sake dont let me be taken to Prison — tis 
only for forty pounds— your heart is the seat of every virtue, and your generosity 
at this time will be registered in heaven! One of the men says to the other: 
Damn me, Tom, she was right, the Flat melts. There's an Abraham Newland 
[bank-note, cf. No. 7839] peeping out of his pocket book already. 

[4] Captain O Rafferty not to be had. A flamboyantly dressed young 
woman (r.) and an officer wearing a cocked hat sit on adjacent chairs. She 
holds an infant on her knee, saying, Go kiss it's Papa darling. The officer 
draws back in horror, saying. My Child! allbothor! . . . 'tis but five months 
since I first saw your sweet face, my honey, and though we do things sur- 
prisingly in Ireland, Yet by my soul I never saw a son and heir of five months 
growth before! 

[5] A Masquerade Adventure. A man (1.) wearing a domino draws back 
in consternation, dropping his mask, from a shepherdess, who, removing 
her mask, reveals an aged and hideously grinning face ; her figure is comely 
and long hair falls down her back. He says: Angels and Ministers of grace 
defend us! I took you in Masquerade for an Hebe by all thats beautiful! but 
you are a perfect Witch of Endor damn me! 

[6] A Disagreeable Surprise. A good-looking woman stands in profile to 
the r., her hands raised in amused surprise, looking at a man who stands 



full-face but turns his head away from her, scowling with clenched fist and 
grasping his hat. He says: Damnation! my Wife of all beings! what the devil 
brought you here madam. She answers : The very thing that brought you here, 
my sweet Sir, come, come, put your horns in your pocket and say no more, 
tis only trick upon trick. Behind the lady (1.) stands a footman in livery, 
his shoulders hunched in dismay, exclaiming. Here's a discovery with a 
vengeance! Introduce a gentleman to his own Wife! 

[7] A Bilk. A stout and florid prostitute stands with arms akimbo, her 
back to a door (r.), grasping a key. A good-looking man addresses her with 
an insinuating smile and outstretched hand. He says : Arra stop my beauti- 
ful angel, till I sell my commission — you put yourself in a great passion for 
nothing at all at all! by my soul there's many a woman would thank me for 
my company. . . . She answers : Come, come, my noble Captain, as you call 
yourself, Fm not to be queerd with your pallaver! The key shan't turn in this 
door till Fm satisfied. You're the most noted bilk in London, but d — m my 
eyes if you shall bilk me! 

Reproduced (without text) as Die Schliisselgewalt, Fuchs und Kind, 
Die Weiberherrschaft, 191 3, i. 16. 

[8] Poor Hob in Sharp's Alley. A buxom termagant sits in a chair (r.) 
holding the neckcloth of a terrified man in riding-dress, who kneels before 
her. A ruffian with a bludgeon (1.) runs forward. She says: F II shake your 
soul out you hobnail if you dont give me half a crown! Hollo! Bob Blunder- 
buss, come settle accounts with this sixpenny Buck! He cries: Oh Lord! 
Oh Lord! the Gentlewoman at the door told me it would cost me but sixpence 
and a Glass of Gin. 
16-IX23I in. 


Drawn & Etch'd by R Newton. 

London Pub Ocr 12 iyg4 by Will*" Holland N" 50 Oxford Sir* 

Engraving. Sixteen groups arranged in four rows on two plates intended 
to be pasted together. Designs i, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14 are on pi. i, the 
others on pi. 2. 

[i] In the hands of a surly Old Schoolmistress. A grim old woman wearing 
spectacles sits in an arm-chair sewing. An infant stands before her (1.) with 
an open book; a little boy stands on a stool weeping; he wears a dunce's 
cap with a birch-rod attached to his dress. [2] Punished by a Pedagogue 
for reading better than himself. A terrified youth holds out his r. hand to 
a ferocious-looking schoolmaster seated (r.), a raised ruler in his r. hand, 
a book in the other. [3] Is sent to College — loves a pretty girl much better 
than Euclid. The interior of a college room. A buxom young woman (1.) 
sits in a chair with a young man in academic cap and gown on her knee. 
They are startled by the entrance of an irate parson (r.), who bursts open 
the door, overturning a small table on which are bottles and glasses. 
[4] Arrives to man's estate and becomes a prey to Sharpers. A fracas at a 
gaming-table. The young man, now growing stout, has risen from his 
chair, clutching a dice-box and clenching his fist. Two men have been 
thrown to the ground, but two others of tough appearance remain seated, 
and a fifth enters the room holding a club. [5] In a pretty pickle between 
a Doctor and a Nurse tender. The invalid, wearing dressing-gown and 
night-cap, sits in an arm-chair, resting his melancholy face on his hand. 
On the 1. is a stout old-fashioned doctor sucking his cane, on the r. an 



old woman approaches with a basin of food. [6] To repair a shattered 
fortune marries an extravagant wife. He stands (1.) holding a long bill and 
looking in angry horror at a florid woman, who scolds him with arms 
akimbo. On the r. stands a thin, foppish ( ? French) man-milliner, hat in 
hand, laden with band-boxes. [7] Gets fond of his little family and his wife 
gets fond of his best friend and cuckolds him. He sits in a chair in profile to 
the r., teaching two little boys and an older girl. All appear contented. 
Behind his back (r.) a buxom woman and a military officer, their arms 
round each other's necks, watch him with amusement. She puts her hand 
above his head with two fingers extended to represent horns. [8] Flies for 
relief to the Bottle and mends his condition. He staggers along (r. to 1.), 
very drunk and dishevelled, supported by two aged watchmen each with 
a lantern. He holds the wig of a watchman whose hat he kicks along the 
street. [9] Is thrown into Prison — forsaken by his Wife, and the only comfort 
he now enjoys is that of his Children. The interior of a prison room with 
stone walls and barred window. He sits in an arm-chair (1.) listening to 
his daughter, a pretty young girl, who reads to him. A little boy sits by 
the fire (r.) attending to the roasting of a chop which dangles from a string. 
[10] After Seven years confinement gets released by an Insolvent Bill — 
Goes into the army and butchers his fellow creatures for a trifle a day. He is 
about to sabre a soldier who lies on the ground. On the r. is a dead or 
wounded man. He wears a cocked hat and (torn) regimentals. [11] Is 
disbanded and wrecked on his return home. He sits meditatively on a rock, 
his back to a raging sea in which a dismasted ship tosses. He wears neat 
regimentals and a cocked hat, and holds his sword, its point resting on the 
ground. [12] On his return home finds his family eating a sorry meal in a 
garret. He rushes through a doorway (1.), dropping his sword and holding 
out his arms to a pretty girl who rushes towards him. A delighted boy is 
behind her. Behind is a table with a loaf. The room is poverty-stricken. 
[13] Is a witness of an usurious scene which awakens bitter reflection on his 
former folly. He sits at a table beside a smiling young man opposite a 
Jewish money-lender who is about to hand over two money-bags. [14] 
Though Poor himself has a heart to feel for the sufferings of others. He walks 
past a barred prison window, with a placard Pray Rem Debtor (r.), within 
which are four grotesque ruffians, one of whom holds a hat through the 
bars. He drops a coin into the hat, and gives another to a little beggar- 
boy (1.). [15] Is arrested by his landlord for rent. He stands pleading with a 
stout, surly-looking man (r.). His weeping daughter, now a woman, stands 
between them. Behind him (1.) is a ruffianly bailiff's man with a bludgeon. 
[16] Terminates his miseries in a Prison. He sits in a dressing-gown in an 
arm-chair, his eyes closed. His daughter (1.) puts her hand to his heart with 
an agonized expression. His son (r.) covers his face with his hands. 

The hero, who is handsome throughout, and his good-looking family 
are not caricatured, as are many of the other figures (parson, doctor, watch- 
men, &c.). 
Each pi. 2oJx 13! in. 


Drawn & Etc¥ by R^ Newton. 

London Pu¥ by W. Holland, N° 50 Oxford S* Decern'' 16 iyg4 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design in twelve compartments 
arranged in three rows, and divided into approximately equal rectangles 



by intersecting lines; the figures are generally H.L. The words are etched 
above the heads of the speakers. Of the barbers three are comely women 
(who please their customers), other figures are much caricatured. The 
barbers maltreat their customers through negligence or lack of skill, or 
flatter them grossly, or amuse them with good stories. 
14! X 21 1 in. 


Drawn & Etched by R Newton 

London Pu¥ March i iyg4 by Will" Holland N" 50 Oxford S^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A man and woman sit side by side in 
the stocks. A grotesque village constable stands on the r. of the stocks, 
holding a long staff or pole and glaring at his female prisoner. She is a 
countrywoman smoking a short pipe and turning her head in profile to the 
1. with a fierce scowl. Her heavy muscular arms are folded. Her companion 
(r.) is a yokel in a smock, who scratches his head and scowls down with 
closed eyes. A dog (1.) watches the woman. 
9jx iif in. 'Caricatures', ix. 60. 


Drawn and Etc¥ by R^ Newton 

London Pub by W Holland October 26 1794 N° 50 Oxford Street 

Aquatint (coloured impression). A couple, much caricatured, lie in a half- 
tester truckle bed. On the woman, who is asleep, sits a grotesque demon, 
smoking a pipe and holding up a lantern ; he glares fiercely at her. The man 
stares terror-struck. A horse (or mare) puts its head through the open 
casement window (1.). Probably deriving (remotely) from Fuseli's Night- 
mare, cf. Nos. 6543, 8671, 9371. 
lox 12^^ in. 'Caricatures', vii. 36. 


J Nixon 

Pub FelP r^ 1794 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). 'Cits' ride (1. to r.) (types of vulgar 
horsemanship, cf. Nos. 7233, 7242) in a cloud of dust, following a crowded 
stage-coach inscribed To the Races. A rough two-wheeled cart, crammed 
with a family party, is drawn by a cantering pony. A signpost points To 
the Race Ground. A suburban setting is given by the country box and 
'grounds' of a *cit', with a notice-board: Spring Blunderbuss^ on a new 
Construction — Planted in Various Paths of my Domain & whosown Trample 
Down or pull up the Shrubs in this Garden shall be Prosecuted — Deputy 
Dump. In front of the house the owner ( ?) and his wife look over the paling 
at the race-goers. The house is a square box, whose small scale is indicated 
by the size of a pot-plant on the flat roof; on this are also figures of Neptune, 
Harlequin, and Mercury. Adjacent (1.) is a shed inscribed M^ Dumps 
Stables, with a pretentious cupola. 

For the 'cit's' country box cf. No. 8208. The Deputy Alderman and the 
Common Councilman were favourite types of city vulgarity, cf. No. 8046. 





Pu¥ Nov i"^ 1794, by H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A mother and daughter face each other 
in profile. An elderly woman, heavily moustached and bearded, sits at a 
small rectangular table, her r. forefinger accusingly pointed at a young 
woman (closely resembling her), apparently pregnant, who stands holding 
a fan with an expression of wary apprehension. Beneath the table is a 
large crow, one foot raised, turning its head towards the elder woman to 
say Oh! too bad. A patterned carpet, plain wall, and door (r.) form a 

Grego, Gillray, p. 180. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
7|xio in. 

8557 A A copy in The Caricatures of Gillray, after p. 165. 
5|X7^in. With border, 6f X 8 in. B.M.L., 745. a. 6. 

C. Goodnight, del & sculp. 

Published 12^'* May, 1794 by Laurie & Whittle, 53, Fleet Street, 

Engraving. A procession of seven ugly and elderly women (1. to r.); each, 
except the third, carries a cat under her arm. The third weeps, holding 
a handkerchief to her eyes. On the r. is the corner of a church showing a 
closed door and the lower part of two windows. Before it is an erect 
Tombstone : 

O cruel death 
To please thy hungry pallet 

Has cropH my lettice 
To make thy self a sallet 

An imitation of Old Maids at a Cat's Funeral, a more elaborate design 
by F. G. Byron, engraved (stipple) by John Pettit, pub. Holland, 10 Apr. 
1789 (A. de R. ii. 138). 
8|xi3 in. 


Published Aug'^ 23 1794, by C. Sheppard, N" 15 S^ Peters Hill 
Doctors Commons 

Engraving. An oval illustration to a song, cheaply engraved in two 
columns. A street scene ; a young woman descends a rope-ladder, helped 
by a young man who stands beside it (1.). A watchman (r.) holds up his 
lantern, his 1. hand open for money from the young man; he threatens: 
Fll knock up your Papa. Behind (r.) is his box. 

The song, interspersed with prose dialogue, is printed in The Professional 
Life of Mr. Dibdin, 1803, iii. 263, see No. 9101. A satire on the dishonest 
watchman (cf. No. 7810), whose misdeeds are broken by the refrain: 

Then to my box I creep. 

And then fall fast asleep. 
4f X6 in. PI. 9fx6J in. 



Two designs on one plate, 

8560 A SAUCY DOG. 
Brett fec^ 

Published Novevf 2f^ 17 94 hy H Humphreys N° 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving. A man (H.L.) wearing a large round hat looks slyly over his 
r, shoulder holding his chin in his r. hand. From under his 1. arm projects 
a stick or whip. 
6x4! in. 


Engraving. A plainly dressed citizen (H.L.), holding a tobacco-pipe, sits 
in an elbow-chair looking round over his r. shoulder, his underlip project- 
ing. Both appear to be weak imitations of Dighton. 
61^5X4! in. 


[After Newton.] 

Engraving. PI. to the Hibernian Magazine, 1794, ii. 385. A strip design 
arranged in two rows, [i] Begging his Learning as a Poor Scholar bound 
for 5* Omers. A ragged, bare-legged Irishman carrying a bundle and 
clutching a potato. [2] Setting out for 5' Omers to be made a Priest. He is 
still bare-legged but carries his shoes and is less ragged. [3] Gets to be a 
Priest. He wears a long gown. [4] Renounces the Church and Turns a man 
of Gallantry. He kneels on one knee, elegantly dressed. [5] Turns Player. 
He rants violently, wearing Elizabethan dress. [6] Leaves the Stage and 
turns Soldier. He stands with a musket. [7] Deserts and offers his service to a 
Noted English Gambler on his travels . He is ragged and supplicating but 
fashionably dressed. [8] Gets as deeply skilVd in the mystery of Cards & 
dice as his Master and sets up for himself. He holds up a dice-box with a 
scowl. [9] Fights for a demirep in high keeping and becomes her favourit. 
He brandishes a bludgeon. [10] Sends his purse with all he has to a friend 
in distress. [11] Is himself the next hour in Prison for debt. He stands dis- 
consolate. [12] Writes to every fine woman he knows and is relieved by them 
all. He holds out a pen and a sheaf of letters. [13] Comes out with a full 
purse makes fierce Love to a rich Widow and marries her. He kneels, making 
an impassioned declaration. [14] Gets in to the Army — gives a Challenge 
while in liquor to a Brother officer. He stands in a brawling attitude. [15] 
Thus ends this strange eventful History — Sudden — unprepared — Death!!! 
He falls to the ground. 

The original was probably a companion pi. to No. 8550. 
7|X 2oi in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154. ka. 


[After Dighton.] 

Engraving. PI. to Hibernian Magazine, 1794, i. 292. Copies of separate 
prints by Dighton of H.L. or T.Q.L. figures arranged in two rows, a 
caption engraved above each, with a descriptive text on pp. 292-3. [i] 'A 
Just-ASS' or J. P. (cf. No. 8187), an irate magistrate looking up from his 
open book, Burn's Justice. The caption, 77/ send you all to lodge with 

' Signature and imprint as No. 8560. 


R n, is evidently not Dighton's title, but a topical allusion to the 

imprisonment of A. H. Rowan, see No. 8466. [2] You be D n'<f, a 

smiling Billingsgate woman, hands on hips, copied from No. 8396. [3] 
Not a farthing less, a copy of No. 8767. [4] A Dog in a Passion, a copy of 

No. 8395 A. [5] D nd Hot, a copy of No. 8766. [6] D n'd Cold, 

a man with folded arms in profile to the 1., with dripping nose, dressed as 
if for a travel by coach with a scarf tied over his hat, and triple-collared 
overcoat. [7] Who d'ye Stare at, see No. 8917, an ugly carbuncled man 
glares over his r. shoulder. [8] Go Look, an elderly man, holding a long 
pipe, stares to the r. 
6| X 8| in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154. ka. 


Engraving. An imitation bank-note on thin paper. The heading con- 
tinues : / Promise to pay the Bearer on Demand the Sum of Three-Pence at 

M'' Rhubarbs Value received igth April iyg4 (date in pen). On the 1. 

are two circles enclosing designs: a man vomiting, and two jars inscribed 
J Denarii. Among other inscriptions is : Salve from One Guinea pr Box to 
Five Guineas. Before the heading: A'^" igo (the figures in pen). Of. No. 
7839, a similar imitation of a bank-note. 


O Keefe Inv^ et Sculp 

Pu¥ Nov'' r* 1794, by H. Humphrey N: 57, New Bond Street 

Engraving. The singers are seated on upright chairs. The lady, young and 
pretty (1.), holds an open music-book on her knee and bends forward 
coquettishly. The elderly and ugly man (r.) puts his hand on his heart 
and looks amorously at the lady. Beneath the title: ('^Love's the Tyrant 
of the Heart"). Both wear large ear-rings. A decorative effect is given by 
the patterned carpet and wall: a dado, striped paper, a central mirror 
flanked by oval landscapes. 
6|x8^ in. 

O' Keefe Ini^ et Sculp 

Nov^ 15 : iyg4 Published by H: Humphrey N" 57 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A couple flamboyantly 
dressed walk from 1. to r., followed by a footman who swaggers after them 
holding an umbrella resting against his shoulder, its ferrule end terminating 
in a small weather-vane. The man holds a quizzing-glass to his eye and 
a tasselled cane; the lady (1.) holds a large fan, her 1. arm thrust through 
his r. He wears a large cocked hat, a bulky neck-cloth with floating ends, 
and loosely fitting half-boots. She wears a hat tied under her chin 
with vandyked trimmings and an enormous feather. A train trails on 
the ground. The servant wears a round hat with looped brim and cockade, 
enormous epaulettes, and a neck-cloth like his master's. The treatment is 
decorative, with no background. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. xlvii. 
9ixi3iin. (pi.). 



8567 " 

[Gillray, 'designed by Miss Aynscombe'.^] 
Pu¥ May 7'* 1794, by H. Humphrey N" 18 Old Bond Street. 
Engraving, slightly aquatinted. A young man (1.) takes with his 1. hand 
the r. hand of a young woman, who bows towards him, holding her limp 
skirt delicately between finger and thumb. Both wear burlesqued versions 
of the newest fashions. He wears a striped sleeveless vest or waistcoat 
made in one piece with a pair of pantaloons which reach below his calves 
where they are tied with bunches of ribbon. A voluminous swathed neck- 
cloth conceals his chin. His powdered hair is frizzed on his head with 
a long queue. He holds a round hat and a bludgeon in his r. hand. She 
wears in her hair three extravagantly long ostrich feathers, which rise from 
a small cap or turban and sweep across the design, with an erect brush- 
aigrette ; long tresses issue from the turban with the feathers and fall below 
her waist. Her limp high-waisted dress with short sleeves falls from below 
uncovered breasts, which are decked with a lattice-work of jewels caught 
together by an oval miniature (cf. No. 8521). 

Cf. No. 8571, &c. The title (misquoted from Pope's Essay on Man) 
probably indicates members of the Manners family. Cf. No. 8722. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 179. Wright and Evans, No. 399. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Paston, PL xlii; Fuchs, Die Frau in der 
Karikatur, 1906, p. 293. 

f Qy des"" et fed 

Pu¥ Dec" 9'* 1794, by H. Humphrey N° 37 New Bond Street. 
Engraving. Two women, one tall and pretty, except for her grotesque 
slimness, the other short, fat, and ugly, wear burlesqued versions of the 
new fashions. Each walks, holding a glove in the (gloved) r. hand, a nose- 
gay in the I. hand. Under each is a supplementary title: (1.) S* James's 
giving the Ton, a Soul without a Body; (r.) Cheapside aping the Mode, a 
Body without a Soul. The former has a tiny waist, her breasts, lightly 
covered, project above it. Round her neck is a swathing connected with 
inflated puffs on her tight sleeves ; her form is defined under the limp skirt. 
Another swathing seems to fasten a high straw scoop-like hat under her chin 
which shows her hair piled above her forehead. This is trimmed with an erect 
ostrich feather and a brush-aigrette. She wears sharply pointed slippers. 

The contour of the other lady, a 'City Fussock', see No. 8905, is broad 
and squat; she looks up with an ogling grin, her mouth half hidden by 
the swathing at her neck. Her feather, aigrette, and nosegay are much 
larger than those of her fashionable model. Fat legs and broad feet show 
under a petticoat which projects from her short waist. Cf. No. 8571, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 180. Wright and Evans, No. 402. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1850. Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Frau in der Karikatur, 1906, p. 295. 
12 X 13! in. 

R^ Newton del etfecet 

London Pu¥ by Will" Holland N 50 Oxford S^ Novem'' 12 1794 
Engraving (coloured impression). Front and back view of two ladies (or 
one lady) dressed identically. One (r.) looks to the r. at a round table on 

* Note by Miss Banks. 


which are a jelly-glass and a tartlet, holding up a napkin in her 1. hand, 
the r. behind her back. The other is behind her and on the 1. She wears 
large ear-rings. The high-waisted dress has a flowing line with an over- 
dress forming a train, and is thus less skimpy than others of the period. 
Two huge erect ostrich feathers decorate the head. Beneath the design 
are twelve lines of verse beginning : 

Shepherds I have lost my Waist! 
and ending: 

For Fashion I that part forsook, 
Where Sages place the Belly, 
Tis gone — and I have not a nook 
For Cheese Cake, Tart or Jelly!! 

These, with four additional lines, also appear in No. 8570, and are 
quoted in full by Grego, Gillray, p. 180. See also No. 9491. No title 
except the verses. Cf. No. 8571, &c. 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. xliv. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly December i iyg4 

Engraving (coloured impression). A tall handsome young woman, full- 
face, her r. hand extended, 1. on her breast, leans to the r. as if singing 
dramatically. Looking up at her (r.) is a stout and shorter woman ( ? Lady 
Buckinghamshire) wearing a hat and holding a fan. Both wear short- 
waisted dresses and partly uncovered breasts, a fashion becoming to one 
and not to the other. A voluminous scarf is swathed round the neck of 
the singer, the ends tucked in at the waist. Two erect ostrich feathers are 
in her hair, and large rings decorate her ears. Her r. hand is extended in 
protest above a tray of jellies and tartlets held by a footman (1.). He is 
grotesquely caricatured in face and (old-fashioned) dress. On the wall (1.) 
is a W.L. portrait of a lady dressed in the fashion of c. 1740, wearing wide 
hooped petticoats, a lace apron, and a flat hat. Her r. hand is in a small 
muff. Beneath the design are the same verses as in No. 8569. For the 
fashions satirized see No. 8571, &c. For The Rage see No. 8498. 
iifx lof in. 

8571 THE GRACES OF 1794. 

[?L Cruikshank.] 

Pub July 21 1794 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three young women display the latest 
fashions: one (1.) in profile to the r. ; one full-face; one (r.) in back view, 
turning her head in profile to the 1. All wear limp high-waisted dresses, 
two (at least) have their breasts uncovered, all wear huge ear-rings. Two 
wear hats trimmed with a single erect feather; one (r.) wears a hat or 
bonnet with two feathers and a brush-aigrette with a transparent gauze 
curtain-veil. The figure still projects below the (ostensible) waist, but not 
in the exaggerated manner of 1793 (see No. 8388, &c.). The lady on the 
1. holds a large fan ; the centre figure wears a large watch with a bunch of 
many seals and trinkets dangling from her waist. 



According to the Sporting Magazine, iv. 228, July 1794, 'feminine dress 
of the present fashion is, perhaps, the most indecent ever worn in this 
country. The breast is altogether displayed ; and the whole drapery, by the 
wanton management of the wearer in throwing it behind her, is made to 
cling so to the figure, that nothing can be said to be completely concealed. 
Well may it be necessary to veil the face.' See Nos. 8521, 8567-70, 8582, 
8719. Cf. Nos. 8896, 9457, &c. 

Series of 'Drolls' 


[?I. Cruikshank.] 

Published 75'* yan^ 1794 by RoU Sayer & C" Fleet Street, London. 

Engraving (coloured' and uncoloured impressions). A lady, wearing a cloak 
and holding a large muff, sits trying on a pair of heel-less slippers with 
pointed toes. The shoe-maker (1.) kneels at her feet, looking up at her 
with a grin. Beneath the title : Yes my Lady They sit neat about the Quarters, 
they only want a little Bobbing. Behind (r.) another woman is being fitted. 
On the wall are a glass case (1.) displaying ladies' shoes and (r.) a number 
of lasts. 
Cf. No. 4638. 


Published 12*^ May 1794, by Laurie & Whittle, 53 Fleet Street 

Engraving. Two prostitutes sit weeping on a bank (1.); two heavily 
shackled convicts stand beside them (r.). A jailer with a pistol in his belt 
standing behind the women points sternly to a ship in the background. 
On a hill in the background a body hangs from a tiny gibbet. For Botany 
Bay cf. No. 6992, &c. 


Published 12^^ May, 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N° 53, Fleet Street, 

Engraving (coloured^ and uncoloured impressions). A bull (1.) snorts 
menacingly at a (bearded) Jewish pedlar (1.), who flees in terror, taking 
refuge in a ditch filled with broad-leaved rushes (r.). The contents of the 
box slung from his shoulders (watches, seals, and buckles) are being spilt. 
A terrified woman escapes up a bank, saying, O dear what can the matter 
be. L. & W., No. 91. 


16 ""• 

' In 'Caricatures,' ii. 148. * Ibid. ii. 127. 



[? I. Cruikshank.] 

Published 12*'* May, 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N° 5J, Fleet Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A clerical J. P., ugly 
and elderly, sits full-face in a high-backed arm-chair, looking towards a 
demure young girl (1.), who stands in profile to the r. His face is con- 
torted with perplexity ; the position of his feet indicates acute uncertainty. 
A man seated behind her on the extreme 1. listens intently through an ear- 
trumpet. An ugly and satyr-like man stands beside the Justice's chair. 
Three similar men, and an old and bedizened woman, are seated by a 
table on the r., listening with amusement. Beneath the title: My Dear little 
Girl what have you been about, they say you are pregnant — / really dont know 
your Worship — Some Wicked Wretch is the Cause of this report — But If I have 
done any thing amiss Sir, I am sure I was Dreaming. L. & W., No. 105. 


Published 12*^* May 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N° 53, Fleet Street 

Engraving. A scene at a country fair. Two men standing side by side on 
a form grimace horribly through horse-collars. Grinning yokels (1. and r.) 
point at them. Behind are the walls of booths with inscriptions: (1. to r.) 
Tom Paine to be seen alive (see No. 8287, &c.). The Monstrous Craws to 
be seen here at 2^ Pie[ce] (see No. 7166), and, larger than the others. The 
London Pad to be seen Here at 6^ a Piece. On this placard is a woman, her 
apparently advanced pregnancy exaggerated by her pose (see No. 8388, 
&c.). Beneath this booth stands a man beating a drum. L. &W., No. io6. 

Reproduced, A. E. Richardson, Georgian England, 1931, p. 92. 
6|x8f in. 

[L Cruikshank.] 

Published 12*'' May, iyg4 by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53, Fleet Street, 

Engraving. Four men, two ladies, and two small children surround a 
circular table on which is a Twelfth cake decorated with figures and stand- 
ing on a plate inscribed Sacred to Love. They have all drawn tickets 
except a pretty young woman on the r., to whom a smiling young man 
holds out a hat containing one inscribed Miss Tender, while he slips a letter 
into her hand. Her vis-a-vis, a hunch-backed elderly man, has drawn 
Punch. The scene is described in verses beneath the title : 

To chuse King and Queen, a queer set was assembled, 
A Motley Group of paste Figures they greatly resembled. 
That my Lord he drew Punch, his Son Master Slender 
Old Square toes was Cuckold, his Lady Miss Tender. 
To the left of my lord a pert Simpering Miss, 
On whom none had dared to venture a Kiss; 
But as ill chance would have it, chose Draggle-tail Doll, 
And see over their Shoulders peeps Old Father Paul. 



There is in the Print Room a similar design in pen and wash for the 
same subject by I. Cruikshank. (3 X 3I in.) L. and W., No. 107. 
6ix8f in. 


Published 12^^ May 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N'> 53, Fleet Street 

Engraving (coloured^ and uncoloured impressions). Two well-dressed 
young women (1.) stand behind a tree with snow-balls to pelt a thin and 
elderly man in old-fashioned dress (r.) who walks in profile to the r., 
clenching his fist and holding up his stick. He is plastered with patches 
of snow. A third young woman kneels behind the others, making a snow- 
ball. Three others (r.) are amused. L. & W., No. iii. 


Published 23^ May, 1794^ by Laurie & Whittle, N° 53, Fleet Street, 

Engraving. An elderly sportsman with a gun, grinning broadly, holds out 
his r. hand to a pretty gipsy girl (1.), who tells his fortune. Meantime a 
boy stuffs a cat into his game-pouch, to replace a pheasant which a seated 
gipsy girl holds up in amused triumph. Behind are two boys and a camp- 
fire over which hangs a pot. Trees form a background. L. & W., No. 1 12. 


Published 12*^ May 1794, by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53 Fleet Street 

Engraving. A doctor kneels abjectly in profile to the r., gaping up at his 
patient, who has risen from his arm-chair and stands over him with medicine- 
bottle in one hand, a cane raised menacingly in the other. Behind the chair 
a pretty young woman (r.) stands holding a medicine-bottle. Behind her 
is a curtained bed. Houses are seen through the window (1.), L. & W., 
No. 114. 
6| X 8| in. 

8581 A RELISH. 

Published 20*'' May, 1794, by Laurie & Whittle, N° 53, Fleet-Street, 

Engraving. Two huntsmen are seated at a table outside a wayside inn, 
on which is a sirloin of beef, &c. One turns to take on his knee a pretty 
girl who holds a jug; the other (r.) eats voraciously. Behind, the inn- 
keeper hurries from the door with a punch-bowl. At a horse-trough (1.), 
placed under the inn-sign of a leaping stag, two saddle-horses are drinking ; 
an ostler stands beside them. L. & W., No, 116. 

* In 'Caricatures', ii. 142. 



[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 12^^ June, iyg4 by Laurie & Whittle ^ N° 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. A buxom lady walks forward and to the r. towards a man in 
riding-dress (r.) who inspects her through a quizzing-glass. A ribbon 
encircles her high waist (cf. No. 8571, &c.) and her petticoats projecting 
in front exaggerate her portly figure. She carries a large muff and holds 
a glove in her 1. hand. Behind her a small footman holding a large closed 
umbrella marches stiffly. In the background is a tree, under which is a seat 
in back view, on which a man and woman are sitting. L. & W., No. 119. 
611x811 in. 

Published 21'^ July, 1794. by R. Laurie & J. Whittle, N° 53, Fleet 

Street, London. 

Engraving (coloured' and uncoloured impressions). The farmer sits 
surrounded by a circle of amused and intent listeners. His face is bucolic^ 
but he is well dressed, with striped waistcoat and top-boots. His pretty 
wife (r.) sits between two children. A yokel in a smock frock spills his 
beer. Two other men and a stout woman complete the party. The back- 
ground is the wall of a bare room with one casement window (r.). L. & 
W., No. 121. 


[? L Cruikshank del.] 

Published i&^ Aug^ ^794- by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. Four ugly and elderly persons seated at a card-table lit by 
candles; each holds three or four cards. A footman (1.) with glasses on a 
salver stands at the elbow of a player, a fat man, who holds a glass. Eight 
other guests, caricatured, stand behind the table talking. A patterned 
carpet, a panelled wall, and candle-sconces fixed to oval mirrors complete 
the design. Similar in character to No. 7746. L. & W., No. 122. 


[? O'Keefe del.] 

Published r^ Octr 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53 Fleet Street 

Engraving. A young woman, elaborately dressed, sits with downcast eyes 
in profile to the 1. at a table on which are a book and rosary. On her r. 
sits, on a striped settee, a 'priest' wearing a skull-cap; a hat and cloak on 
a chair and stool show that he is a visitor. He holds a book, looking towards 
the 'nun' with a smile. The room is fashionably furnished with two sash- 

* In 'Caricatures', ii. 141. 


windows, in one of which stands a large vase of flowers. Between them is 
an oval picture of ( ?) the Temptation of St. Anthony. Beneath the title : 

At Twelve, I began to think of a Man, 

At Thirteen, I Sighed for a Man, 

At Fourteen I was Violently in Love with a Man, 

At Fifteen I run away with a Man. 

But he was a Very Pretty Man — therefore I hope youll Pardon me Sir. 
*Nun' connoted the inmate of a house of ill fame, see No. 5177, &c. 

[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 13^^ OcV 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. A pretty young woman leans back in an arm-chair while a 
hairdresser applies paint to her face from a small box. She wears a morning- 
gown which leaves her breast much exposed. A woman (1.) stands full-face 
behind her chair pouring out a glass of Hollands. On the r. is a dressing- 
table. L. & W., No. 127 (where the title continues, 'of an Impure's Face'). 

TOE. 128 

Published 22^ OcV 1794 by Laurie & Whittle, N° 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. Servants in a kitchen. A groom wearing spurred top-boots 
holds the cook round the waist under a bunch of mistletoe. She (smiling) 
flourishes a ladle and holds his pigtail queue. Two men-servants seated 
on a settle (1.), one with a frothing tankard, watch with amusement, as does 
a fourth man standing on the r. Behind is a large open fire with a cauldron 
hanging from a chain. Cooking-utensils, a lantern, &c., are ranged on the 
chimney-piece. Above the settle is a sporting picture. Beneath the title: 

Bridget the Cook on Christmas day. 

When all was Mirth & Jollity, 

Was rudely kissed, by Saucy Joe; 

And that beneath the Mistletoe, 

But she returned it with the Ladle, 

And laid about, when he was Addle, 

For Maids are not to be thus taken 

And all their Virgin Honor shaken. 

8588 CATCH'D NAPPING. 130 

[?L Cruikshank del.] 

Published J*' Dec' 1794. by Laurie <Sf Whittle, 53 Fleet Street ^ 

Engraving. Two country girls (1.) lie on a bank asleep, in alluring attitudes. 
Two young sportsmen with guns approach them cautiously, each with a 
hand raised in a silencing gesture. 



8589 AN EXHIBITION. 133 
P.I. de Loutherbourg, Inv. & Fecit. 

Published 12^^ May 1794. by Laurie & Whittle, N" 53 Fleet Street, 

Aquatint, in the manner of a water-colour drawing. The corner of a 
picture-gallery with a crowd of spectators peering at two pictures on the r. 
The most prominent are a short fat man, resembling caricatures of Captain 
Grose, and a dwarfish boy who stand in profile to the r. A man wearing 
a cocked hat, evidently standing on a bench, looks through a quizzing-glass 
at the upper picture. Two men in back view, one seated, one standing, 
look at pictures on the back wall, where a landscape is hung. The dress 
of both men and women is of an earlier date. 


[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 24^ Bed' iyg4 by Laurie & Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. A patient, wrapped in shroud-like draperies, sits (1.) in a high- 
backed arm-chair gazing up and to the 1. Two doctors in the foreground 
fight each other, overturning a round table on which are medicine-phials. 
A lean doctor (1.) flourishes the wig of his fat opponent, whom he clutches 
by the neck-cloth. The fat doctor (r.) siezes the other's pigtail queue. 

8591 FOGGY WEATHER. 144 

[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 22^ Dec" 1794. by Laurie <Sf Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, 

Engraving. A stout lady (1.), her hands in a muff, cannonades into a fat 
parson walking in the opposite direction. Behind (r.) a rider urges his 
horse forward ; on the 1. a pedestrian walks into a pond. 
6|X9 in. 

8592 SLIPPERY WEATHER 145 [i794] 

[Pub. Laurie & Whittle.] 

Engraving (coloured impression). A Jew has fallen to the ground; water 
gushes from a stand-pipe into his face ; he has a pair of breeches, showing 
he deals in old clothes. Two laughing young women watch the disaster (r.). 
A youth holding a pitcher grins delightedly, a passer-by (1.) looks round 
to smile. Beneath are eight lines of verse beginning : 

Early one Morning Sue & Ciss, 
Went out to fetch some water, 
Moses forsooth must have a Kiss, 
But Mark what followed after. 

Reproduced, Fuchs, Die Juden in der Karikatur, p. 54. 
6|X9i in. 'Caricatures', ii. 139. 





Price Six Pence. Published 12^^ May, ^794 ^y Laurie & Whittle, 

N° 53, Fleet Street, London. 
A rebus: two engraved letters on a folding sheet, similar in character to 
Nos. 5079, 5080 (1772). The engraved objects are enclosed within 
brackets. The first begins : Your (lady)(ship) may (well) (bee) in a (nr^aze), 
& think either (caterpillar) or (windmill) in my (crown) /or being a (medlar) 
out of my own (sphere), . , . 

10 X 13! in. (pi.), the two letters separated by vertical lines where the print 
is folded. 

London Published Dec"" 24 1794 by T Prattent 46 Cloth Fair & 

y Evans 41 Long Lane 
Engraving. A fat, elderly skater lies on his back (r.). A younger man wearing 
skates is towed along the ice by a runner whose coat-tails he holds. There 
are two other figures. Beneath the title are four lines of verse, beginning : 

Alas what various ills await 

The booby who attempts to skate. . . . (Cf. No. 5914.) 
6|x8| in. Cannan Coll., No. 334. 

THE LOTTERY CONTRAST. (638) See No. 3768. [17 Feb. 1794]' 
Mezzotint after R. Dighton. Published Bowles and Carver. 
See also Nos. 8231, 8232, 


644 Dighton del. 

London Printed for Bowles & Carver, No. 6g S^ PauVs Church Yard. 

[c. 1794] 
Mezzotint (coloured impression). A ragged 'botching tailor' is climbing 
out of his bulk or stall (r.) to attack with his goose a tailor who hastens 
from him, turning to snip his shears contemptuously. Above the pent- 
house stall is a placard, Simon Snip — maks & mendes Mens & Buoys 
reddy mad Close. N.B. nete Gallows for Breaches. A garment and a pair 
of braces (see No. 8039) hang on a line; within a window is a sheet of 
patterns. The other, who is neatly dressed, carries a coat under his arm ; 
a book of patterns protrudes from his coat pocket. A street receding in 
perspective (r.) and the fa9ade of a dignified house (1.) form a background. 
I2f X9I in. 'Caricatures', i. 204. 


3iy Published 12^^ May 1794. by Laurie ^ Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, 

Mezzotint. Four men sit at a small square table on which are glasses and 
an empty punch-bowl. All have expressions of deep melancholy. One 

' From an impression in the collection of Mr. W. T. Spencer, New Oxford 
Street (1932). 


reverses his glass, another breaks his pipe, the bowl of which still smokes, 
the third weeps, the fourth looks down with a gesture of deprecating 
misery. Beneath the title are thirty-two lines of verse, beginning : 

We bipeds made up of frail clay, 

Alas! are the children of sorrow; 
And though brisk and merry to day 
We all may be zvretched to-morrow. 
iifxio in. 




[I, Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Jan^ J*' J 795 hy S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has lately 

fitted up his Exhibition in an Entire Novel Stile admittance one 

Shilling. Folios Lent 

Engraving (coloured impression). Rats in uniform make military evolu- 
tions, &c., on a large cheese which stands outside an inn, with a projecting 
sign. Hard Cheese. On the inn (r.) is a placard: wanted a number of able 
Bodied young Men for the Suffolk Fencibles &c enquire at the Sign of the 
Hard Cheese. Over the door is Stablin[g\ ; from a window the ( ?) landlord 
looks out complacently. In front of the inn is a long line of saddle-horses 
with a notice : Saddles to let. A number of soldier-rats fire muskets from 
a cavity in the front of the cheese at a large fierce cat (1.). Others scamper 
away into holes, or rush up the face of the cheese. On the top, in a wide 
depression, a body of rats with muskets is being drilled. They have a large 
flag : To Honor we call you not press you like slaves. On the top of the cheese 
a drummer-rat beats his drum. 

Cf. the Essex Calves of No. 8459, the Hampshire Hogs of No. 8492. 
Fencibles differed from the Militia in not being chosen by ballot. Fortescue, 
The County Lieutenancies and the Army, 1909, p. 4. 


Engraved for the Carlton House Magazine. [i Jan. 1795] 

Engraving. A reissue of No. 5836 from the Political Magazine 1781. The 
explanatory text is a letter professing to enclose a drawing to be engraved : 
'he is represented as a gentleman, and I hope he will support that character.' 
There is no allusion to the allegorical figures of republican faction in the 
design; it is said that Fox has hardly been mentioned since the meeting 
of Parliament, 'but the time approaches when we shall be convinced that 
he is yet alive'. 
5f X 3f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448 (iii. 439). 


A set of eight portraits etched by Gillray, impressions being issued 
separately (those in the Print Room are coloured) and also printed together 
(uncoloured) on a single sheet. The words spoken are etched beneath the 
publication line. The drawings for Nos. 8599, 8600, 8602-5, by an 
amateur, with inscriptions, are in the Print Room (201. c. 6/86-91). All 
are reprinted in G.W.G. (1830) but are not mentioned by Grego or Wright 
and Evans. 




A.S. inv 

Pu¥ Jari^ 6'* 1795, by H Humphrey N 37 New Bond Street 

Pitt (H.L.) stands looking to the r., his r. hand held palm upwards. He 
says: Our great successes in the East & West Indies, conquest of Corsica; 
entertain no doubt you will chearfully grant the Supplies for carrying on this 
just & necessary War. 

By the autumn of 1794 the British had secured all the French colonies 
in the W. Indies except Guadeloupe, but their position was precarious. 
Pondicherry surrendered in 1793. Corsica was taken in August 1794, see 
Nos. 8516, &c. Cf. Nos. 8614, 8626. On the French declaration of war, 
Pitt (12 Feb.) moved an Address assuring the King of 'firm and effectual 
support ... in the prosecution of a just and necessary war'. He repeated 
the phrase in his budget speech of 23 Feb. 1795. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1315. 
Cf. No. 9286. 
4iiX3|in. (pi.). 


Fox (H.L.) stands full-face, r. arm bent and r. fist clenched, looking up 
and to the 1. with an accusing frown. He says: Ruin'd! — undone! — our 
Commerce destroyed, our Armies beaten. Fox on 30 Dec. 1794 spoke of 
'disasters which not fortune but folly, had brought upon the country' and 
called the war 'calamitous beyond example'. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1052-3. 
4l|X3|in. (pi.). 


J.Gyfed—Publ^Jany 6 17 g 5 by H. Humphrey 37 Old Bond Sir* 

The Duke of Clarence (T.Q.L.), dressed as a rough sailor, stands full-face 
with folded arms, looking to the r. with a belligerent stare. He wears a 
shapeless hat, a naval coat, striped trousers, a handkerchief knotted round 
his neck. He says : Damn all Bond S* Sailors I say, a parcel of smell smocks! 
they'd sooner creep into a Jordan than face the French! dam me! 

For the Duke and Mrs. Jordan (and the coarse puns on her name) see 
No. 7835, &c. His service afloat ended with his promotion to rear-admiral 
3 Dec. 1790. His applications for naval employment during the war were 
ignored or refused. D.N.B. For Bond-street loungers cf. No. 8377, &c. 
See No. 8653. 

Impressions (coloured and uncoloured) printed separately are without 
title and inscriptions. 
4TiX3i'6in. (pL). 


An officer (T.Q.L.) in regimentals stands in profile to the 1., his r. arm 

raised and fist clenched in angry protest. He says: You Lie, by G .' 

He is not unlike the Duke of York (calumniated by his own officers 
during the Netherlands campaign, see Nos. 8327, 8425), but according to 
the (unreliable) Illustrative Description to G.W.G. (p. 89) is 'Supposed to 

be Major S , a distinguished officer in the East India service'. 


' Signature and imprint as No. 8599. 




T.Q.L. portrait of a plainly dressed man standing in profile to the r., 
holding a purse in his r, hand. He says: / will hold you Ten Guineas of it. 
He resembles caricatures of Lord Lauderdale. 
4iiX3i'6in. (pi.)- 


A lean and elderly virago (T.Q.L.) with straggling hair, wearing a handker- 
chief which scarcely covers her breast, stands in profile to the 1., glaring 
fiercely. Her arms are bare to the elbow ; she holds her thumb and second 
finger together, her 1. hand is on her hip. She says : What do you know, 

you B ? — every one knows I am a &c , and setting that aside 

who can say Black to my eye? 

Her profile is that of Lady Cecilia Johnston as caricatured by Gillray. 
She had a bitter tongue, cf. No. 8158. 
4l-iX3iin. (pi.). 


A fat and placid-looking preacher stands in his pulpit in profile to the 1., 
reading his sermon. He says : / shall divide my Discourse into Seven Heads 

namely He resembles the parson of No. 8428, and is probably Moore, 

the Archbishop; this is supported by the engraving (1792) after Romney. 

4iiX3iin. (pl.)- 


A barrister (T.Q.L.) in wig and gown stands directed to the I., his r. arm 
raised, his brief in his r. hand, his I. hand extended. He says: Did your 
Lordships ever hear of such an infamous Scoundrel? He has a certain 
resemblance to Erskine, cf. No. 8502. 
4iiX3iVn. (pl.)- 

[L Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: January 7 J795 by SW Fores N 3 Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). Catherine II, seated on the throne, 
eagerly receives the heads of Poles off^ered to her by a ferocious-looking 
officer. Three attendants advance behind him with baskets filled with 
heads of young women and children ; the foremost kneels, holding out his 
basket, the next carries a basket on his shoulders ; above it flies a demon. 
On the extreme r., on a pedestal, is the bust of Fox by Nollekens (see 
No. 7902), looking wryly over his r. shoulder at the Empress. 

The officer, Suvoroff, holds out by the hair to the Empress three heads, 
one of which she touches with a finger. His sleeves are rolled up ; in his 
1. hand is a bunch of heads, under his 1. arm a long bloody sword and a 
document: Articles of Capitulation Warsaw. On his short top-boots are 
enormous spurs. He says : Thus my Royal Mistress have I fulfilled in the 
fullest extent your Tender Affectionate & Maternal Commission to those 
Deluded People of Poland, & have brought you the Pickings of Ten Thousand 
Heads tenderly detached from their deluded bodies the Day after Capitulation. 
The Empress answers: My Dear General you have well Executed your Com- 
mission; but could not you prevail on any of the Polish Women to Poison their 

' Signature and imprint as No. 8599. 


Husbands? (An allusion to the murder of Peter III, cf. No. 8072.) To the 
demon she says : Go my little Ariel & prepare our Altars for these pretty 
Sacrifices, we must have te Deum on the Occasion. The demon, a nude bat- 
winged creature, says: Bravo this outdoes the Poison Scene. The Empress 
wears ermine-trimmed robes and holds a sceptre, but does not (as usual) 
wear a crown. Beside her (1.) lies a bear, only the head and forepaws being 

Suvoroff rapidly defeated the Poles in the autumn of 1794 after the 
retirement of the Prussians from the siege of Warsaw. His capture of 
Praga, a suburb of Warsaw, was followed by a terrible massacre and from 
Praga he dictated terms to Warsaw (entered 8 Nov.), and Poland was 
conquered. Camb. Mod. Hist. viii. 591 ff. The indiscriminate massacre 
was contrary to the orders of Suv6roff, who was impotent to check the 
brutahty of his troops. W. Lyon Blease, Suvorof, 1920, pp. 170-85. He 
was rewarded by the Empress with the rank of field-marshal and a gift of 
jewels. See Nos. 8477, 8483, 8674, 8844, 9387, 9390, 9422. Cf. No. 9345. 

[L Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ JarC 12 iyg5 by J Aitken N° 14 Castle Street Leicester Square 
Engraving (coloured impression). Ragged French soldiers fraternize with 
stout Dutchmen. In the centre a tall sansculotte (r.) and a short, fat Dutch- 
man embrace with a kiss ; the Frenchman picks the other's pocket, smiling 
sardonically. Another Frenchman (1.) is about to plunge a dagger into the 
Dutchman's back. In the foreground (r.) an almost naked Frenchman sits 
on a barrel of Gin drinking from a Gin bottle. In the middle distance (1.) 
a ragged but foppish Frenchman bows insinuatingly to a fat vrouw; her 
husband, standing between them and smoking a pipe, makes the introduc- 
tion with a dubious scowl. In the background (r.) a Dutchman with 
uplifted club drives off a band of sansculottes. 

An anticipation of the invasion of Holland (the Waal was crossed 14 Jan. 
1795) and a satire on the attitude of the Dutch patriots to the invaders. 
The Republic was still nominally the ally of England and a member of the 
Coalition (see No. 8299). Auckland wrote 16 Jan. 1795 to Lord H. Spencer 
of the imminent capture of Holland : 'The certainty of it is not yet compre- 
hended, nor is it easy to foresee what the popular impression will be. Under 
any other circumstances the ministry would be changed; but Mr. Fox's 
party is dreaded and disliked. . . .' Auckland Corr. iii. 281. The outcome 
of the conquest is prophetically rendered, see Van Loon, The Fall of the 
Dutch Republic, Epilogue. See No. 8613, a sequel, and for the conquest 
see also Nos. 8426, 8493, 8630, 8631, 8633, 8658, 8825, 8831, 8846, &c., 
9224, 9264. Cf. No. 9034. 
9^X13! in. 

Designed & Engrav'd by J^ Qy for the Chairman & Members of the 

Crown & Anchor Society. 
PuMJany 12^'' 1795. by H. Humphrey, N° jy New Bond Street 
Aquatint (coloured impression). A design in two adjacent circles, with 
inscriptions abo ve and below the circles on an aquatinted ground. In the 
manner of genre, not satire. 



[i] The kitchen of a young English farmer who sits with his arm round 
a little boy (r.) who stands at his knee eating an apple, while his pretty wife 
(1.) holds out a buxom child to kiss him. He holds a sickle. A dog sits at 
his feet. Behind (r.), before a blazing fire, a young woman places a sirloin 
of beef upon a round table, laid for a meal, with a large pitcher beside it. 
A pestle and mortar and other brass utensils are neatly ranged on the 
chimney-piece, beside which is a spit. A ham and string of onions hang 
on the wall. Through an open door (1.) are a hen and chickens, two pigs 
feeding in a stye, and a haystack. The title continues: Prosperity & 

[2] A young farmer lies stabbed to the heart by a bayonet, surrounded 
by his despairing and terrified wife and three children. Behind (r.) is a 
ruined house. In the background (1.) French soldiers are driving off sheep 
and cattle, and a village (r.) is in flames. Behind is the sea with ships of 
war at anchor. The title continues : Invasion, Massacre & Desolation. 

Above the two circles : Such Britain was! — Such Flanders, Spain, Holland, 
now is! Between them : from such a sad reverse O Gracious God, preserve 
our Country!! Below them is etched : To the People & the Parliament of 
Great-Britain, this Print is dedicated, by the Crown & Anchor Society. 

"Cursed be the Man who owes his Greatness to his Country's Ruin!!!!! 

For Gillray's attitude to the Crown and Anchor Society, cf. No. 8316, &c. 
For prints on the horrors of war, see No. 8328, &c. ; for comparisons of the 
state of England and France, No. 8284, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 181. Wright and Evans, No. 112. Van Stolk, No. 
5215. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 

Also two earlier states without letters. On One are tentative pencil 
inscriptions by Gillray, much corrected. They include, besides those 
adopted: *of the truth of y^ representation an appeal is made & submitted 
to the feelings of ye internal Enemies of G* Britain.' 
iifX I4i in. Circles, 7^ in. diam. 


y^ Gillray des** et fed. 

Pu¥ Jariy 24^ 1795, by H. Humphrey N° 3J, New Bond Street. 

Aquatint (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales lies in bed asleep, 
clasping a pillow with a rapt expression, his closed eyes directed towards 
a vision of the Princess Caroline who leans towards him floating on clouds, 
a radiant beauty with outstretched arms. A winged figure with the torch 
of Hymen (r.) holds up her draperies, while a cupid with bow and arrows 
flying above the Princess's head holds up the heavy curtains of the four-post 
bed. On the 1., also emerging from clouds, the King and Queen, carica- 
tured, crouch over the Prince's bed. The former, a grotesque figure, 
holds out a large money-bag inscribed £150000 P^ Ann^. The Queen 
holds out a book : The Art of getting Pretty Children. Both have expressions 
of avid delight. On the 1. and among clouds persons flee in alarm at the 
approach of the bride: Fox scattering dice from a dice-box, Sheridan as a 
bearded Jew wearing a broad-brimmed hat. Above them are three women : 
the most prominent, Mrs. Fitzherbert, with clasped hands ; next ( ?) Lady 
Jersey, and between and behind them a young woman wearing a cap (cf. 
No. 861 1). Above their heads two tiny jockeys gallop ofl", indicating that 
the Prince will give up the turf (cf. No. 7918, &c.). From the foot of the 



bed (I.), which extends diagonally across the design from r. to 1., rolls a 
cask of Port on which an infant Bacchus with the head and clumsy figure 
of Lord Derby is seated astride; he is about to fall, dropping his glass. 
On the head of the bed is the Prince's coronet with feathers. Beside it (r.) 
is a chamber-pot in which is a bottle of Velno (see No. 7592). Beneath the 
title: "yi Thousand Virtues seem to lackey her, Driving far off each thing of 
Sin & Guilt." Milton. 

The Prince had consented to marry on condition of the payment of his 
debts and an increased income, see No. 8673, &c. The Princess Caroline 
left Brunswick on 30 Dec. 1794, but was delayed in Hanover owing to the 
naval situation. See Malmesbury, Diaries and Corr., 1845, iii. 147 ff., and 
Nos. 8487, 8498, 861 1, 8634, 8643. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 185, 186 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 115. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadill Jan^ 26 1795 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince stands with folded arms, in 
the corner of a room, gazing up at a T.Q.L. portrait of Lady Jersey as a 
pretty young woman ; she looks down at him alluringly. The portrait hangs 
over the chimney-piece (r.), a fire burns in the grate. From his r. hand 
dangles disregarded an oval miniature of the Princess of Brunswick. 
Beside the Prince, who turns his back on him, stands a grotesque German 
courier, who holds up a tiny pair of stockings on the feet of which are shoes. 
The German has moustaches, a pigtail queue reaching to the ground, he 
wears spurred top-boots and holds a glove; he gapes with astonishment 
at the portrait. On the two walls other pictures are arranged in two rows, the 
lower part only of the upper row being visible. These are (above) : Pretty 
Millener, a reclining figure ; Portrait oj a Lady & Child, a pregnant lady 
leads a child; M" Crouch (T.Q.L.). Below, M« Robinson (T.Q.L.) ; 
Florizel & Perdita, the pair with arms entwined, the King and ( .'') Queen 
crouch behind a tree to spy on thtm ; Fitsherbet [sic], who stands, looking 
to the 1., holding a rosary. 

For Florizel and Perdita (Mary Robinson) see No. 5767, &c. ; for Mrs. 
Fitzherbert No. 6924 and index, volumes vi and vii; for Mrs. Crouch 
No. 8073 ; for Lady Jersey No. 8485 and index. For the Prince's betrothal 
see No. 8610, &c. 


f Gy des" etfed 

Pu¥ Jany 26^ I795y by H. Humphrey, N° J7, New Bond Street 

Aquatint (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A newly invented French 
telegraph (semaphore) stands on the coast, with the head of Fox, in back 
view but looking to the r. with a fiercely determined expression. The cross- 
beam represents his arms and the arms of the semaphore; the raised r. 
hand holds a lantern which lights up the French fleet (in full sail for 



England) and a fort on the French coast flying a large tricolour flag inscribed 
Republique. The 1. hand points downwards and to the 1. to a dark cluster 
of roofs and spires dominated by St. Paul's. The base of the telegraph is 
circular and of brick. An arched opening shows the interior, in it is a pile 
of daggers. In the sky is a waning moon. 

One of many satires on the attitude of Fox to France, see No. 8286, &c. 
A diagram of The Telegraphe, or Machine for conveying intelligence zvith 
wonderful quickness, as used by the French (in Print Room) was probably 
known to Gillray (reproduced, Wheeler and Broadley, ii. 33). For the 
English adaptation of the invention of Claude Chappe see No. 9232. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 18 1-2 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. iii. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Fuchs, p. 252; Wheeler and 
Broadley, i. 246. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub JaW — 2g lygs by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A sequel to No. 8608, the two chief 
figures resembling the embracing couple: the Frenchman (r.) holds against 
his person the baggy breeches of the Dutchman ; coins stream from the 
pockets and are piled on the ground. The Dutchman (1.), standing with 
bare thighs, scratches his head in dismay, saying. Oh my Dollars & Ducats 

D n their Citizenship; A fellow here calls me Frere Citoyen and takes 

away all my Property. His hat and (broken) pipe lie on the ground. On 
the 1., and in profile to the r., a ragged Frenchman in Dutch breeches, 
wearing a bonnet-rouge, capers delightedly, holding to his mouth a square 
Gin bottle. Coins pour from the breeches. He says : They may talk of the 
Coldness of this Country but by Gar here is the Warm Liqour for De inside 
& de Warm breeches for de out side. In the foreground (r.) a dwarfish 
Frenchman sits on a pile of sacks inscribed Dollars for the use of the National 
Convention. He dips in his hand and stuff^s coins into his coat-pocket. 

In the background (1.) an almost naked Frenchman capers delightedly, 
waving a hat-full of coins, and saying : Aye Aye, Equality is the order of the 
Day la Libertefor the Carmagnoles. On the extreme r. a sansculotte embraces 
a delighted fat Dutchwoman. Three barelegged Dutchmen are behind; 
one says : / dont like this Equality business I wish we had not Invited theese 
Plundering Fellows here, I suppose they'll make use of my Frow next. A 
Frenchman wearing Dutch breeches (cf. No. 9034) smokes a pipe in an 
experimental manner. 

See No. 8608, &c. The French invaders were in distress for want of 
food, clothing, and boots, many were barefooted or wore sabots. Plunder, 
however, was forbidden. [Legrand,] La en Hollande, 1 894, pp. 72-3 . 
In spite of the fraternization between the Dutch Patriots and the French 
(see No. 8631), the introduction of assignats and a forced paper currency, 
requisitions and stagnation of trade soon roused discontent. Dropmore 
Papers, iii. 42, 53-7 (Apr. 1795). The conduct of the French invaders is 
the theme oi Hollandia Regenerata, see No. 8846, &c. Cf. Nos. 9034, 9413. 

Van Stolk, No. 5255. MuUer, No. 5323. 



TANNIA PETITIONING FOR PEACE.— Vide, The Proposals of Oppo- 

jfe Gy des'^fec* 

London Pu¥ Feby 2^, lygs, by H. Humphrey N° 37, New Bond Street. 

Aquatint (coloured impression). Britannia (1.) grovels before a monster (r.) 
representing the French Republic. Behind her stand Fox, Sheridan, and 
Stanhope, as sansculottes, joyfully hailing the apparition. Britannia on 
her knees, and bending forward, holds out her arms in a gesture of abject 
submission, pointing to her shield and spear, the crown and sceptre, and 
Magna Charta which lie on the ground before her. She is on the edge 
of a cliff. The monster is supported on dark clouds ; he is a man seated 
with arms and legs akimbo, one jack-boot is planted on the sun, a face 
in its disk looking from the corners of the eyes at Britannia with a dismayed 
expression; the other is on a crescent enclosing the old moon. His seat 
is the point of a huge bomb-shaped cap of Li-ber-tas. His head is a 
black cloud on which grotesquely fierce features are indicated. Above his 
head rises a guillotine emitting rays of light. His dress is that of a ragged 
sansculotte with a dagger thrust in his belt. 

The British sansculottes are also bare-legged and wear belts in which a 
dagger is thrust ; but they have nothing of the fierce arrogance of France. 
Fox, his stockings ungartered, and Sheridan, shambling forward with pro- 
pitiatory gestures, remove their bonnets-rouges. Fox holds out two large 
keys labelled Keys of the Bank of England; Sheridan proffers a document: 
We Promise the Surrender of the Navy of Great Brtta[in] — of Corsica [see 
No. 8516] — of the East & West Indias [see No. 8599] — & to abolish the 
Worship of a God [cf. No. 8350]. Stanhope, less deprecating, stands behind 
the others, waving his bonnet-rouge and a rolled document inscribed 
Destruction of Parliament. Beneath the title: To the Patriotic Advocates 
for Peace, this Seemly sight is dedicated. 

A satire on the repeated motions of the Opposition for peace with France. 
See debates of 30 Dec. 1794, 6, 26, and 27 Jan. 1795. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 
1016 ff., 1 130 ff., 1193 ff., 1248 ff. (and Cornzvallis Corr. ii. 279-80). 
Auckland writes (16 Jan.) of the debacle in Holland (see No. 8608, &c.): 
'Under any other circumstances the ministry would be changed; but M'' 
Fox's party is dreaded and disliked. . . .' Corr. iii. 281. Cf. Nos. 8626, 8644. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 182. Wright and Evans, No. 1 13. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


Vide. Bon Mot, at Carlton House, Feb. 3^195- 
f Gy des etfed 
Pu¥ FeP ^'* 1795' by H. Humphrey N° 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales, bowing low in 
profile to the 1., receives a lady, dignified and handsome, who enters, cover- 
ing with her gown a girl who crouches low, looking at the Prince, and who 
is entirely concealed except for her profile, a hand, and the lower part of 
her dress. In the background (r.) is a supper-table at which the King and 
Queen (the latter addressing the former) are seated under a canopy with 
the royal arms. Other guests at the oval table are freely sketched. A 
chandelier and patterned carpet complete the design. 



On 3 Feb. the Prince gave a grand concert and supper at Carlton House 
at which the whole royal family and the Prince and Princess of Orange and 
their son, refugees from Holland, were entertained. The royals supped in 
a room apart. The presence of Lady Salisbury, Lady Weymouth, and 
Lady Jersey was noted. Lond. Chron., 4 Feb. 1794. 

f Gy des"" et fec^ 

Pu¥ FeiP i&^ 1795' by H. Humphrey, N" 57 New Bond Street 

Aquatint (coloured impression). The King in profile to the r., with the 
Queen holding his r. arm, leans towards a startled yokel who clutches his 
hat and a bucket. Behind the yokel (r.) are pigs sniffing at the bucket and 
the gable end of buildings. All are caricatured. The King wears riding- 
dress, with a broad-brimmed hat and a spencer (see No. 8192) over his 
coat. He stands as if knock-kneed, his legs awkwardly splayed out. The 
Queen is dwarfish, wearing a hood over her hat and a shapeless cloak. In 
her r. hand is a snuff-box. The yokel, wearing smock and gaiters, has the 
staring eyes, lantern jaws, and gaping mouth characteristic of Gillray's sans- 
culottes. Beneath the title: "Well, Friend, where a' you going. Hay? — 
what's your Name, hay? — where d'ye Live, hay? — hay?" Cf. No. 9041. 

Grego, Gi/Zroy, p. 187. Wright and Evans, No. 120. ReprintedjG.P?^.G., 
12^X9! in. 



JSf [Sayers.] 

PuhV' by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14 FelP lygs 

Engraving. Four citizens of Norwich seated on a bull, which kneels with 
its chest touching a cobbled pavement, address a group of Frenchmen with 
animals' heads, standing in a doorway (r.). The foremost man on the bull 
wears a bonnet-rouge with a coat of military cut. The next two are dis- 
senters wearing clerical bands, one an artisan wearing a steeple-crowned hat, 
an apron, and ungartered stockings, the other in a black gown. A sancti- 
monious man wearing a low-crowned hat is last. Behind them Norwich 
Cathedral and a ruined castle on a hill inscribed Rett's Castle are indicated. 
The foremost member of the Convention is a man with an ape's head, 
wearing bonnet- rouge and military coat ; he holds up a hand of amity but 
conceals a dagger. Next him is a butcher with the head of a wolf, his apron 
inscribed Legendre. Three others stand behind, two wearing cocked hats. 
Beneath the design: 

Citizens (Honble Sirs and Gentlemen have been scored through) 
Since the days of old Rett the republican Tanner 

Faction always has seen us lost under her Banner, 

From our Country's best Interests we've ever dissented. 

In War we're disloyal, in Peace discontented. 

In our City good Patriots and Levellers swarm. 

And our Sectaries bellow aloud for Reform; 

Though from various Causes our Trade is decay' d, 

On this War all the blame we have artfully laid; 



Wyndham's Virtue & Spirit we cordially hate, 
We renounce all respect for the Church & the State, 
Our John Bull we've cajoled to go dozon on his Knees 
To ask you for Peace, and receive your Decrees. 

signed Legion. 
Sayers was a native of Yarmouth and severe on Norfolk sectaries, cf. 
No. 7628. The correspondence and resolutions of the United Constitu- 
tional Societies of Norwich roused the suspicion of the Committee of 
Secrecy (1794), but there is nothing to suggest that they addressed the 
French Convention. Par/, ^w^ xxxi. 703-4, 718-19, 723-4, 728, 734. The 
woollen manufacture of the district was suffering from the rivalry of 
Yorkshire. Windham was returned for Norwich in 1784 and 1790 as an 
anti-ministerial candidate; he had recently joined the Government, see 
No. 86i8. 

Legendre was a butcher who took a prominent part in the invasion of 
the Tuileries on 20 June 1792. Kett was executed as a traitor in 1549. 
6f Xio| in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Fehu ig 1795 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has lately 

fitted up his Caracature Exhibition in an entire Novel Stile admittance 

one shilling NB Folios Lent out for the Evening. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Thurlow, Fox, and Sheridan as Caliban, 
Trinculo, and Stephano in their stolen finery are driven off by ministerial 
hounds set on by Ariel (Pitt) and Prospero (George III). Thurlow (1.) in 
Chancellor's wig and gown, holding up the mace, the purse of the Great 
Seal under his arm, runs first, saying. There is no Peace to the Wicked by 
G — d [cf. No. 7320]. He is worried by a dog, wearing legal wig and bands, 
who is Loughborough (his successor). Fox follows, wearing royal robes 
and holding the orb and sceptre, he looks over his 1. shoulder to say: Every 
man shift for all the rest, & let no man take care for himself: for all is but 
fortune: — Cor agio, bully Monster, Cor agio! Behind him, with a terrified 
expression, runs Sheridan wearing a long gown. Though not named, he 
is Stephano, the drunken butler. They are followed by three hounds with 
the heads of Mansfield, Windham, and Portland.' Pitt and the King stand 
outside the door of the Treasury, an archway in a stone building. The King 
(r.) as Prospero has a beard and belted robe with a hunting-cap; he holds 
a wand and says : Go. Go. Go. charge my goblins that they grind their joints 
with dry convultions: shorten up their sinews with aged cramps; & more 
pinch-spotted make them than pard. or cat o mountain, cat o mountain. Ariel 
(Pitt) hovers on the King's r., a lean naked figure with small wings and a 
wisp of drapery. He cries : Hey, Mountain. Hey! Silver! there it goes Silver! 
Fury, Fury! there Tyrant, there! hark, hark! 

A satire on the plight of Fox, deserted by most of his party, cf. Nos. 8315, 
8366. Loughborough was the first to take office (26 Jan. 1793); Portland 
became Home Secretary, and Windham Secretary at War, on 11 July, 

' Mansfield is identified by E. Hawkins as Grenville, Portland as Dundas. The 
heads suggest the identifications in the text, which are consistent with an apparent 
intention to make the hounds converts from the Opposition. 



Mansfield Lord President of the Council on 17 Dec. 1794. For Thurlow's 
dismissal see No. 8097, &c. The interpolated repetitions in Prospero's 
speech indicate the King's conversational manner. For The Tempest cf. 
No. 9275, &c. 
lOX 17 in. 



H. E. Bunbury fecit, 1794. [? W. Dickinson sc] 

London, Published, by W. Dickinson &c. Feby 2^ lygs, N° 53, next 
York House, Piccadilly. 

Stipple. Two designs on one plate : 

[i] A short, corpulent, and gouty officer with closed eyes hobbles (1. to r.) 
on crutches. Behind him (1.) a taller and younger officer stands in back 

[2] An elderly officer, wearing spectacles, looks admiringly at a pretty girl 
(1.) holding a basket of fruit. 
Each 6x4! in. PI. 6Jxii in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Feby 25 1795 by SW Fores N 3 Piccadilly who has just 

fitted up his Exhibition in an entire Novel Stile. Admittance one 

Shilling. NB Folios Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull, a burly artisan seated on a 
chair, has just been bled by Pitt who stands by him (1.) holding a lancet. 
Portland kneels beside him in profile to the 1., grasping an enormous bowl 
heaped with guineas into which more guineas are spouting from the 
punctured arm. On the r. sits the nurse, Windham, applying bellows to 
a blazing fire on which a kettle boils, steam issuing from the spout which 
terminates in a serpent's jaws, inscribed Conventions, Plots, Conspiracy's, 
Treasons, Rebellions, Seditions, Invasions, \Out\rages, Assassinations. A 
dagger is thrust into the fire like a poker. 

Pitt, very thin, stands with bent knees in profile to the r. His bag 
descends beneath a bushy wig and he wears a spencer (see No. 8192) over 
his coat. Beside him (r.) is a large bag inscribed Budget from which issue 
a surgeon's instruments. He says: Come Nursey make the water boil, he gets 
very lax. My dear Sir you must not give way to lowness of Spirits, another 
Invasion [scored through] Incision I mean will cheer you. I would then advise 
you to Exercise yourself with your firelock, & take a Trip to the Continent. 
John Bull looks up at him with an agonized expression ; above the incision 
in his r. arm is a bandage inscribed Liberty. In his r. hand is a staff resting 
on the ground inscribed Suspension Habias Corpus. He says: Oh Doctor, 
Doctor: I fear you will take too much from me. you have bled me very freely 
already, I am sure I cannot support it long. Portland, also distressed, says : 
Make haste Doctor or have done or I shall be obliged to give up my post: my 
heart begins to turn already. Windham, his cap inscribed W.W, says: /'// 
Wind-him John Bull must be kept constantly with Hot Water. 



The print was doubtless published in connexion with the budget debate 
of 23 Feb., to which, however, it has little direct relation. Windham did 
not speak, but his dread of French and English Jacobins was freely 
expressed in debates, e.g. 30 Dec. 1794. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1034. The 
suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act was forced through the Commons 
at a single sitting, on 16 May 1794. Ibid., pp. 497-505 ; Rose, Pitt and the 
Great War, p. 191. See also No. 9002. 

8620 A A copy (coloured), St ck S\ is pi. A^" XL to London und Paris, 
V. 1800, probably copied from a reissue. On the ground are papers: Corn 
Exchange [see No. 9545, &c.], Income Tax Office The commissioners [see No. 
9363, &c.]. Explanatory text, pp. 327-34. Portland is identified as Rose, 
incorrectly styled Master of the Rolls ; a paper, Lottery, hangs from his 
pocket. Title correctly spelt. 

6Jx8|in. B.M.L., P.P. 4689. 



London Pu¥ by W. Holland Oxford S^ 1795 [c February] 

Engraving (monochrome and uncoloured impressions). On a pedestal is a 
realistic figure of Pitt in the guise of a statue. He is directed to the 1., look- 
ing up ; from his mouth rises a stream of words falling in a symmetrical 
cascade which forms the upper part of the design. He sits on a block of 
masonry inscribed Power and leans against a broken column (r.) whose 
base is Consistency. His feet rest on a paper: Par[liament]ary Re[for]m 
Thatch' d Ho[use] Tavern. The rectangular pedestal is inscribed : This justly 
admired fountain \ was greatly improved \ and the present \ Statue \ erected 
in the Year \ MDCCLXXXH. 

The central part of the fountain (reading downwards): Marriages, Leases, 
Insurance, Almanacks, News Papers, Game, Houses, Carts, Dice, Receipts, 
Windows, Bricks, Tiles, Horses. The cascade falling to the 1. is: Licenses, 
Cards, Wax Candles, Vellum, Paper, Parchment, Dressers of Hides, Servants, 
Hazokers and Pedlars, Callico Printers, Brewers of Small Beer, Auctioneers, 
Apprentices, Clerks, Burials, Wine, Rum, Tea, Cocoa, Bonds, Hair Powder, 
Promissory Notes, Four-wheel Carriages, Attornies, Agreements. The cascade 
falling to the r. is: Lottery Offices, Wills, Inventories, Spermaceti, Soap, 
Starch, Tobacco & Snuff, Letters of Attorney, Drays and Waggons, Medi- 
cines, Drafts, Makers of Tallow Candles, Brewers of Strong Beer, Hats, Bills 
of Exchange, Bachelors, Coffee, Gin, Brandy &c &c &c &c &c. &c. 
(Commas have been inserted.) 

Pitt is pilloried for inconsistency with regard to Parliamentary Reform 
(on 7 May 1782 he made his first motion in favour of Reform), see No. 
8635, &c., and for his burdensome taxes. Many of the taxes enumerated 
are the subject of prints in volume vi, see especially Nos. 6914, 7480, 7625. 
New taxes in the budget of 1795 were: increased duties on wine, spirits, tea, 
coifee and cocoa, stamps on receipts, affidavits, indentures, wills, &c., and 
on certain customs duties (not specified in the print); insurance and the 
wearing of hair-powder (see No. 8629, &c.) were also taxed. Pari. Hist. 
xxxi. 1311-14. Cf. No. 9017. 
27fXioi in. (pi.). 



8622 CARLO KHAN TURNED BELLMAN. [i March 1795 
Woodcut. The Ranger's Magazine, i. 56. An impression from the same 
block as Nos. 8375, 8530. Fox stands directed to the r., his head in profile, 
shouting, and ringing a bell. Beneath is printed : 

Carlo Khan, the wonderful wonder of these wonderful times, | The boldest 
and most successful | beggar in England. \ The sum of Seventy Thousand 
Pounds has been charitably given | To the son of a notorious defaulter | 
Of unaccounted millions ! ! ! | The bellweather of the party : | The Conven- 
tion had decreed him the honor of the sitting — | He has received the fraternal 
hug [cf. No. 81 19]. I Ding dong, ding dong, Charles and his friends become 
this institution, | Advert, subvert, convert, divert, invert, pervert, the con- 
stitution [cf. No. 8287, &c.]. 

For the subscription to Fox see No. 8331, &c. For Fox as Carlo Khan 
see No. 6276, &c. The City petition of 5 July 1769 styled Holland 'the 
public defaulter of unaccounted millions', see Nos. 4066, 4296, &c. Cf. 
No. 9270. An impression of the print is in B.M. Add. MSS. 27,837, 
fo. 49 b. 
4|xi|in. B.M.L., P.C. 


Frontispiece [i March 1795] 

[Ceilings del. Barlow f.] 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iv. 3. Part (r.) of No. 7755, 'cits' 
landing at Margate figure as refugees from Holland, cf. No. 8608, &c. The 
1. part of the design served as Frontispiece to the next volume, 1 Mar. 
1796, where the subject was left 'to be explained by the conjectures of our 
Readers . . .'. 
6f X4J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


f Gy des*" etfed 

Pu¥ March 2'^ 1795 by H. Humphrey, N" 37, New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). The interior of the House of Commons ; 
the Speaker's chair and the table are in the foreground on the extreme 1. ; 
only the Opposition benches are visible and are crowded with English sans- 
culottes wearing bonnets-rouges who eagerly watch the denunciation of 
Pitt. Fox sits in the Speaker's chair, as the presiding judge, a bonnet-rouge 
pulled over the crown of his hat. Opposite (r.), on a low platform sur- 
rounded by a rail, stands Pitt ; a rope round his neck is held by Lauderdale 
who stands behind him on the extreme r. with a headsman's axe in his 1. 
hand. In front of Pitt, leaning eagerly forward over the rail is Stanhope, 
gesticulating violently and holding out a large scroll: Charges. — i^^ For 
opposing the Right of Subjects to dethrone their King. — 2'^ For opposing the 
Right of Sans-Culottes to Equalize Property, & to annihilate Nobility. 3^ For 
opposing the Right of Free Men to extirpate the farce of Religion, & to divide 
the Estates of the Church. Pitt, anxious and bewildered, his hands manacled, 
wearing only his shirt which has been torn from his shoulder, stands in 
profile to the 1. 



Fox sits inscrutable, his clenched fists on the desk before him, a bell at 
his r. hand, looking sideways at Pitt. Below him at the table are Erskine 
and Sheridan. Erskine, in wig and gown, as the accusing counsel, stands 
with outstretched hand pointing to Pitt and addressing the rabble on the 
benches. In his 1. hand is a paper headed Guillotine and from his pocket 
protrudes a brief: Defence of Hardy [see No. 8502]. Sheridan writes busily: 
Value of the Garde Meuhle. The books on the table are: Rights of Man [see 
No. 7867, &c.], Z)'' Price [see No. 7629, &c.], Z)'' Priestley [see No. 7632, &c.], 
Voltaire, Rosseau [sic]. A large scroll hangs from the table: Decrees of the 
British Convention (ci devant Parliament) Man is, & shall be Free, therefore 
Man is, & shall he Equal. Man therefore has nor shall have Superior in 
Heaven or upon Earth. On the ground the head of the mace projects from 
under the tablecloth. Beside the table (1.) are five large money-bags 
inscribed : Treasury Cash to be issued in Assignats and D° Cash for D°. On 
the Speaker's chair, in place of the royal arms, is a tricolour shield with 
the motto Vive la Republique. 

In the foreground, immediately in front of Pitt and Lauderdale, is an 
iron stove with an open door showing Magna Charta and Holy Bible burn- 
ing. Holding their hands to the flames are Grafton (1.) and Norfolk (r.) 
facing each other; each sits on an inverted ducal coronet. Beside and 
behind Grafton sits Lord Derby. Slightly to the 1. and behind this group 
Lansdowne kneels, weighing in a pair of scales a weight, resembling a cap 
of liberty and inscribed Libertas, against a royal crown. The crown rests 
on the ground, Lansdowne tries to pull down the other scale. Beside the 
crown two large sacks stand on the floor inscribed For Duke's Place and 
For D° (the Jews of Duke's place were supposed to dispose of stolen plate, 
cf. No. 5468). From one protrudes the Prince of Wales's coronet and 
feathers, an earl's coronet and a Garter ribbon; from the other, a mitre 
and chalice. In the foreground lie a bundle of papers inscribed Forfeited 
Estates of Loyalists. Chatham, Mansfield, Grenville. 

On the crowded benches a fat butcher is conspicuous, sitting arms 
akimbo. Near him are a hairdresser and a tailor in delighted conversation. 
A chimney-sweeper holds up brush and shovel, grinning delightedly. The 
faces register ferocity, anger, surprise, amusement, brutishness. In the 
back row, under the gallery, stand dissenting ministers wearing clerical 

The Opposition are identified with the radical clubs (see No. 9189, &c.) 
who made preparations for a British Convention, Hardy issuing a circular 
in 1794, see No. 8687. Other points are the republicanism of Stanhope 
(see No. 8448) and Lansdowne, and the financial plight of Sheridan. For 
the attitude of dissenters to the Church of England cf. No. 7628, &c. Cf. 
Nos. 8287, 9180. 

Grego, G///ray, p. 182. Wright and Evans, No. 118. Reprinted, G.PF.C, 
1830. Reproduced, Stanhope and Gooch, Life of Charles, third Earl Stan- 
hope, 1 9 14, p. 154. 
iifxi6i in. 


Drawn & Etch'd by Dighton. 

Pub March 2. lygs. by R Dighton. Charing Cross 

Engraving (coloured impression). Bust portraits of Pitt and Fox are 
enclosed in circles, linked to form a pair of spectacles. Pitt (I.) is in profile 



to the r., from his frame or circle hangs a bag containing money-bags and 
papers inscribed: Ways & Means, Gifts, Perqusites, Salary's £5800. 
Beneath: In Place. The Budget full. Fox looks gloomily over his 1. shoulder 
at the spectator. From his circle hangs an empty purse. Beneath: Out of 
Place. The Purse Empty. 

A copy of this print appears in No. 8996 a. 
6|X7-|in. (pL). 


[?L Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ March 3 lygs hy S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving. A boxing encounter ; the combatants, virearing waistcoats and 

gloves, stand facing each other with clenched fists. One (1.) says : /// Box 

the Minister about if I get in & tip him Seven the Main. The other (r.) says : 

Now M' Alderman I vil Show you vone Jews Blow. Each has a second ; 

on the extreme 1. a backer sits on a cask inscribed Combe's Entire [scored 

through] Small hopes', he holds a paper inscribed Ald^ Combes for ever and 

says : He'll Make a better Boxer than a Parliament Man. On the extreme r. 

the bottle-holder of Combe's opponent stands holding a bottle and a 


On the ground are books and papers: Brothers Prophecy s (see No. 
8627, &c.) ; Pains Rights of Man (see No. 7867, &c.) ; The Whole art of Boxing 
made Easy ; A Petition for Peace on giving up all the West India Islands 
Corsica [see No. 8516] Fleet &c &c; King Lord and Commons [erased and 
replaced by] A New System of Govern* on the French Republican Plan. On 
the wall (1.) is a map (represented by meaningless scrawls) of Teritories 
Conquerd by the Republic of France & Indivesible Equality for Ever. On 
the r. is a bust portrait of the King in profile to the r., torn at the neck. 

On 3-5 Mar. there was a by-election for the City of London (on the 
death of Sawbridge) at which the candidates were the Foxite Alderman 
Combe (a brewer and an amateur of the boxing-ring, see No. 7703) and 
William Lushington. Combe declined the poll on the 5th, the votes being 
2,334 to 1,560. Combe had supported a motion for a petition to the House 
of Commons for a speedy peace which was carried in a noisy meeting on 
23 Jan. 1794 and presented on 26 Jan. Lond. Chron., 24 Jan.; Ann. Reg., 

1795, PP- 7*, 13*- 
8^X12! in. 


jf' Qy des. etfec. 

Pu¥ March ^ 1795- hy H. Humphrey, N. 37. New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Richard Brothers, dressed as a sans- 
culotte and with the face of a maniac, carries on his back a Bundle of the 
Elect from which protrude the heads and legs of Fox, Sheridan, Stanhope 
(in profile to the r.), and Lansdowne (in profile to the 1.). In his 1. hand is 
an open book: Revelation, and a sword of flame, his r. hand points up an 
ascending path to the Gate of Jerusalem (r.) ; this is a gallows from which 
hang three nooses ; behind it are flames in which demons are flying. He 
tramples on a seven-headed monster (the Beast oi Revelation) : on one head, 

i6i M 


that of the Pope, he puts his foot, another prostrate human head wears a 
crown and so does the head of a beast breathing fire. The other four heads 
are those of demons. Two beams of Hght slant from his forehead, Assignats 
project from his coat-pocket. Behind walk Jews, the most prominent a 
pedlar with an open box of trinkets. Beside them walks a fat, disreputable 
woman holding a bottle inscribed Everlasting Life and a glass. From her 
pocket hangs a ballad : Isahell Wake a new Song to the tune of a Two penny 
Loaf. In the foreground (r.) St. Paul's, the Monument, a spire and houses 
are being engulfed in a fiery pit and are breaking to pieces (according to 
Brothers' prophecy). On the horizon (r.) is the sea with the masts of 
wrecked ships projecting from the waves. Immediately above Brothers is 
an owl with an olive-branch in its beak, a halo poised whirlpool-like on a 
point above its head ; it clutches a paper inscribed Peace. On the r. is the 
sun, its disk containing a staring face, wearing a bonnet-rouge, and sur- 
rounded by the points of a star which drip blood. On the 1. is a crescent 
moon in which is a fissure, its arc borders a shaded disk ; round this grotesque 
demons dance in a ring, holding hands. 

The visions and prophecies of Richard Brothers, related in letters to the 
King, Queen, and Ministry, and in pamphlets, included claims that he was 
a descendant of David and Prince of the Hebrews, to whom the King must 
surrender his crown. He denounced the war with France, as being against 
a chosen people, and prophesied the destruction of the royal family, parlia- 
ment, London, &c. He was daily visited (in Paddington Street) 'by differ- 
ent descriptions of people, who delight in hearing, even from the mouth 
of a madman, invectives against the present administration'. Lond. Chron., 
4 Mar. 1795. On 4 Mar. he was arrested on the Duke of Portland's 
warrant on an Elizabethan statute relating to prophecies intended to create 
disturbances, and examined (5 Mar.) before the Privy Council. He was 
confined first as a criminal lunatic and then (4 May) transferred to a private 
asylum. Isabella Wake had brought Brothers, when in Newgate for eight 
weeks in 1792, a threepenny loaf weekly, and was therefore assured by the 
prophet that she should be great in his kingdom. Contrasts on Mr. Brothers 
and Mr. Pitt (B.M.L., 806. k. 15/88). Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, ii. 102-4. 
Gillray associates Brothers with the Foxites, who shared his views on the 
war. See D.N.B. and Nos. 8626, 8644, 8646, 8655. 

Cf. an engraved H.L. portrait of 'Richard Brothers Prince of the 
Hebrews' by W. Sharp, pub. 16 Apr. 1795, with rays of light descending 
on his head, and inscribed: Fully believing this to be the Man whom God 
has appointed: — / engrave his likeness, William Sharp. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 183. Wright and Evans, No. 116. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, C. Roth,Tke Nephew of the Almighty, 1933 ; R. Matthews, 
English Messiahs, 1936, p. 88. 


R^ Newton del et fecit 

London Pu¥ by W. Hollafid 50 Oxford S* March 6 lyg^ 
Engraving (coloured impression). A design in three compartments, the 
largest in the centre: 

[i] An obese, plainly dressed man seated in profile to the 1. smokes a 
pipe before a fire indicated only by his position and the 1, margin of a fire- 



place. On his knee is a kitten, by his chair a large ill-drawn cat. At his 
side (1.) is a tankard on a small table. On the wall appear the ends of a 
string of onions, a sickle, a spade, a rake. Behind his head is a casement 
window. His face is blotched with drink. For the title see No. 8500, &c. 
9 X 6f in. 

[2] The Guinea Pig (r.), a man who has paid a guinea for a licence to 
wear hair-powder, see No. 8629, &c., stands stiffly, directed to the 1., 
highly delighted at the reflection of his head in a small mirror held in his 
r. hand. His small queue projects grotesquely. Under his 1. arm is a round 
high-crowned hat. He is grotesquely ugly and wears a swathed neck- 
cloth with pendent ends, a spencer (see No. 8192) over his coat, and tight 
breeches reaching nearly to the ankles. No. 8769 has the same title; cf. 
Nos. 8650, 8660, 8663, 8668. 
9X5-1 in. 

[3] His 'sister' on the 1. is a pretty young woman who stands directed 
to the r. She wears on the side of her head a hat with erect feathers and 
pendent ribbons, a pelerine over a high-waisted dress with a train ; in her 
r. hand is a large muff. 
9X51 in. 


J' Gy des"" etfed 

Pu¥ March icf^ I795- by H. Humphrey N" 3y New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A domestic interior. A fat and ugly 
citizen, wearing old-fashioned dress with a small unpowdered wig, stands 
on the hearth-rug (r.), his back to the fire ; he is meditatively reading the 
Gazette, headed: New Taxes, and Bankru[pts], his 1. hand plunged in his 
breeches pocket. Behind him on the chimney-piece is a pair of scales for 
weighing guineas (see No. 5128). His wife, bald-headed, ugly, and stout, 
leans back in an arm-chair, her hands raised in protest at an unpowdered 
wig which a grotesquely thin and ragged French hairdresser (1.) profilers 
obsequiously. A fashionably dressed young man with cropped hair looks 
with imbecile surprise at his reflection in an oval mirror over the chimney- 
piece. His mouth is half-covered by his swathed neckcloth, he wears a 
short spencer (see No. 8192) over a sparrow-tail coat, and half-boots. A 
young woman with over-dressed but unpowdered (red) hair looks with 
dismay at her reflection in a mirror which she has snatched from the wall. 
On the wall is an oval bust portrait of Charles 2^, his tiny head framed 
in an immense powdered wig. 

The powder tax came into force on 6 May 1795 ; those wearing powder 
(with certain exceptions) were to take out a guinea licence ; lists of licence- 
holders, 'guinea-pigs', were to be posted on the doors of parish churches. 
See Nos. 8621, 8628, 8646, 8650, 8660, 8663, 8664, 8668, 8712, 8769, 8771, 
9017, 9195, 9391. 

An impression is bound as frontispiece to a copy of W^olcot's Hair 
Powder; a plaintive Epistle to Mr. Pitt, 1795, in which the distress of a girl 
at the disclosure of her 'carrot-colour' hair is related. (B.M.L., 11632. 
dd. I.) 

Grego, Gillray, p. 187. Wright and Evans, No. 1 17. Reprinted, G.W.G., 




Publishd March icP" 179 5 by W Brozon N'^ 43 Rupert Street 
Engraving. French soldiers strip Dutchmen of their bulky breeches in 
order to supply themselves with those garments as in No. 8613. On the 
extreme 1. a Dutchman hangs by the neck from a lamp-bracket, while two 
Frenchmen pull off his breeches, a third (r.) already fitted out stands in 
profile to the r. watching the operation and taking snuff. A Dutchman 
(centre) lies under a guillotine confined not at the neck but at the waist; 
four sansculottes stand round, one holding the cord which will release the 
blade. In front a Frenchman in breeches sits on the ground. On the r. 
two Frenchmen are about to strip a disconsolate Dutchman, one holds up 
a fish by the tail. Beside him is a bottle of Hollands. See No. 8608, &c. 
lOj^gX 14J in. 

TION EN HOLLANDE [c. March 1795] 

Engraving (coloured impression). George III seated on the throne (r.) 
listens with an expression and gesture of horror to Pitt (1.) who stands in 
profile to the r. holding in both hands a large document inscribed : Arbre 
de la Liberie Plante a Amsterdam des Representans du peuple Francais a la 
Haye Gl Pichegru. The King, his hands raised, exclaims Quoi! comment! 
Stadhouder — pecheur — revolution mon Dieu qu'est quifaisons nous. Pitt, very 
thin and elegant, bending forward with an expression of dismayed melan- 
choly, says : voire Majesie n^a rien a craindre — vous etes la surprise et rod- 
miration du monde. 

On the wall is a map of France : Plan des Tyrans coalesce pour la partiti- 
tion de la France. Brest, Paris, Lion, and Toulon are marked and the NW. 
of the country is coloured pink. On the ground is a book: Burke (see 
No. 7675, &c.), and by the royal dais a Plan pour Prendre Paris (see 
No. 8826) and a number of money-bags inscribed 10 000, 100 000, and 
pour la Chasse £200,000. Behind Pitt is an open money-chest against 
which lean rolled documents, one inscribed Droits Divins des Rots. 

The manner, as well as the French of the inscriptions and the character 
of the portraits, suggests an English print. The frozen Waal was crossed 
by the French on 14 Jan. 1795. Fraternization between the Dutch Patriots 
and the invaders took place in the towns entered by the French. The tree 
of Liberty (see No. 9214, &c.) was planted in Amsterdam on 4 Mar. 1795, 
see No. 8846, &c. The Stadholder and his family left Schevening in a 
fishing- vessel on 18 Jan., landing at Yarmouth. See [Legrand], La Rev. 
Jr. en Hollande, 1894, pp. 53 ff., and No. 8608, &c. For the royal money- 
bags cf. No. 7836. Cf. No. 8434. 

de Vinck, No. 4708. Van Stolk, No. 5287, Muller, No. 5309. 

IC [L Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March, 20^^ [1795] by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly — who 
has just fitted up his Exhibition in an entire Novel Stile admittance 
one shilling. NB Folios lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Lord Fitzwilliam, 
' Corrected in pen to a. * Altered in pen to le. 



seated on a board or short stretcher carried by two priests, is the centre 
of a procession (r. to 1.) of shouting Irish ragamuffins. He sits complacently, 
looking to his 1., and towards the spectator, wearing (incorrectly) a ribbon 
and star ; he is not caricatured. The foremost priest says Now we shall have 
no Bonfires.^ In front walks a man clutching a rosary and holding up a 
crucifix. Behind walks a tall gaunt man carrying a board inscribed: to get 
into both Houses to claim lost Titles & Estates, to Abolish Churches & Meet- 
ing Houses & to Keep no Faith with Heriticks. Behind him (r.) walks a 
man waving a bottle of Whiskey and shouting Arrah my Sweet William & 
zoillyougo & leave all these fine things behind you. In the foreground (r.) 
is a ferocious-looking man cramming into an open chest (already full) an 
armful of instruments of torture : shackles, pincers, a headsman's axe, a 
dagger, &c. He says : Aye, you must be laid by for the Present. The chest 
is inscribed : Fundatnental Principles of our Holy Religion or Cool Arguments 
for the Conversion of Protestants. 

Winged creatures fly off on the extreme 1. and r. One (1.), a demon with 
small webbed wings and a barbed tail, holds a scroll : Discord, Disaffection, 
Religious War, Racks, Tortures & Intolerancy. The other, a cherub (r.), 
holds a scroll: Unity Peace & Concord. On the extreme r. in the back- 
ground, houses are indicated, inscribed Dublin. Above the design: The 
Journey to [erased] from Dublin. 

A No-Popery satire on Fitzwilliam's calamitous lord-lieutenancy of 
Ireland (cf. No. 8644). He actually left Dublin on 25 March and, on 
Grattan's advice, in a manner which evoked a great popular ovation ; his 
carriage was drawn to the quay by Dubliners. (If not ante-dated, the print 
is a remarkable anticipation of events.) For his appointment and recall 
see G. P. Gooch, Camb. Mod. Hist. ix. 697-700; Rose, 'Pitt and Earl 
Fitzwilliam', in Pitt and Napoleon, 1912, pp. 20 S. ; Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Dropmore MSS. iii. 35-8; D.N.B. Cf. No. 8713. 


G. M. Woodward delin IC [Cruikshank.] 

Pti¥ April i^ iyg5 by SW Fores N" 3 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Eight fat Hollanders, arranged in two 
rows, a caption above each, [i] Watch with Diligence!! A Dutch soldier 
sleeps in an upright chair, his pipe (upside down) in his mouth, hands 
folded. Beside him are a bottle of Gin and a musket. [2] Advance zoith 
Spirit!! A Dutchman, yawning cavernously, stands with arms outstretched. 
A frog escapes from beside his 1. foot. [3] Face your Enemies!! A Dutch- 
man stands in back view, smoking hard ; a bottle protrudes from a pocket 
in his bulky breeches. [4] Stand to your Guns!! A Dutch soldier, with a 
terrified expression, runs off to the r., having dropped his musket, which 
is going off, pointing in the opposite direction to that of the enemy. A 
smoking tobacco-pipe is fastened to the brim of his cocked hat. [5] Rever- 
ence Treaties!! A Dutchman wearing long skates stands (on ice) in profile 
to the r. From his pocket issues a torn paper: Alliance Treaty; he lights 
his pipe with a fragment. [6] Assist your Government!! A Dutchman stands 
full-face, with a calculating sideways glance, smoking a pipe, his hands 
thrust deep in his pockets. His dress suggests vulgar wealth, and an 

' Underlined in uncoloured impression only. 


attempt to follow the fashion ; it is covered with large (yellow) buttons, he 
wears two bunches of seals from his fob, half-boots, his queue (seen between 
his legs) reaches nearly to the ground ; under his arm is a bludgeon. [7] 
Obey your orders!! A Dutchman, wearing cavalry uniform with two 
chevrons on his sleeve, sits in profile to the r. on a low upturned tub, 
meditatively playing cards. He wears spectacles and smokes a pipe. 
[8] Rise in a Mass!! A very fat Dutchman sits on the ground, drunk, with 
eyes closed, his pipe dropping from his mouth; a pitcher falls from his 
r. hand, pouring its contents over a bust portrait of the Statdholder. 

A satire on the sluggishness of the Dutch Government and people, and 
on the hostility of the Dutch towards their English allies. On 28 Sept. 
1794 the commandant abjectly surrendered Fort Crevecoeur to Pichegru 
with forty-two heavy guns (cf. [4] above). Fortescue, Hist, of the British 
Army, iv. 308. The alliance is that of 1788 between England and Holland, 
see No. 8299. For the conquest of Holland see No. 8608, &c. Cf . No. 8478 . 
I2fxi8| in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub April 3 lygs by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales stands silent and 
embarrassed, full-face, twirling his thumbs, surrounded by clamouring 
bawds and courtesans. An old bawd, wearing a calash hood (see No. 5434) 
and furred cloak, stands beside him (r.), supporting herself on a stick. She 
holds out a long scroll headed Weston and inscribed Providing 100 . . 
A rarrce show 1000 . . . one from the country just imported 2000 . . breaking 
a reflecter 100 . . Myself 2000 . . an Entertainment 500 . . Sky Rocket 100. 
She says : what! I suppose you don't know me then aye — aye — you think to 
come Falstaf over us do you. On the 1. stands a younger woman wearing 
a feathered hat, a black patch replacing her nose : she leans towards him, 
saying: what won't you come pound. She points to a long scroll headed 
Left standing looo ; one of many items is my Nose 20. On the extreme 1. 
in the foreground sits a hideous negress, truculently holding out her long 
account headed Black Joke 300 and signed Black Moll Hedge Lane. A 
little birch-rod is attached to the waist of her loose striped gown. She says : 
come Massa come & settle my count de affair you know has been long Stand- 
ing. On the r., turning her head towards the Prince, is an old bawd, 
flamboyantly dressed, one gouty leg thrust forward and supported on a 
foot-stool. In her r. hand is a jelly-glass ; in her 1. her long account headed 
bill Annuities A first Slice of a nice tit bit only 12 years and 6 Hours — looo. 
Ditto Warranted aetat 40 — 2000, . . . [cf. No. 8485]. She says: how he 
stares he seems to be struck Comical. Behind and on the extreme r. is a little 
girl holding a paper: Maidenhead. Behind the principal figures are others, 
young and pretty, or old and ugly. 

The Prince is fat with a heavy double chin but is scarcely caricatured. 
He wears a large swathed neckcloth with ends, a short spencer (see No. 
8192) over his coat, and the collar of his double-breasted spotted waistcoat 
over his spencer. 

A satire on the Prince's debts, see No. 8673, &c., on his approaching 
marriage, see No. 8610, and {inter alia) on his penchant for middle-aged 
women. Cf. No. 7873 (1791), &c. 



IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub April 9 1795 by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A fat pluralist parson (1.) runs from 1. 
to r. ; Pitt (r.) runs in profile to the 1., grasping his hat which is piled high 
with guineas, while others fall from his person, his garments being inflated 
with coins. Each says No Reform no Reform. Behind Pitt the Treasury is 
faintly indicated ; behind the parson is the corner of a church. From Pitt's 
pocket hangs a paper : New Places Sinecures fresh Appointments Addition 

to C [Civil] List. The parson, his face bloated with drink, his wig 

worn back to front and over one eye, his stockings ungartered, holds a 
walking-stick and a large paper, his annual income, less outgoings, in his 
r. hand: 


Enormous Expense of Curates 

Curate for A 20 

D° B & C being] ^ 
contiguous j ^ 

LP D 15 

d" E I 

d F - 


Vicar of A i 00 
Rector of B 500 
Dean of C 2000 
Vicar of D yoo 
D . . E 100 
D. . F 200 


84. 10. o. [sic] 

A satire on Pitt's attitude to reform, cf. Nos. 8500, 8621, 9161, 9531, 
and on the pluralist clergy, cf. Nos. 6153, 6154, 


ySf [Sayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14^ April iyg5 

Engraving. The first of a set of seven prints : Outlines of the Opposition. . . . 
The artist (1.), a partly draped figure with small horns among his loosely 
curling hair, points with both hands to a picture on an easel (r.), turning 
his head towards the spectator. In front of him (1.) is a table on which are 
his painting- materials : a sheaf of brushes in a pot, palette, charcoal- 
holder. On a large canvas a man with the head of a wolf stands wearing 
a sheepskin with the head on his head and shoulders. In his r. hand is a 
firebrand, the 1. supports the long staff of a flag inscribed Watch Word 
Peace. Above it hovers a dove with an olive branch. At his feet stands a 
snarling wolf, also in sheep's clothing. A mastiff standing beside the artist 
barks at the (painted) wolf. Against the easel rests a large volume: Outlines 
j of the I Opposition \ in 1795 \ collected from the Works \ of the most capital 
Jacobin Artists \ " They speak Peace to their \ Neighbours, but Mischief is in 
their hearts, they devise deceiful \ Things against them that are quiet \ in the 
Land " Psalms. 

A satire on the repeated motions for peace made by the Opposition. The 
artist is Wilberforce, the wolf Fox ; these identifications are confirmed by 
a MS. note by Miss Banks. (Banks Memoranda in Print Room.) See 
Nos. 8637-42. Sets were issued bound in rough paper. A similar set was 
published in 1794, see No. 8437, &c. 



JSj [Sayers.] 

PuU^ 14 April 1795 by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving. One of a set, see No. 8636. Wilberforce, as a weathercock, 
stands with his r. foot poised on a pinnacle at the point of intersection of 
the four points of the compass. He leans forward in profile to the r., both 
arms stretched out towards a bird which grasps a scroll resting on clouds : 
Peace and Fraternity with France. The bird is half-dove, and holds an 
olive branch in its mouth, but the 1. leg is that of a bird of prey, and in its 
talons a dagger is clasped, while the 1. wing is fantastically webbed. Two 
papers issue from Wilberforce 's coat-pocket: Charge ag^ Kitnber and 
Abolition of the Slave Trade. From his back rises a vertical spike support- 
ing the hat of a Roundhead, its brim inscribed Fanaticism, Puritanism. On 
its crown sits a raven, shrieking at Wilberforce the word Kimber. 

Below (r.) is the dome of a minaret terminating in the head of Fox, 
directing a blast of Republicanism against Wilberforce which has blown him 
into his present position. Below the title: Vide Bewilderforce's Rhapsodies 
on Peace &c^ 

Wilberforce (though anti-Jacobin) proposed, in the debate of 30 Dec. 
1794 on the Address, an amendment in favour of peace, and he spoke in 
favour of Grey's motion for peace on 26 Jan. 1795. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1016- 
27, 1230-8; Farington, Diary, i. 85-6 (9 Jan. 1795). (On 27 May he him- 
self made a motion for peace, see No. 8655.) See Coupland, Wilberforce, 
1923, pp. 189 ff. On 26 Feb. he spoke on the Slave Trade, urging the 
expediency of abolition, and was supported by both Fox and Pitt. For the 
unproven accusation (supported by Wilberforce) against Kimber of mur- 
dering a negro girl see Nos. 8079, 8793, and Coupland, op. cit., p. 218 f. 
For the weathercock emblem cf. No. 6230. 


ySf [Bayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14 April iyg5 

Engraving. See No. 8636. The interior of the House of Commons show- 
ing part of the Speaker's chair on the extreme 1., and the adjacent Opposi- 
tion bench on the r. with a corner of the gallery. On the floor between the 
table and the front Opposition bench a large cask, resting on trestles, is 
exploding violently from the bung-hole. The inscription on the cask forms 
the only title to the print. In the explosion are the words : Reform, Peace, 
Liberty, Equality, no Slave Trade, Peace. Part only of the Speaker's hat 
and wig are visible ; his 1. hand is extended and the words Order Order issue 
from his (invisible) mouth. Three occupants of the front Opposition bench 
cover their faces, two others flee from the explosion. 

Whitbread (brewer and Whig M.P. for Bedford) was a consistent and 
emphatic supporter of all the motions for peace with France. At this date 
he was in agreement on the subject with the other members of the Opposi- 
tion, and the situation depicted would be more consistent with his 
embarrassing peace resolution of 29 Feb. 1808, which caused a party split. 
One of many references to 'Whitbread 's Entire', e.g. Nos. 8690, 9240, 
9548. Cf. No. 8087 (1792). 
iiix9i in. 



JSf [Sayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14^ April lygs 
Engraving. See No. 8636. The gate of Bedford House (Bedford Square) 
with the double doors sufficiently open to show a man descending the 
steps of the house carrying a sack of plunder. On one side of the gate sits 
the Duke of Bedford, dressed as a jockey and seated on a saddle supported 
by trestles ; he looks down, his face is concealed by his cap, his arms are 
folded. At his feet is a paper: Motion for Peace zoith France. On the 
opposite side sits a sansculotte astride a pile of plunder topped by a 
bundle of Title De[eds] of Estates in — . His feet rest on money-bags and 
on a ducal coronet. He wears a bonnet-rouge and grasps a bag inscribed 
£1000, looking towards the Duke. A horizontal beam or 'Bedford Level' 
touches both their heads, from its centre rises an upright against which 
hangs a plumb-line, exactly vertical. On each gate-post is a double-headed 
Sphinx (cf. No. 8786), one head (1.) looks down mournfully at Bedford, 
another (r.), with snaky locks, grins down at his companion. 

The Duke of Bedford, a devoted follower of Fox (cf. No. 8684), made 
a motion for peace on 27 Jan. 1795 as he had done on 30 May 1794. The 
title refers to the great enterprise for draining the fens undertaken by the 
4th Earl of Bedford and completed in 1653 (thereafter called the Bedford 
level) ; it combines an allusion to his vast wealth and to his Jacobin leanings. 
The level (a Freemason's sign) was much used in France from 1789 as a 
symbol of equality. Renouvier, p. 397. Cf. Nos. 8363, 8763, 8834, 9156. 
1 1 X 9i in. 


ySf [Sayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey 14 April lygs 

Engraving. See No. 8636. Stanhope swims beside a small two-masted 
sailing-vessel, dragging it against wind and stream. His head and chest 
are in the position of a figure-head, his r. arm is outstretched, holding a 
tricolour flag, his 1. arm is stretched behind him holding the tiller, and he 
kicks at the rudder with the 1. foot, his leg being raised above the water 
from the knee. He is pushed forward by a dolphin-like monster swimming 
(r.) behind the vessel, which prods the skirts of his coat with a trident. 
The monster wears a French cockade; his tail waves in the air. From a 
staff in the stern, surmounted by a cap of Liberty, flies a flag: Equality & 

Stanhope breasts the rippled water, which flows strongly against him, 
inscribed (1.) The Current ofpMic Opinion. A small vessel (1.) in the back- 
ground sails 1. to r., her sails inflated. From the upper 1, margin projects 
a head blowing a blast of Loyalty against 'The Stanhope'. 

On 13 Mar. 1790 Stanhope took out a patent for 'constructing ships 
and vessels and moving them [by steam] without help of sails, and against 
wind, waves, current or tide'. (Cf. No. 8787.) An experimental ship, the 
Kent, fitted with sails as well as machinery, was constructed for the 
Admiralty and launched in the Thames in 1793. Stanhope and Gooch, 
Charles, third Earl Stanhope, 1914, chap. x. (Reproduction, p. 156.) For 
Stanhope as a republican see No. 8448, &c. 
9|Xiif in. (pi.). 




JSf [Sayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14^^ April lygs 

Engraving. See No. 8636. The Marquis of Buckingham, tall and bulky, 
stands against a measuring-post (1.); Lord Derby, standing on a table, 
adjusts the horizontal bar to his head. Buckingham, wearing dark spec- 
tacles, stands without his shoes (which lie beside him), and holding his 
hat; he faces Fox, who is seated on a drum (r.), and says: 

To Pitt I made my Proposition 
But he rejected the Condition 
So I enlist zvith Opposition 

He holds out to Fox a paper: Condition to be first Lord of the Admiralty. 
Fox, taking the paper, scrutinizes it through a glass with a pleased smile. 
His drum is inscribed C F and beside him is a spear from whose tasselled 
head hangs a placard : Watch Word Peace. From the top of the measuring- 
post flies a flag of three horizontal stripes inscribed The Standard of 

Buckingham is represented as piqued at not being made first lord of the 
Admiralty when Chatham was removed in Dec. 1794. He did not join the 
Opposition and on 8 May he opposed the Opposition motion on the recall 
of Fitzwilliam from Ireland. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1520. Nevertheless, Miles 
wrote 14 Feb. 1795 to Sir E. Newenham: 'The Marquis of Buckingham 
is in direct hostility against Mr. Pitt . . . .' Corr. of W. A. Miles on the 
French Rev. ii. 235. See also Hist. MSS. Comm., Dropmore MSS., iii. 
2-4. The Temple of British Worthies is one of the architectural adorn- 
ments of the grounds of Stowe, Buckingham's country seat. 
11^X9/6 in. 

ySf [Sayers.] 

Published by H Humphrey 14^^ April iyg5 

Aquatint. See No. 8636. Five members of the Opposition watch with 
admiring surprise Ombres Chinoises : figures whose shadows are thrown on 
a sheet or screen, the scene enclosed in a circle : three fat Dutchmen seated 
on the sea advance directly towards the spectators. On the shoulders of 
each sits a French sansculotte soldier, cadaverous and sinister ; the central 
figure wears a cocked hat from which project cannon or trench-mortars, 
he holds a tricolour flag. The others wear bonnets-rouges; one (1.) blows 
a trumpet, the other (r.) beats a drum. The Dutchmen are impassively 
smoking pipes, two wear French cockades ; from the hips of each project 
the mouths of cannon. The light background of the circle stands out on 
a tinted ground; above it is a scroll, apparently issuing from the mouth 
of the trumpet : Terror the Order of the Day. 

Only the heads and shoulders of the spectators are visible, all in back 
view except that of Lansdowne on the extreme r., who says Astonishing 
effect. The others (1. to r.) are Fox, looking through a glass as in No. 8641, 
Sheridan, Stanhope, and a bishop identified as Watson of Llandaff. Fox 
says: what a fine Effect. 

After the conquest of Holland and the Dutch fleet in Jan. 1795 an 
invasion of England was expected: Comwallis wrote, 27 Jan., 'I cannot 



entertain a doubt of this country being invaded ; indeed, I do not see what 
the French can do else, . . .' Cornwallis Corr. ii. 283. Cf. No. 8432, &c., 
and especially No. 9034 on the French attempt to use the Dutch fleet 
against Great Britain. For the attitude of the Opposition cf. (e.g.) No. 8992. 
lof X9j in. Diam. of circle, 8f in. 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: April 15 lygs hy S W Fores No 3 Piccadilly who has 
just fitted up his Exhibition in an entire Novel stile, admittance one 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales stands full-face, 
in shirt and nightcap, his back to the bridal bed (r.) in which the Princess 
lies with an expression of smiling expectancy. The Prince stands dis- 
mayed, with his r. fingers to his mouth. On a table beside him (1.) are two 
( ?) mustard-pots and a bottle of Cantharides. On the wall showing between 
the curtains of the bed is a picture of Leda and the swan. The bed is ornate 
with fringed curtains, and the Prince of Wales' feathers and motto at the 
head. Her stockings, shoes, a garter, and a garment draped over a chair 
are beside the Princess; the Prince's clothes lie at his feet. The marriage 
took place on 8 Apr. See No. 8610, &c. 


James Gillray des. etfec^ 

Pu¥ April 30^ 1795, by H. Humphrey, N" 37 New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt as a Roman charioteer, wearing a 
laurel wreath, is seated in an ornate chariot drawn (1. to r.) by the British 
Lion and the White Horse of Hanover (cf. No. 8691). He holds the reins, 
but scarcely controls the galloping pair. One foot rests on a shield bear- 
ing a fanged serpent, and wreathed with serpents, inscribed : Exit Python 
Republicanus. Behind him is a book decorated with a lyre inscribed Magna 
Charta. Ornate projections from the back of the chariot support the disk 
of the 'Sun of the Constitution': the Hebrew letters for Jehovah are 
surrounded by the words commons . king . lords ; this is irradiated, the 
royal arms being etched partly on the sun, partly on its rays, and imme- 
diately behind Pitt. Two cherubs fly behind the chariot and on the extreme 
1. ; one holds up a Bible, the other a family tree of the Brunswick Succession: 
from the base, inscribed G' III, rises G IV, from whose circle sprout five 
stems; beneath is inscribed: And future Kings, and Monarchs yet unborn. 
A fringed cloth on the back of the horse is covered by the royal arms ; one 
on the lion has Britannia, seated as on coins, but holding up a dagger in 
one hand, a birch-rod in the other. Both animals dash furiously forward 
in pursuit of the Opposition. The horse snorts fire; from his forehead 
thunderbolts dart towards the fugitives. 

The chariot is on an ascending slope of smooth cloud, lit by the 'Sun 
of the Constitution' (cf. No. 8287, &c.) and strewn with roses which fall 
from the draperies of Justice, who floats before the chariot, leading it on, 



her head surrounded by a scroll inscribed Honorable Peace, or Everlasting 
War. In her 1. hand she holds up her balanced scales, in her r. she grasps 
a flag-staff on which the British flag floats above a tattered tricolour 
pennant, inscribed Republic. 

From under the dark and turbulent edges of the cloud-path the Opposi- 
tion flee into the void. On the extreme 1. is the H.L. figure of a monstrous 
hag, her hair composed of serpents spitting fire, with a fillet inscribed The 
Whig Club. In her r. hand she holds one of the serpents which issue from 
her pendent breasts, in the 1. is an almost extinguished firebrand. She 
glares up in impotent rage. Beneath the horse and lion (r.) are the heads 
and shoulders of (1. to r.) Sheridan, Fox, and Stanhope, their hair stream- 
ing behind them ; each drops a dagger from his raised r. hand. Sheridan 
and Fox have expressions of gloomy terror. Stanhope is melancholy but 
composed. In the abyss beneath the clouds are three small winged crea- 
tures: an owl (1.) with the head of Lansdowne, two bats, one with the head 
of M, A. Taylor, the other (r.) with that of Erskine. In their flight they 
have left behind them on the path of cloud three papers: Plan for inflaming 
the Dissenters in Scotland', A scheme for raising the Catholicks in Ireland 
(cf. No. 8632) ; Jacobin Prophecies for breeding Sedition in England (an 
allusion to Brothers, see No. 8627, &c.). 

A second group flees upwards away from the thunderbolts of the 
Hanoverian horse ; from the head of each falls a bonnet-rouge whose peak 
terminates in a (fool's) bell (cf. No. 9374). They are Lauderdale, with 
clasped hands, the Duke of Norfolk looking round apprehensively, above 
him the Duke of Grafton, and above again Lord Derby.' Above their 
heads and among the clouds are fleeing serpents, a bonnet-rouge, a book : 
Irruption of the Goths and Varidals. 2^ Edition, and a scroll whose ragged 
edges merge in cloud : Patriotick Propositions. Peace, Peace on any Terms. 
Fraternization Unconditional Submission No Law, no King, No God. 
Another branch of cloud diverges to the 1. behind Justice. Its upper part 
is covered with wrecked ships and tiny fleeing figures. These are little 
sanscu'ottes, all with large bonnets-rouges, one naked, others barelegged 
except for boots or sabots. They drop their swords. 

The print reflects passions raised by debates on Stanhope's Motion 
against interference in the internal affairs of France (6 Jan. 1795), on Grey's 
Motion for peace with France (26 Jan.), and on Bedford's similar Motion 
(27 Jan.), as well as Motions by Fox and Guilford for a Committee on the 
State of the Nation (24 and 30 Mar.). Pari. Hist. xxxi. ii3off., &c. 
See Nos. 8614, 8636-42. For earlier peace motions cf. No. 8437, &c. See 
also No. 8655. Cf. No. 8792. 

Grego, Gtllray, pp. 183-4. Wright and Evans, No. 119. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 


[i May 1795] 
[Ceilings del., Barlow f.] 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iv. 108. A man rides a plunging 
mule which appears to be shying at a roadside cross (r.). A barefooted 

' Lord Holland gives alternative identifications: Stanhope is Francis, and Graf- 
ton is Stanhope. These two, however, closely resemble other heads by Gillray of 
Stanhope and Grafton. 



monk (1.) lies prone on the ground under the animal's heels. The road 
leads to a church or monastery. In the text the French, formerly bigots, 
are said to have become 'downright atheists'. 

Part of a plate (6| X 8| in.) from the Attic Miscellany, ii. 153, i Feb. 1791, 
has been used. It was originally an illustration to the History of Nicolas 
Pedrosa. A Tale, by Mr. Cumberland. The other part of the original 
design is No. 8702. 
6f X4f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub May 6 Alias Hair Powder Day by S W Fores N° 50^ 
Piccadilly corner of Sackville St. 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull stands four-square, enor- 
mously fat but pressed down under a heavy load of planks or blocks which 
rests on his head, and which he supports with both hands, looking gloomily 
at the ground. He says : If they squeeze much more I shall Burst. The word 
Tax is repeated on his person, on his coat (twice), on his bursting waistcoat, 
on his shirt, on his breeches (three times), and on each fat leg. The three 
top buttons of his coat are T, A, X. The King, Pitt, and the Prince of 
Wales are straining to push a huge block on to the top of the pile inscribed 
The Princes Debts Annuities Bonds &c. M^^ Fitsherbert [Mrs] Robinson, 
[Mrs] Crouch. The King's words have been added in ink: Load away 
Pitt, hey what what — no Grumbling, no Grumbling, Load Load. From his 
pocket hangs a paper: Age of Reason. Below his 1. foot is inscribed (ode to 
Liberty). Pitt (r.), in profile to the 1., stoops to push hard with both hands, 
saying: To be sure the Prince did Promise faithfully not to get in Debt any 
more, when we paid his Debts the last time but — push away — thats your sort 
[a catchword from The Road to Ruin, see No. 8073] No Grumbling ! ! ! From 
his pocket protrudes a paper Halhed on Brothers (see No. 8627 ; Halhed, 
Orientalist and M.P., supported Brothers in pamphlets and in Parliament 
(31 Mar. and 21 Apr. 1795). See D.N.B.) The pile of taxes on John Bull's 
head is inscribed (reading dovsmwards): Tax on Hearing seeing Thinking 
Walking. Crying Childreen &c — The Princess Establishment, only 300.000 

per Annum. The Princess of W ^ Establishment 200.000 />' An. Tax 

on Tiles. Windows. Doors. Bricks. Tiles. Deals. Coals. Salt. Butter Barley. 
National Debt. New Loan 18.000.000. Imperial Loan 6.000.000. Subsi- 
dies Naples Prussia Sardinia. Excise. Stamps. Breeches Tax. Malt Tax. 
Tax on Hair Powder. Tobbacco Tax, New Servants Tax, Shoe Tax, Stocking 
Tax, Places. Pensions. Sinecures. Secret Services. Spies. By his r. foot is a 
large tankard inscribed Tax Tax. At his feet lies a discarded watch and 

On the 1. is a small house with a barber's pole and the words Jon Bull 
Barber over the door. It is shored up by a beam inscribed Taxed. The 
closed door is inscribed Starved out and Tax. A placard on the wall is 
inscribed To Let inquire at M^ Pitt Felons Sid Newgate. Tax is inscribed 
on the wall, on a window, on the roof, and above the chimney. 

A satire on the heavy burdens on John Bull, in which taxes old, new, 
and imaginary are named, cf. No. 6914, &c. ; the hair-powder tax, see 

' The number 50 appears to be written over another number (3), and 'corner 
of Sackville St.' is added in another hand. 



No. 8629, &c., and the Prince's debts are stressed. The Prince's debts, 
which had impelled him to marriage, see No. 8610, &c., came before 
Parliament on 27 Apr. in connexion with the provision of an estabUsh- 
ment for the Prince and Princess. Public reports on their amount varied 
from ;^ 600, 000 to 3^1,700,000 and Pitt estimated them at from 3^600,000 
to 3^700,000. They were debated on 14 May. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1464-96. 
See No. 8673, &c. ; for the bonds raised by the Prince see No. 7850 (1791). 
Paine 's Age of Reasoji was published in 1794 (Part I) and 1795 (Part II), 
and strengthened the feeling against him in England. Moncure, Life of 
Paine, ii. 181-222. 'No grumbling' was evidently a catch-word, used in 
relation to the powder-tax, cf. Nos. 8650, 8668, 871 1. For the Imperial 
Loan and subsidies cf. No. 8658. 
81^6X13 in. 


ySf [Sayers.] 

Published 5** May lyg^by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving. Letters on the design refer to an Explanation etched below 
the title. A scene on the stage of a theatre symbolizes Westminster 
Hall. In the foreground a large cauldron is sinking through a rectangular 
opening in the floor. It is inscribed A \ Exit in Fumo, explained as The 
Managers Cauldron. From it rises a dense mass of dark smoke which 
divides into two curving branches, one on each side of a brightly irradiated 
bust of Hastings. The bust looks towards the Managers' box (r.) and 
stands on a large rectangular pedestal inscribed: Virtus repulsee \ nescia 
sordidce \ incontaminatis \ fulget honoribus. The cauldron is filled with burn- 
ing documents, the origin of the smoke, inscribed, respectively: Charge, 
Charge Presents, Charge of Oppression, Charge of Cruelty, Charge of Extor- 
tion, Charge of Peculation in Contracts, Torture. These are: B Ingredients 
mix'd up by the Managers to blacken C a character out of their reach. Stand- 
ing within another rectangular opening in the floor is Burke in profile to 
the 1., gesticulating furiously, a paint-brush in his raised r. hand, a docu- 
ment, more Ingredients, clasped in his 1. hand. He is : Z) One of the Managers 
& a principal Performer who having "Out-heroded Herod" retires from the 
Stage in a Passion at seeing the Farce likely to be damn'd. 

Above the bust are two projecting beams, each supported by an angel 
(as in Westminster Hall), wearing a judge's wig and gown with a scroll 
issuing from the mouth. The figure on the 1. is Thurlow, looking calmly 
down, his hand on his breast and saying: not black upon my Honour. The 
other is Loughborough, his head turned away, showing the back of his 
wig only (cf. No. 6796), and saying: Black upon my Honour. They are: 
K a great Critic in a high Situation, who has paid close Attention. L another 
great Critic, not quite so good a Judge, giving his Opinion on the other Side. 

On the r. is a stage-box, representing the Managers' box. From it Fox, 
wearing a bag-wig, leans forward, looking excitedly and near-sightedly 
through his glass, his hand outstretched as if to restrain Burke. Behind 
him is the quasi-imbecile profile of Sir James Erskine (see No. 7152) look- 
ing over his shoulder. On the extreme r. are the backs of the heads and 
shoulders of two Managers who are leaving the box. Below (r.) a profile 
looks gloomily towards the stage. Fox is E Another Manager a great Actor 
very anxious about the fate of the Farce. The others zxteee Other Managers 



very well dress' d [cf. No. 7309] but not very capital performers some of them 
tired of acting. Just outside the box is the profile head of Francis, his bale- 
ful stare (as in No. 7292, &c.) fixed on the bust. He is: F The Prompter, 
no Character in y' farce but very useful behind the Scenes. The outside of 
the box (G The Managers Box) is traversed by the winding track of a snail, 
beginning in lySy and meandering past 1788, 178^, 1790, 1791, 1792, 
1793, 1794, the snail's head touching 1795. A rat has gnawed a hole in 
the front of the box, though which he peers; in his mouth is a ticket: 
Permit the Bearer to Pass & Repass 1787 renewed 1795, on which are 
indicated the arms of Sir Peter Burrell (on all tickets of admission, cf. 
No. 7276). 

Above the design is a stage curtain with the usual motto, Veluti in 
Speculum. Below the stage (r.) appear, in an oblong aperture fringed with 
flames {H. a Court below to which the Managers retire upon quitting the 
Stage.), the head and hands of a corpse-like Devil holding a pitchfork which 
points directly to the Managers' box. He is / Usher of the Black Rod there. 
He says: 

By the prichitig of my Thumbs 
Something wicked this Way comes. 

Below the Explanation : The Scetie lies in an old Hall {formerly a Court 
of Law). 

The trial of Hastings, begun in 1788, after proceedings in the Commons 
in 1787, ended in Westminster Hall on 23 Apr. 1795, when the question 
of guilty or not guilty on each of sixteen points separately (based on the 
charges) was put to each peer, twenty-nine only voting. For the voting on 
each charge see Ann. Reg., 1795, pp. i20*-6*. Loughborough, as Lord 
Chancellor, presided and voted guilty on all the charges except the two 
on which the Not Guilty vote was unanimous. For the trial see No. 
7269, &c. Burke's closing speech (published as a pamphlet), lasting nine 
days (between 28 May and 16 June), was severely censured in the debate 
on the vote of thanks to the Managers (20 June 1 794). Pari. Hist. xxxi. 936 ff. 
Fox was said (ibid., p. 947) often to have exerted his great abilities *to 
correct the follies and intemperance' of Burke. See Hist, of the Trial of 
Warren Hastings, 1796, Part V, pp. 1 19-44 5 A- M- Davies, Warren Hastings, 
1935, pp. 499 flF. The reference to Westminster Hall as 'formerly a Court 
of Law' refers not only to the general character of the proceedings, but 
(probably) to the contention of the Managers, over-ruled by Thurlow, that 
the rules of a court of law did not apply to an impeachment, appealing to 
the case of Strafford, see No. 7276, &c. For the part taken by Francis see 
Weitzmann, Warren Hastings and Philip Francis, 1929, and No. 7309. 
iS^Xiof in. 


f Gy das'" etfed 

Pii¥ May iP^ 1795, by H. Humphrey, N° 37, New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). 'French Agents' purchase sheep, cattle, 
and pigs, which are being driven into boats to be taken to a French ship 
at anchor. Fox, as the commissary general, stands in profile to the 1., 



holding a bag of French Gold and pouring coins into the hand of the stout and 
smiling Lansdowne who is dressed as a farmer, and is disposing of a jflock 
of sheep (1.). Sheridan stands on Fox's r., clutching a money-bag and 
gazing fixedly at Lansdowne. Behind them is the taller Grey. These three 
are fashionably dressed, especially Fox who wears a French cocked hat, 
long overcoat reaching to his heels, over a frogged coat. The other two 
wear long coats and bonnets-rouges, with half-boots. Behind them stands 
their clerk, Erskine, a sansculotte wearing sabots and a bonnet-rouge, with 
barrister's wig and bands. He writes : Republican Purchase. 

In the foreground (1.) the Duke of Bedford, dressed as a farmer, but 
wearing fashionable spurred top-boots, sits, complacently counting money, 
on a sack of Superfine Bedfordshire Flour for Paris (cf. No. 8783). Beside 
him (1.) are sacks of Fine Bedfordshire Flour labelled For Dieppe and For 
Ostend. Behind them and in the middle distance the Duke of Norfolk 
walks to the r., carrying on his head a steaming dish of Norfolk Dumplings. 
Near him is the Duke of Grafton driving cattle towards the shore. On the 
r. is a boat containing pigs and a cow. Stanhope sits at the tiller, smoking. 
He wears a bonnet-rouge with a bag-wig. The boat has a furled sail and 
flies a tricolour flag inscribed Vive la Republique. Another boat-load of 
cattle is being rowed towards the French ship. 

In the foreground is a basket of chickens and geese and a bundle of 
muskets, across which is a tricolour scroll inscribed Provision for French 
Army. Dissenting Manufacture. 

The Opposition are classed as either French agents (the four com- 
moners) or treacherous supporters of France (the five peers). Grafton 
owes his position to his attitude towards peace proposals. For the high 
price of provisions see No. 8665, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 188 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 122. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
iif X 16J in. 

8649 POLONius. 


Pub^ May 18^^ 1795, by H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Salisbury, as Lord Chamberlain, hold- 
ing his wand, walks stiffly before the King and Queen across one of the 
courts of St. James's Palace, evidently on the way to a Drawing Room. 
He bends forward from the waist, holding a small three-cornered hat in 
his 1. hand ; his gold key of office is attached to the flap of his embroidered 
coat-pocket by a bow of ribbon. The Queen (r.), holding a fan, takes the 
King's 1. arm; he looks down at her; both are slightly caricatured. They 
are followed by four princesses, charming girls, slightly sketched, with 
feathers in their hair, who are on the farther side of an archway through 
which the King and Queen have just passed. The procession, receding in 
perspective, advances diagonally from 1. to r. 

Salisbury was satirized by Gillray in No. 6115 (1782) for a wooden 
appearance and vacant expression. Caricatures of Salisbury as Lord 
Chamberlain generally appear to derive from this print, e.g. Nos. 8724, 

Grego, Gillray y p. 188. Wright and Evans, No. 123. Reprinted, G.W.G., 




Pub 23 May iyg5 by S. W Fores 50 Piccadilly, corner of Sackville St.^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). Seven barbers, broadly caricatured, are 
grouped round Pitt who is spitted, and hangs head dow^nwards, naked, 
before a huge fire. Under his head is a barber's bowl ; a barber kneeling 
on one knee in profile to the r. puts a brush to his nose, saying, this will 
lather him I'll warrent him. this will make him smart. A stout, jovial man, 
also in profile to the r., sprinkles him with a dredger, saying: F II Flour him 
a dog. do you like it Billy; I say no Grumbling. A French barber, wearing 
a long queue, bites ( ?) an apple, saying. Ah grant to me von little bite! (Cf. 
No. 5790.) Behind stands another Frenchman, full-face, his hand on his 
breast, saying, pauvre Diable, it vill be one warning to him. Another stand- 
ing on the r. singes Pitt with a burning paper inscribed: Prince's Debts, 
saying, by gar de Minister vas renversee vat you do call out of his place. On 
the r. stands a stern-looking man holding out a pair of tongs towards Pitt 
and saying : What take away all our Business & then make us pay the Prince's 
debts, besides did not he promise Us he would never pay them again a lying 
dog?? In front (r.) a fat barber sits full-face ; a barber's bowl on his knee 
serves as a plate. He holds a knife and fork across it, saying, / shall have 
a double appetite when the Guinea pig [cf. No. 8628] is well roasted. On the 
extreme 1. is the King's head in profile to the r. on a pole, serving as 
a barber's block, and looking apprehensively at Pitt. Above it, serving as a 
second title, is engraved The Barbers Shop. 

For the tax on hair-powder see No. 8629, &c., and the Prince's debts 
see No. 8673, &c. ; for 'no Grumbling', No. 8646. 
8^^X13 in. 


J' Gy des'' etfed 

Pu¥ May 2y^^ lyg^ by H. Humphrey N° 57 New Bond St 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt and Dundas are tipsily carousing 
at a rectangular table from which the cloth has been removed. Pitt, wear- 
ing spurred top-boots, sits on the corner of the table in profile to the 1., 
his chair behind him at the head of the table. Dundas (1.), wearing a plaid 
across his shoulders, sits full-face, turning his head in profile to the r., and 
waving a tobacco-pipe towards Pitt. They touch glasses, each holding his 
glass in the 1. hand; Pitt tries to fill them, but with the bottle reversed, 
spilling its contents. On the table is a decanter of Brandy, a bottle on its 
side, a clutter of empty bottles, glasses, Pitt's broken pipe, and a plate of 
food. In the foreground are bottles in a wine-cooler, and under the table 
is a chamber-pot on which is a figure of Britannia. Above the heads of 
the topers : 

''Send us Victorious, 

"Happy and Glorious, 

"Long to Reign. — go it my Boy! 

"Billy my Boy, all my Joy, 

— God save the King! 

' 'so' is written over another number (3), and the words after 'Piccadilly' are 
added in a different hand. 

177 N 


Pitt and Dundas both had houses at Wimbledon. For their heavy drink- 
ing cf. Nos. 8683, 8798, 8799. Cf. also No. 7282. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 189. Wright and Evans, No. 125. Reprinted, G.W^.G., 


Drawn from Nature. Will"* Hanlon Sculpt^ 
Pub. May 2y iyg5 by S W. Fores 3 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). George III, wearing a cocked hat and 
holding up a large sabre, marches in profile to the 1. at the head of a body 
of maimed, decrepit, and ragged soldiers. First is a group of four, three 
with muskets, one hobbling on crutches. Then a one-armed officer hold- 
ing up a sword, followed by three soldiers marching together. All the 
soldiers are thin, in contrast to the King. Below the design: See! See! the 
Conquering Hero comes!!! 

For a similar attack on the King cf. No. 8516. Cf. also No. 8328, &c. 
8|xi3f in. 


J* & des"* etfec^ — Pu¥ May 28^^ 1795- by H. Humphrey N. 57 New 
Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Design in an oval. An 
enlarged version of No. 8601, with the same inscription. A cruel rendering 
of the subject. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 187-8. Wright and Evans, No. 121. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
10^X7! in. 

designed by F' D Esq' [Gillray f.] 

Pu¥ June i^' I795 by H. Humphrey N. 37. New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured^ impressions). John Bull's head and 
shoulders emerge from a gigantic coffee-mill. He is being ground by Pitt 
into guineas which pour from the spout of the machine into the inverted 
coronet of the Prince of Wales, held out by the Prince (1.). John Bull, his 
hands clasped, shrieks Murder! Murder! Pitt (r.), both hands on the 
handle, is working hard, stripped to his shirt. His coat lies across an enor- 
mous heap of guineas on which he rests his 1. knee. He says: God save 
great George our Ki . . . Behind him, and in the upper r. corner of the 
design, is the croviTi, the centre of a sun whose rays extend behind Pitt's 
head, with the words: Grind away! grind away grind away Billy! never 
mind his bawling! grind away. Other words from the crown are directed 
towards the victim: What! — What! — what! Murder hay? why, you poor 
Stupe, is it not for the good of your Country? hay? hay. Between Pitt and 
the post of the mill Dundas and Burke are grovelling for guineas: Burke, 
frowning, uses both hands ; Dundas, who wears a plaid, fills his Scots cap. 

. ' E. Hawkins has written 'Handlung' below the signaUire. 
* In 'Caricatvires', iv. 68. 



Behind the post Loughborough grovels, his elongated judge's wig turned 
in back view (cf. No. 6796). 

The Prince (r.) wearing a Garter ribbon, with the letters G.P on the 
jewel, kneels on one knee, his head turned in back view; he points out his 
harvest of coins to a row of creditors. These stand in a row on the 1. : 
a jockey, probably Chifney (given a pension by the Prince, see No. 7918), 
holds out a paper: Debts of Honor. Next, a bearded Jew holds out a paper 
headed Money Lent at £500 p^ Cent, Next is Mrs. Fitzherbert (carica- 
tured) and another woman ( ? Mrs. Crouch) ; others are indicated. Behind 
this group is part of the colonnade and fa9ade of Carlton House. 

For the Prince's debts, see No. 8673, &c. Burke was given a pension 
of ;Ci,2oo on the civil list (30 Aug. 1795) for the lives of himself and his 
wife, and a further pension of ^^2,500. Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, "• 
107-8. See Nos. 8704, 8788, 8792, &c. Nos. 8998, 9025, 9400 are similar 
themes (Pitt and Dundas, encouraged by George III, exploit John Bull). 
Cf. Nos. 8808, 8836, 9508. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 188. Wright and Evans, No. 124. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
9^X13 fin. 

f Gy des"" et fed 

Pu¥ June 4*^ 1795- by H. Humphrey N, 37 New Bond Street 
Aquatint (coloured impression). Pitt as Death on the pale Horse rides 
naked on the White Horse of Hanover, galloping over the prostrate bodies 
of pigs ; other pigs, a multitude extending to the horizon, flee before him. 
On the horse's fringed saddle-cloth is a crown. Pitt is very emaciated, his 
flaming hair streams behind him encircled by a fillet inscribed Destruction. 
In his r. hand is a large flaming sword; in his 1. he holds the thread-like 
body of a scaly monster with gaping jaws, webbed wings, and serpent's 
tail. Behind him on the horse's hind quarters sits a naked imp wearing 
the feathered coronet of the Prince of Wales, with the motto Ich di[en]. 
He grasps Pitt, and kisses his posterior; in his 1. hand he holds out a paper: 
Provision for the Millenium £123,000 p^ A**. The horse's tail streams out, 
expanding into clouds, and merging with the flames of Hell which rise 
from the extreme r. In the tail and flames imps are flying, headed by 
Dundas holding a pitchfork; he wears a wig and plaid with horns and 
webbed wings. Behind are three imps : Loughborough, indicated as usual 
by an elongated judge's wig in back view (cf. No. 6796); Burke with 
webbed wings and serpent's tail ; Pepper Arden^ wearing a large wig. 

In the foreground (r.) Pitt's opponents are being kicked towards Hell 
by the horse's hind legs. Fox has just been violently struck in the face, 
and staggers backwards, clutching a paper inscribed Peace. Sheridan lies 
prone, face downwards, hands raised, as if for mercy. Wilberforce sits on 
the ground clasping his Motion for a Peace (see No. 8637). Behind Fox 
Lansdowne looks up from the ground, clenching his fists. On the extreme 
r. the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Stanhope, and the Duke of Grafton are about 
to plunge into the flames: Fox in falling is pushing them over. 

The title continues : — zoith The Destruction of the Faithful, as Revealed 
to R: Brothers, the Prophet, <£f attested by M. B. Hallhead Esq \ ''And e'er 
the Last Days began, I looked, & behold, a White Horse, & his Name who 

' Identified by Wright and Evans as Lord Kenyon. The identification in the 
text is confirmed by Lord Holland. 



sat upon it was Death: & Hell followed after him; & Power was given unto 
him to kill with the | " Sword, & zvith Famine, & with Death; And I saw 
under him the Souls of the Multitude, those who were destroyed for maintaing 
[sic] the word of Truth, & for the Testimony — 

For the prophecies of Brothers see No. 8627, &c. Halhed, M.P. for 
Lymington, spoke in behalf of the prophet and his prophecies in Parlia- 
ment on 31 Mar. and 21 Apr. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1413-28. Stanhope, 
Life of Pitt, 1879, "• ^°3- -^^^^ tramples on the 'swinish multitude', see 
No. 8500, &c. For the provision for the Prince of Wales on his marriage 
see No. 8673, &c. ; actually he thought that Pitt had tricked him over the 
amount. Wilberforce is included on account of his motion for peace on 
27 May 1795 (Pari. Hist, xxxii. i ff.); cf. No. 8637. 'Death on the pale 
Horse' was a favourite subject, engravings after paintings by Mortimer and 
West were popular. For the White Horse of Hanover cf. No. 8691. The 
contrast with No. 8644 is noteworthy. 

A copy, c. loX II in., Js. Gy des, was issued without imprint (A. de R. 
XV. 126). 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 189-90 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 127. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., No. 127. 
iif X 14!^ in. 

8655 A A copy etched by G. Cruikshank for a work which Hone intended 
to publish in defence of his 'Political Litany' and other pamphlets for 
which he was tried and acquitted, December 1817. Reid, No. 711. 


J' Gy des*" et fed 

Pu¥ June 8*^ 1795- by H. Humphrey N. 57. New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 8659. Gren- 
ville seated in an ornate armchair peers near-sightedly at a map of The 
Globe in two hemispheres which he holds up to his face. The eastern 
hemisphere, at which he is not looking, shows an exaggeratedly large tract 
of French Conquests. His posteriors and legs, very solid in No. 8659, are 
thin. He sits before a light rectangular table on which are ink-stand and 
pens and two books, Court Calender and Locke on Human Understanding (as 
in No. 8659). On the wall are two pictures, the subjects merely indicated : 
The Treasury (1.) shows the arched gate and stone wall of many satires; 
Brittania Triumphant: Britannia seated with spear and shield. A patterned 
carpet completes the design. 

Grenville fixes his attention on scarcely visible successes in the W. Indies, 
ignoring the French conquests in Europe. The 'Court Calender' and 'The 
Treasury' indicate eagerness for the perquisites of office, cf. No. 8061 
io|X7| -m. 

8657 WHAT A CUR 'TIS! 

Pu¥June 9** 1795, by H. Humphrey N 37 New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Lord Howe sits full-face in an arm- 
chair, reading a Gazette headed June J^' 1795- He wears naval uniform 
with a hat, smokes a long pipe and scowls meditatively. A dog with the 



head of Sir Roger Curtis grovels at his feet, kissing his r. toe; he has a 
collar inscribed Black Dick's Dog. Behind Howe is a row of windows close 
together, with a view of the sea and ships. Beneath the windows is a broad 
shelf on which are wine-bottles, a sextant, and a punch-bowl. On a table 
at Howe's r. hand are a glass of wine and a plan of Torhay. Beneath the 
title : Done from an Original Drawing by a British Officer — & published as 
a Guide to Preferment. 

Curtis was Howe's flag-captain, and was captain of the Queen Charlotte 
during the battle of the First of June, see No, 8469, &c. It was asserted 
that his advice checked the pursuit of the defeated enemy. On 4 July 
1794 he was made rear-admiral and in the following September was 
created a baronet. For the implications of Torbay see No. 8352, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 190. Wright and Evans, No. 128. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


Pu¥ June J2'* 1795 by H. Humphrey N° 37 New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull, blindfolded, is being robbed 
and bullied by the powers of Europe who are urged on by Pitt. He stands 
in back view, without his coat, leaning forward with outstretched arms, 
wearing the wrinkled gaiters by which Gillray denotes the countryman 
(cf. No. 8141, &c.). The Emperor (1.), wearing a crown and a long ermine- 
lined robe decorated with a Habsburg eagle, leans forward from the 1., and 
furtively picks his pocket. He holds a document inscribed Imperial Loan. 
Prussia, as a Death's Head hussar, stands full-face near the Emperor and 
snaps his fingers at John Bull, holding out in triumph a money-bag 
inscribed £2000000. On the r. John is assailed by France and Holland : a 
lean and ragged sansculotte with clenched fists kicks him behind; a fat 
Dutchman, holding a tobacco-pipe, puffs a blast of smoke in his face. On 
the extreme 1. Pitt stands in profile to the r., holding John Bull's coat and 
putting his hand into its pocket, he says: Go it, my Honies, go it! Supple 
him a little! Supple him! 

The print reflects the attacks on the loan to the Emperor, 28 May, 
3 June, 10 June, when the folly of the subsidy to Prussia in 1794 (used for 
the Partition of Poland, cf. No. 8477) was adduced. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 37- 
45 ; see also xxxi. 1294, 1344, 1558 ff. For the burden of subsidies cf. 
No. 8821, &c. For the conquest of Holland and the fraternization of the 
Dutch with the French, see No. 8608, &c. One of many satires on the 
burdens of the war, cf. No. 8646. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 189. Wright and Evans, No. 126. Van Stolk, No. 
5316. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 


J' Gy des" etfed 

Pu¥ June 13^^ 1795, by H. Humphrey N 37 New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). A companion print to No. 8656. Gren- 
ville stands on a hearth-rug, his back to a blazing fire (r.), holding up to 
his face an open book inscribed: Fundamental Principles of Government 



for I'^gS, at which he looks sideways and near-sightedly. He raises his 
coat-tails to warm his bulky posteriors, his 1. hand in his breeches pocket. 
On the chimney-piece lie two books: Court Cookery and Locke on Human 
Understanding. Hanging above it is a Map of British Victories on the Conti- 
nent on which confused scrawls are depicted. On the back wall (1.) is a 
bracket supporting a bowl of gold-fish, above which is a picture of the 
Treasury Bench : three Ministers seated as if in Parliament, in back view 
with their coats drawn aside to show their bulky posteriors ; the wall of the 
Treasury forms a background. Beneath the title is etched in two columns : 
"Lord-Pogy boasts no common share of head; 
"What plenteous stores of knowledge may contain 
**The spacious tenement of Fogy's brain! 
"Nature in all her dispensation wise, 
"Who formed his head-piece of so vast a size^ 
Hath noty 'tis true, neglected to bestow 
Its due proportion on the part below; 
And hence we reason, that to serve the state 
His top & bottom, may have equal weight J" 
A satire on Grenville's eagerness for lucrative office, and on the failures 
of the continental campaigns of 1794-5, as in No. 8656. Grenville was 
noted for the heaviness of his posteriors, here caricatured. See No. 9569. 
Grego, Gillray, p. 191 ; Wright and Evans, No. 129. Reprinted, G.W.G., 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ June 1$ 1795 by S W Fores N° 50 the corner of Sackville St 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.) and Fox (r.), as pigs, but each 
with his own head, sit on two chairs almost back to back ; each looks over 
his shoulder at the other. Pitt, alert and complacent, his powdered hair 
dressed high and with his queue in a bag, says Poor Piggy. Fox, swarthy 
and unkempt, answers: You be Damd. Below Pitt: A Guinea Pig (see 
No. 8628) ; below Fox : A Pig without a Guinea. 

In the background are other pigs on a small scale and without human 
heads, some wearing powdered wigs, others without wigs. Two couples 
of pigs sit facing each other at small round tables : one couple in argument, 
the other playing cards ; these are behind Fox. Two bewigged pigs stand 
one on each side of a counter on which are coins ; this is Sinking Fund (see 
No. 7551, &c.). Two others (1.) approach a counter behind which stands 
a pig receiving guineas ; behind him is a guillotine inscribed Nob Office. 

A satire on Pitt's hair-powder Tax, see No. 8629, &c. Cf. No. 8663. 
A covert threat is perhaps implied, cf. No. 8365. 
8fXi4^ in. 


FT [? L Cruikshank.] June i<f [1795] 

Pen and water-colour; design for a print. The Duke of York (1.) and the 
Prince of Wales (r.) stand one on each side of a church door, each holding 



out a collecting-plate, and each saying, Pray remember the poor Charity 
Children of S^ Jam^ parish. Behind, a crowd of men leave the Church, 
Pitt holding out a plate to them, saying. What is £130,000 p'' Ann when 
you consider the price of provisions & other things pray remember. Three 
labels rise from the heads of the reluctant congregation (M.P.s): / have 
disinherited my own Son for contracting Debts at Brothels & gaming Tables; 
At the last Charity Sermon both his Father &" he promised, that he sh^ not 
become chargeable to the parish again ; This Begging is made a Trade of. 

The tiny Duchess of York, also holding a plate, stands with her 1. hand 
under the Duke's arm, saying, I was born in a strange Land of honest Parents, 
but their characters are neither here nor there pray remember. The Princess 
of Wales, three ostrich plumes in her hair, stands with her plate behind 
the Prince's back, looking at him reproachfully over her r. shoulder and 
saying, / came here naked & he hath half covered me pray remember. On the 
extreme r. stands the stout Mrs. Fitzherbert in profile to the 1., clutching 
papers inscribed 6000 P*" Ann (see No. 8485) ; she says: It's always good to 
have something in hand. The Duke of Clarence, wearing striped sailor's 
trousers and a cocked hat, stands on the extreme 1. with an infant (one of 
the Fitzclarences) in his arms; he holds a paper (or collecting-box): 
][^rs Jordans Night. The infant holds a paper : For the Benefit ofM''^ Jordan 
— a new Way to pay Old Debts the part of S'' Giles Overreach by Tkf George, 
being his second Appearance in that Character. (Massinger's comedy, re- 
vived several times in the eighteenth century.) The Duke looks down 
disconsolately as if aware that he would have no share in the collection 
but would be forced to rely on his mistress's earnings. 

In the background the King and Queen are seated on one horse as in 
No. 6918, a sign-post pointing To Windsor. The King says: / never inter- 
fere in Parish Business they must provide for their own poor. The Queen 
says : Charity begins at home Love who knows what we may all come to. (Cf . 
No. 7836.) 

A satire on the debates (27 Apr. and 14 May) on the King's message 
asking for an establishment for the Prince and Princess of Wales and for 
the payment of the Prince's debts. Grey protested that this was the second 
application 'and that, too, after a solemn promise had been made, that no 
future debt should be incurred'. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 1465 ff. At charity 
sermons, the most important being the annual one in St. Paul's for London 
charity-schools, some of the children who would benefit held collecting- 
plates. For the Prince's debts see No. 8673, &c. The Dukes of York and 
Clarence were also heavily in debt, see No. 8666, and cf. No. 9033. For 
food-prices, see No. 8665, &c. 


[?L Cruikshank.] 

Published, June 2&^ 1802. by H. Humphrey S^ James's Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design in two compartments. On the 
1. is a tall officer standing stiffly in profile to the r., his elbow to his side 
and holding his drawn sabre erect. He has a grotesquely long and project- 
ing nose. On the r. a short, fat officer stands full-face, his 1. hand on the 
hilt of his sword. 

They are identified by Lord Holland as Lord Salisbury (1.), see No. 8649, 



and General Grant. James Grant (1720-1806), M.P. for Sutherlandshire, 
Lt.-General 1782, General 1796, was noted for his love of good living and 
was excessively corpulent. See D.N.B. Warley camp in Essex (used in 
the American War, cf. No. 5489) was established in June 1795, with six 
militia and two regular regiments, with Cornwallis as Commander-in- 
Chief. Lond. Chron.y 4 June 1795. 

Presumably a reissue of a plate published in 1795.' 
8x9! in. 

[R. Newton.] 

London Pu¥ by R. Newton N" 20 Wallhrook July i ijgs 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, with the body of a pig or boar, 
stands in profile to the r. holding a board on his head on which stand little 
pigs on their hind legs, with human heads. He is very fat and swarthy 
with a tail more like that of a lion than of a pig. Pitt is much the largest 
of the pigs on the board, he wears powdered hair with a bag, but has no 
tail. He is surrounded by other little pigs who appear to be dancing, much 
amused, all wearing powdered wigs. Fox sings : 
Here is a long tail Pig and a short tail Pig, and a Pig without ever A Tail 
Here are Guinea Pigs and sucking Pigs with a remarkable pretty Guinea 
Pig that has never a Tail! 

A satire on Pitt's hair-powder tax, see No. 8629, &c. For the guinea- 
pig see No. 8628. Cf. No. 8660. 
13^X9! in, (pi.). 


Pub July 6 1795 by J Aitken Castle 5' Leicester Squa^^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, much caricatured, rides John Bull 
who walks (1. to r.) on his hands and feet. He flourishes a scourge with 
four lashes inscribed respectively: War. War. War.; Tax Tax Tax; 
Opression Opression ; Monopoly (cf. No. 9546). A heavy bit is in John Bull's 
mouth, and Pitt wears top-boots with vicious spurs. He says: Ge up 
Johnny Fll stick Cloose to you my Boy. From his coat-pocket protrudes a 
paper: The Art arui mistery of managing Neddys. His saddle and saddle- 
cloth are inscribed: Princes D[ebts1 (see No. 8673, &c.), Princ^\ Tax on 
HairPowde[r] (see No. 8629, &c.), National Db^, Imperial Loan, New Loan, 
Subsidies (see Nos. 8658, 8821, &c.). John Bull, a stout citizen with unkempt 
hair, says: What, What, What, Maister Billy is it come to this you load me 
so zoith Taxes I must rise for want of Bread. The opening words and a mile- 
stone (1.) To Stjames^, show that John Bull is also George III, though he 
has little resemblance to the King. 

In the background (r.) a crowd of plainly-dressed and respectable men 
is being addressed by an orator. From the back of the sea of heads a few 
sticks or weapons are raised. A sign-post is inscribed S^ Georg^ Fields. 

On 29 June, while riots due to dearth were going on throughout the 
country, the Corresponding Society (see No. 9189, &c.) held a large meet- 
ing in St. George's Fields, demanding annual parliaments and manhood 

' An almost obliterated inscription appears to be : Publishd May i I7g6 by . . . 
King Street. 



suifrage, and speedy peace with 'the brave French Republic'. Biscuits 
were distributed embossed 'Freedom and Plenty, or Slavery and Want'. 
The chainnan was John Gale Jones. See Lond. Chron., 30 June (where 
the meeting is described as composed of 'the lowest class of the people'); 
History of Two Acts . . ., 1796; Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, ii. 111-12. 
Cf. No. 8685. Pitt's house in Downing Street was mobbed in June. 
Ashbourne, Pitt, 1898, p. 163. One of many satires on the dearth and 
discontent of 1795, see Nos. 8669, 8671, 8672, 8676, 8680, 8681, 8701, 
8707, 8708. For food prices see No. 8665. Cf. also No. 8687, &c. For 
the dearth of 1799- 1800 cf. No. 9545, &c. 

A print was 'shewn about' on 10 July 'evidently designed by some 
seditious persons to influence the minds of the people by the late rise in 
the price of bread. It exhibits a large tree, with innumerable branches, 
from which, by way of fruit are suspended loaves of bread! different joints 
of meat! heads of cabbage! a bottle, with "Gin" inscribed upon it. Under 
these several men are sitting, with their mouths wide open and these words 
printed on a label — "if you don't fall I must rise". The Ministers and 
other personages are represented at some distance diverting themselves 
with the misery of the scene.' Oracle, 11 July 1795. 


A SUBSTITUTE FOR BREAD, vide Message to Lord Mayor. 
f Gy das'" etfed 

Pub^ July 6'* 1795. by H. Humphrey N° 37. New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (r.), as a butcher, stands arrogantly 
behind his block, holding up a leg of mutton to a hungry, lean, and dis- 
mayed John Bull, who stands with bent knees (1.), his r. hand groping in 
his breeches pocket. Pitt says: A Crown, — take it, or leave't. His cleaver 
lies on his blood-stained block, on the front of which are two placards side 
by side : 

Prices of Provision. 1795 Journeymans Wages — 1795 

Mutton 10^^ {f). Carpenters 12^^ p'' Week 

Lamb 11 D° 

Veal III Do 

Beef 12 DP 

Small Beer — 2^p^ Quart 

Bread 12^ 

/)' Quarter Loaf 

God save the King. 

Behind Pitt is the pent-house roof of the shop or stall from the front 
of which hang joints of meat and pieces of offal. The lower story of a 
house forms a background (1.). John Bull wears the dress and wrinkled 
gaiters of a yokel. Beneath the title: 

Billy the Butcher's advice to John Bull. 
Since Bread is so dear, (and you say you must Eat,) 
For to save the Expence, you must live upon Meat; 
And as Twelve Pence the Quartern you can't pay for Bread 
Get a Crown's worth of Meat, — it will serve in its stead. 
The high price of food, especially of wheat owing to the bad harvest of 
1794, caused great distress and many riots in 1795. Many proposals were 
made for substitutes for wheat, &c. See the Minutes of Evidence to the 


















Committee of Council, 31 Jan. to 6 Aug. 1795, Ann. Reg., 1795, pp. 93*- 
104*; Burke's Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, a memorandum to Pitt, 
Nov. 1795, printed in i8oo in relation to the dearth of that year (see No. 
9545); and Nos. 8648, 8661, 8671, 8681, 8707, 8801. Cf. No. 8664, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 191. Wright and Evans, No. 130. Reprinted, G.W.G., 

8665 A A copy, Jos Gillray des*, faces p. 60 in The Caricatures of Gillray. 
7|X5| in. With border, 9jx6| in. B.M.L., 745. a. 6. 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub July 12 lygs by S W Fores iV" 50 Piccadily 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three blue-coat boys, wearing long blue 
gowns with yellow stockings, stand in the foreground holding out collecting- 
bowls ; they look through a doorway into the House of Commons whose 
benches recede in perspective, the Speaker (Addington) being in his chair. 
They are the Prince of Wales (r.), the Duke of York (1.), and the Duke of 
Clarence (c.) whose bowl is an emblem of Mrs. Jordan, see No. 7908, &c. 
They diminish in height in order of age, and are in back view with heads 
turned in profile. 

Fox is making a speech from the front Opposition bench; Pitt is con- 
spicuous on the other side. Behind the Government benches stands the 
Devil, pointing at Pitt. These figures are slightly sketched and on a small 
scale; the heads of spectators in the galleries are indicated. See No. 8661. 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

Pub by S W Fores N $0^ Piccadilly London jully 24 ijgS 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Lady Jersey sits in 
an arm-chair leaning back with a pained expression while two ladies wash 
her face which has the complexion of a mulatto. A miniature of the Prince 
hangs at her waist. The Prince of Wales (1.) crouches at her feet in profile 
to the r., holding out a basin in both hands. He says: Another Scrub & 
then!! take more water. She says: Does it look any whiter. The lady on 
the r. holds a scrubbing-brush and puts a soap-ball to Lady Jersey's face, 
saying. You may as well attempt to remove the Island of Jersey to the Highest 
Mountain in Wales. The other (1.), who wipes the face with a towel, says: 
This stain will remain for ever. On the extreme 1., standing in a doorway, 
is the Princess of Wales ^she looks at Lady Jersey with a pleased expression, 
saying. It vont do she must put on anoder face. She wears three feathers in 
her hair with the motto Ich dien. On the extreme r. is a dressing-table ; 
beneath it sits a dog with an amused expression. 

Lady Jersey, the Prince's mistress, see No. 8485, was one of four Ladies 
of the Bedchamber to the Princess, and was at this time in attendance on 
her at Brighton. Lond. Chron., 2, 16, 20 July 1795. She was not dismissed 
till after the separation between the Prince and Princess. 

Reproduced, Paston, PI. clxxvii. 
8jxi2| in. 

mie number '50' appears to be etched over '3*. 



[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub July 27. lygs by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). George III dressed as a farmer, and Pitt 
as a drover, drive a herd of pigs towards a building inscribed Licence office 
and Pigs Meat sold Here. The King, on the extreme 1., pushes forward a 
boar which snarls angrily; he wears a short smock with top-boots. The 
Queen, a skinny and ugly farmer's wife, stands facing him on the extreme 
r., taking snuff. Pitt, in violent action, brandishing a club, wears a badge 
on his arm numbered 45, he strides in profile to the r., saying to the Queen: 
Why Don't you drive them in? you stand there taking your Snuff & mind 
nothing else. She answers: Don't you hurry any Man's Cattle but your own: 
aye Poor things, indeed I do not like to drive any Poor Woman's Pigs so. I have 
had fourteen of my own & certainly must know the value of Pigs. The King 
says : Don't be rash, consider the rugged road they have Traveled so long: I am 
astonished we have got them so far!!! I think they rather seem to grunt a 
little — if they once turn the Devil can't stop them. One pig has the head of 
a woman with a feather in her coiffure. Another, with an expression of 
surly resignation, wears a rectangular yoke inscribed No Grumbling (see 
No. 8646, &c.). 

A satire on the hair-powder tax, see No. 8629, &c., as well as on the 
general burden of taxation and on the relations between the King and Pitt. 
For the guinea-pig see No. 8628. 

8669 A LOCUST 
WOK [O'Keefe.] 

Pub. by J: Aitken Castle Street Leicester Fields Aug^ i. 1795 
Engraving. A grotesque locust with the head of Pitt, its four legs termina- 
ting in bird's claws, walks upon the large oval links of a chain fastened in 
a circle by a padlock (r.). The head, much caricatured, has a large predatory 
mouth with a protruding tongue, from which issue the words : / feed on 
a Lands Destruction. His hair is erect and frizzed (in reference to the hair- 
powder tax, see No. 8629, &c.), and his queue is in a bag. Within six of the 
ten links is a word : Oppression, War, Destruction, War, Famine, War. Within 
the circle : Poor Old England link'd in Trouble. Pitt is advancing towards 
the coast (1.), where there is a notice-board: Towards France. Beneath the 
title : A Dreadful Devouring Insect, an Emblem of Destruction & Famine. 

One of many prints showing Pitt's growing unpopularity, owing to taxes, 
dearth, and military failure, see No. 8664, &c. For high food-prices see 
No. 8665, &c. News of the disaster of Quiberon reached London on 
29th July, after a succession of contradictory rumours. Lond. Chron., 
July 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 30, &c. See Windham Papers, 1913, i. 280, 325-9, 
&c. ; Navy Records Soc, Spencer Papers, ed. J. S. Corbett, i. 63-70; 
Fortescue, Hist, of the Br. Army, iv. 416-23 ; and Nos. 8676, 8678, 9046, 
9156, 9157, 9231. For Pitt as a devouring insect see also Nos. 8672, 8676, 
8805, 8996. 

8670 THE INCENDIARY [i Aug. 1795] 
PI. to Carlton House Magazine, iv. 225. A reissue of No. 7900 (1791), a 
portrait of Tom Paine, pen in hand. 

. B.M.L., PP. 5448. 




Pub Aug'' 13 1795 hy S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the Corner of 
Sackville S' Folioes of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving. John Bull lies on his back in bed, his mouth gaping; Pitt, a 
goblin creature, sits on his chest in profile to the r., holding above his 
upturned head a loaf inscribed 13 Pence. Pitt has a huge head, much 
caricatured, with starting eyeballs ; his hair stands up and the bag of his 
queue, inscribed Taxes, flies out behind him. Through a casement window 
(1.) looks a fantastic French republican, with bulging eyeballs and fang-like 
teeth, glaring at John Bull ; from his neck hangs the model of a guillotine. 
Behind his head is a waning moon. Beside him are the words: Republic 
War and Famine far Ever. Beneath the bed is a chamber-pot inscribed 
John Bull; beside it is a chair on which stands a candle. 

One of many satires on the burdens of war and dearth in 1795, see 
No. 8664, &c. A travesty of Fuseli's Nightmare, cf. Nos. 6543, 8555, 9371. 
8|-xi3f in. 

[I. Cruikshank,] 

Pu¥ August 14 lygs by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly The the [sic] 
Corner of Sackvill S' Folios of Caricatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, with the body of a gigantic locust 
(see No. 8669), stands on a citadel with low battlemented walls, enclosing 
a circular space inscribed Poor Old England (the last word written r. to 1. 
and in reverse). The locust-body stretches across the whole enclosure at 
one end of which is a dilapidated tree : The Remains of the Old Constitution 
(r.). Only a few tattered leaves are left on its bare branches and these Pitt 
is eating. He bites a leaf inscribed Sinecures; other leaves are Pen[sion\, 
Place, {Pensilon. He says : / must take care of my self & my own Relations. 
Above his head a swarm of locusts with human heads flies (1. to r.) ; they 
are French Priests. 

The boundary wall of England is inscribed (exterior): War, Excessive 
Taxes, Foreign Loans, Subsidies [see Nos. 8658, 8821, &c.]. Guarantees, 
Treachery of Allies, Monopoly. (Interior) : Dearth of Pro', Civel Discord 
[see No. 8664, &c.]. The Unprincipal Opposition, Extrovigant Pr[ic]es, 
Professed Atheism amongs[t] the Great, Immense Debt. 

Pitt's only sinecure was the Wardenship of the Cinque Ports, see No. 
8135, &c., the titles accruing to the office were exploited, see No. 8676. 
He was accused of being unduly anxious to give his brother important 
offices. Ashbourne, Pitt, 1898, p. 178. His house in Downing Street was 
mobbed in July. Ibid., p. 163. Chatham, on retiring from the Admiralty 
on 20 Dec. 1794, was appointed Lord Privy Seal and was promoted major- 
general in 1795. For the swarm of French priests cf. No. 8127 (1792). 
'Treachery of Allies' was exemplified in the treaties of peace between 
France and Prussia, 5 Apr., and Holland, 16 May, and Spain, 22 July (a 
great blow to Pitt, see letter of 3 Aug. 1795, Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, 
ii. 130). One of many satires on the burden of taxes and the dearth of 
1795, see No. 8664, &c. This dearth was ascribed by some to 'monopoly', 
cf. Rose, Pitt and the Great War, p. 284, and No. 9546. Cf. No. 8496. 



IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub August 20 iyg5 by S W Fores N" 50 Picadilly Folios 
of Caracatures Lent out 

Engraving. Four men seated at an oblong table examine women who claim 
to be creditors of the Prince of Wales. A sour-looking man presides (r.), „ 

behind him is a mountainous pile of documents inscribed with sums of (J , L 
money ranging from 100 000 to 100 ; two are inscribed Bond, one is 5000 
Per Ann M''^ Fitz (cf. No. 8485). One is 5000 Morning Post (an echo of 
the Regency crisis, see No. 7510, when the Prince bought a share in the 
paper). The other three commissioners are on the chairman's r., facing 
the spectator. One (1.), younger than the others, is engrossed with a 
courtesan who stands beside him, showing him her long bill; above her 
head is etched: oui. oui. Valine received on Acont. The other three are 
intent on a good-looking woman who stands in front of the table, turning 
her back on them, but looking over her shoulder to throw towards them 
a torn paper: Bond \ 10,000 G P. She says, / dispise him & his obliga- 
tion too!!! (Perhaps an echo of the affair with Perdita Robinson. See 
No. 6318.) 

At the bottom of the table (1.) is a group of women holding their bills. 
Among them is a bearded Jew, saying. Mind. Value received is the Counter- 
sign. The others include an ugly little hunchback, a fan in one hand, an 
enormous scroll in the other resting on the ground, on which are many 
items ranging from 50 to 1000. A pregnant woman holds a bill : Nin month 
after Date 5000. A miniature of the Prince hangs at her waist. The 
remaining four include a negress (cf. No. 8634) and a hideous and over- 
dressed crone supported on a crutch and a stick. 

The provision for an annuity for the Prince of Wales and for the pay- 
ment of his debts was embodied in an Act (35 George III, c. 129), under 
which Commissioners were appointed with powers to examine his creditors 
on oath. They were five great officers of state named in the Act (the 
Speaker, Chancellor of the Exchequer, &c.), who are clearly not depicted 
here. They held a regular court and abated all claims by 10 per cent. 
Only debts for which value received could be shown were accepted. No 
claims were to be received after i Sept. 1795. For the debts and the settle- 
ment see Huish, Memoirs of George IV, 1830, i, 336-83 ; E, H. Lloyd, 
George IV, 1830, pp. 170-82; P. Fitzgerald, Life of George IV, 1881, 
p. 295, and Nos. 8610, 8634, 8646, 8650, 8654, 8655, 8661, 8664, 8666, 
cf. No. 8487. 


[de Roc] 

Engraving, A French print. The figures, animals with quasi-human 
heads, have numbers referring to verses engraved below the design, a 
'Vaudeville' headed Pot-pourri dramatique. In the centre foreground a fox 
sits on a cushion at a stone block which serves as writing-table, and on 

' This print was dated 1795, and is unfortunately misplaced. 


which is a bag of guineas ; his tail extends over other money-bags. He is 
iV" I. Pitt-Renard. He sings two verses: 


Or icoutez grands et petits, . . . 
Si la f ranee n'a le dessous, 
Vous serez decouronnes tons. 

Ne comptez plus sur les combats; 
Vos Generaux et vos soldats 
Ne font contre la carmagnole 
Rien qWune defense frivole : 
Or les gens qu'on ne pent dompter 
Je crois qu'ilfaut les acheter. 

Above his head, on a flat rock extending from the 1. across the greater 
part of the design, is a bird-cage in which is an almost featherless turkey- 
cock with the head of George HI, his long neck (1.) pushed through the 
bars. He is N° 2. Georges-Dindon (deriving from Georges Dandin, see 
No. 8464, &c.), singing: 

Achetter tout a prix d'argent 

Allies et marine, 
Charete, Hebert, mon Parlement, 

Tout cela me ruine 
Vous m'avez fait perdre V esprit 

Dans ce remu-menage, 
Prenez done garde, Monsieur Pitt 
De renverser ma cage. 

Standing on the rock (I.) is a tall ostrich, Francis H, denuded of tail- 
feathers and with a Habsburg eagle on his head : N" 3. Francois- Autruche, 
looking down at the much smaller turkey. He sings: 

Ah! Georges, pour nous remplumer, 

Faisons des emprunts de commande, 

Car ces franeais me font trembler 

Pour la Belgique et la Hollande: 

Craignons que, si la liberie 

Gagne I'un et Vautre hemisphere, 

Le sceptre ne nous soil oti 

Vous pour la mer, moi pour la terre. 

On the r. of the turkey's cage sits a sow suckling two small pigs, beside 
her and leaning against a tree-trunk which forms the centre of the design 
is a shield bearing the Russian eagle. She is A^" 4. Ulmperatrice de Russie 
allaitant les deux freres du tyran Capet. [Below] A^" 4. Catherine-Lay e. 
Je compte peu sur vos suecds 
Et vous ne me verrez jamais 
Vous aider qu'en promesse. 
A tromper hiboux et dindons, . . . 
Epuisez vous dans le Brabant 
Et vous rrCassurerez d'autant 
Du grand croissant 
Le sceptre attrayant 
Qui m'occupe sans cesse. [See No. 7843 , &c.] 



N" 5. Stathouder (see No. 8822) is a small frog squatting in the fore- 
ground (1.), looking towards Pitt: A^" 5. Orange-Crapaud: 

Un peu trop au frais 

Dans mes grands marais 
Je crains d'enf oncer, je tremble 

Guillaume accourez 

Et me secourez •_ 

Pitt "vous a payi je tremble . . . 

Car les Polonois 
De vous sont si pres 
Que pour nos Etatsje tremble. [See No. 8483.] 

On a tree on the extreme 1. sits an owl, A^" 6 Roi de Prusse, (below) 
Guillaume-Hibou. To its branch is tied a bottle and wine-glass; a vine 
climbs up the tree. He answers the Stadholder: 

Si vous me connaissez Hen, 
Frere, ne redoutez rien. 
Ma profonde politique 
Dans la nuit, surtout s'applique 
A calculer les hazards, . . . 

Above his head flies a small bat: N° 7. La Stathoudirienne-Chouette 
[his sister, see No. 7181]. 

Qu£ vous devez Stre content 
Mon frere, voila de V argent: 
Pitt se pavanne en le comptant, 

Voyez comme il roule, 

Devancez lafoule 
Des rois mendians que Von va voir 

Accourir pour en recevoir. 

Standing below the tree and on the extreme 1. is a large pig, excreting, 
N° 8 Brunstdck-Cochon. 

Avec Guillaume de Berlin 

yaifais une campagne, 

Tout expres pour gouter le vm 

Des coteaux de Champagne. . . . [See No. 8125, &c.] 

Betweens Nos. 2 and 3 sits a ram with long horns looking to the 1. 
Beside him is a sceptre lying on two grenades. He is N° 9. Roi d'Espagne, 
[below] Charles-Belier: 

Voila done ou nous mene 

La coalition! 
Servir Vambition 
^ De Londres et de Vienne. . . . 

Je crains que Vinquisitton, 
Malgre tant de contrition 
Ne me laisse . . . mes cornes . . . 

(an allusion to Godoy). 

At the foot of the rock on which Charles IV sits are N" 10. Roi de Naples, 
an emaciated dog, and N° 11 Peine de Portugal, a naked woman with the 



legs of a monkey, sitting close to Pitt's table. The former, Ferdinand- 
Chien, sings: 

Monfrere, helas! 
Entre le Vesuve et la guerre. 

Quel embarras! 
Vous m'avez jette dans le laz, 
A ce tripot qu'avois-je a /aire? 
Acton, ma femme ont fait V affaire; 
Plaignez mon cas. 

iV" II. Marie-Guenon [see No. 8143]. 
Je suis reine du Bresil 
Je vends du tabac en boutique. 
Pourquoi done Pitt le subtil 
M'a t'il embrouille dans ce fil 
Que met tant de rois en peril 
Contre une seule republique. . . . 

Ferdinand perhaps addresses N" 12. Roi de Sardaigne (r.), who is repre- 
sented by a cross on which hangs a sacred handkerchief bearing the head 
not of Christ but of Victor Amadeus III, inscribed Faites queje sois quelques 
ckoses Victor-Marmotte-Suaire. He sings: 
Mes destinees 
Sent tristes, helas! 

Mes Etats 
Par les guinees 
Ne se sauvent pas 
Car les armies 
De nos ennemis 
Trop hardis 
Sent arrivees 
Sur le mont Cinis . . . 
Je vats done faire 
Transporter enfin 

De Turin 
le Saint Suaire 
A Jerusalem. 

On the extreme r., larger in scale than the other animals, A^" 13 le Pape, 
an ass wearing the triple crown and an ornate cope, his hind-quarters cut 
off by the r. margin. Pie-ane sings : 

La liberie francaise 

Sur tous les Trones pese: {bis) 

Tons les peuples a False 

Chantent V alleluia ah ah! . . . 
Dialogue. Pie. 

Depuis qu'on fait la guerre 

Je vois que Vencens de la terre 

Vers nous ne fume guerre 

Franchement, rois unis 

Dites m'en votre avis. 

Charles [apparently Charles IV of Spain, previously called Charles-Belier]. 
Moij'en suis peu surpris, 
Ces forbans d'angleterre 



Vrais auteurs de notre misere 

Sur mer, comme sur terre 

Chassis et poursuivis 

Par nos fiers ennemisy 

Ont reduit en taudis, 

Le tiers de V hemisphere; 
Prenez done bien vite saint pere, 
Prenez la clef de Pierre; 
Ouvrez nous paradis 


C'est bien dit sije puis 
Mais je vous avertis 
Quej'ai la main peu siire 
Pour bien enfiler la serrure; 
Mettez vous en posture 
D'implorer le tres-haut 
{lis regardent tous la Montagne et disent) 
Ciel ! que vois-je la haut? 
Ce sont, ou peu s'en faut 

Alpes, ou Pyrenees 
De Sans-Culottes couronnees 

Ah! sur nos destinees 
Le temps brandit sa faulx 

On the top of a rocky mountain immediately above the Pope is a winged 
female figure wearing the cap of Liberty leading three sansculottes, bare- 
footed Frenchmen wearing trousers, one with a club, one with a spear, the 
third with a sabre. They look down threateningly at the princes below. They 
sing (five) Couplets des Sans-Culottes (continued in the upper margin). The 
first is Allons enfans de la Patrie. . . . The fourth is: 

Fleaux de la race humatne, 
RoiSy vos soldats sont vaincus, 
La France republicaine 
Les met enfuite a Fleurus; 
L'Empereur perd son royaume, 
A Mons, Bruxelles et Louvain, 
Et le sceptre de Guillaume 
Va se perdre dans le rhin. 

The points of the satire are made in the text (abridged here) without 
which the design is incomprehensible. The gold of Pitt, as usual, is all- 
important: it not only subsidizes the Coalition, but buys Charette, the 
Vendean leader, and Hebert, guillotined 24 March 1794. The divided 
aims of the allies and the selfish policy of Prussia and Russia are exposed. 
The foreign policy of Naples was directed by Sir John Acton and in- 
fluenced by the ambitious queen: to them was due an alliance in 1793 with 
England and Austria. Cf. Nos. 8363, 8821. 

The print is described in Les Nouvelles politiques nationales et etrangeres, 
8 fructidor [Anil], 25 Aug. 1794. On 14 vendemiaire An III (5 Oct. 1794), 
the Committee of Public Safety ordered a payment of 1,250 livres to the 
artist for 1,000 impressions furnished by him to the Committee. Blum, 

193 O 


p. 198. See Aulard, Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le 
Directoire, 1898, i. 45 (print described). 

de Vinck, No. 4359. Blum, No. 610. A copy (reversed) in Jaime, ii, 
PI. 102. c. 

Invente par VAuteur de la Gravure des Formes Acerhes.^ 

Grave a VEau-forte par J. B. Louvion. 

Fructidor Van 3^ [Aug. 1795.] Propriete 

Engraving. A good-looking young Frenchman shows to a bloated John 
Bull an ostrich's egg, in which stands a figure of Peace, winged and naked, 
holding an olive branch and laurel wreath. Towering above them is an 
enormous ostrich, at its feet are eggs, while broken egg-shells lie in the 
foreground. From some of the latter (1.) monsters have issued or are issu- 
ing: scaly dragons, a serpent, and a serpent-man on whom Justice is 
trampling. She stands holding up a pair of equally-balanced scales, while 
a monster emerging from an egg bites the point of her sword. Behind her 
is a landscape with a rising sun ; behind John Bull a heavy stone building. 
John Bull, his head raised in astonishment, is copied from Gillray's French 
Liberty y British Slavery, 1792 (No. 8145), he has been interrupted in carving 
his sirloin. Beneath the title: 


Cette Gravure represente la France sous la forme d'une Autruche, qui a eu 
le malheur dans sa premiere ponte de ne donner que des monstres tels que 
Marrat, Carrier, Roherspierre, J** Le Bon &c. &c. &c. que le retour de 
la Justice du neuf Thermidor a en quelque sorte fait disparoitre; tout nous 
fait esperer qu'elle continura [sic] a nous delivrer de cette espece de fleau. 
V Autruche plus heureuse dans sa seconde ponte rHoffre que des amis de la 
paix, du bonheur universel et de la tranquilite des nations. Un Anglois dont 
V embonpoint annonce une existence Men nourrie occupi a manger, est frappe 
de cet heureux changement et en temoigne sa surprise. 

La Justice dit Monstres vous etes aneantis pour jamais! 

Le Francois — Europe! voila nos seuls vceux. 

U Autruche — Que je repare bien aujourd'huimes torts 

U Anglois — Goddem! Go on. 
A print on the Thermidorian reaction and on the movement for peace 
during the summer of 1795; the war party were unsuccessfully opposed 
by those stigmatized as the 'faction des anciennes limites', whose views are 
here expressed. The contest raged in the Convention during August. 
Sorel, U Europe et la, 1909, iv, 365-82. Cf. No. 8845. 

Hennin, No. 12094; Blum, No. 606; Challamel, ii. 49 (small copy). 

Will Hanlon In* et Sculpt. 

Pub: by S. W. Fores 50 Piccadilly i Sep'' 1795 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Pitt as a devouring 

caterpillar (cf. No. 8996), his body hooped across the design, devours 

tattered leaves (1.) inscribed England Scotland Ireland. The body is jointed 

• In B.M. Hennin, No. 12108; Blum, No. 586. [13 May 1795.] 



and hairy and has a barbed tail. On each of the larger joints one of Pitt's 
offices, &c., is inscribed: First Lord, Chancellor, Constable, Warden, Keeper, 
Admiral, Commissioner, Master, Governor, High Steward, Places, Pensions, 
Sinecures, Reversions, Hereditaments, Expectations &c, &c, &c. 

Behind is the sea: on one spur of land (1.) are buildings inscribed Holland, 
on another (r.) is France. Above Holland is suspended a chrysalis inscribed 
Dormont [sic] from which emerges the head of Pitt, turned away from the 
place, with closed eyes. On the r. is a butterfly with a body resembling 
that of the caterpillar and having a barbed .tail ; the head is Pitt's looking 
malevolently down at France. 

Pitt is represented as supine in relation to Holland, aggressive towards 
France, probably an allusion to the disastrous Quiberon expedition, see 
No. 8669, &c. The inscription on his body is based on the entry in the 
Royal Kalendar, where as M.P. for Cambridge University he is designated 
'only brother to the e. of Chatham, first lord of the treasury, chancellor 
of the exchequer, constable of Dover-castle, warden, keeper, and admiral 
of the Cinque-ports, a commissioner of the East-India board, master of 
the Trinity-house, governor of the Charter-house and Bridewell and 
Bethlem Hospitals, and high-steward of the University of Cambridge*. 
See No. 8672. One of many satires expressing the discontent due to dearth 
and military failure in 1795, see No. 8664, &c. For Pitt as a devouring 
insect see No. 8669, &c. 

Hennin, No. 12,100. 

8677 THE PATRIOTS. [i Sept. 1795] 
Drawn by Collings. [Barlow f.] 

Carlton House Magazine, ii. 239. A reissue of part of No. 7658. The men 
who head the procession to the hustings are included, with the banner 
Whigs & Liberty. The other part of the original design is No. 8680. 
6f X 4J in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 

8678 PROSPECT OF A TRUCE [i Oct. 1795] 
Carlton House Magazine, ii. 305. A reissue of the 1. part of No. 7561, 
showing the man with a flag of Truce on the battlements of the stage- 
Bastille, holding out a cloth inscribed D n you what do you want. On 

the 1. is a knock-kneed soldier holding a white cloth. The toy cannon is 
visible on the r. The text describes it as * a hierogliphical Representation 
of the Times . . . Like too many of our late schemes and expeditions, it 
is incomprehensible to every sensible observer . . .'. 

Perhaps an allusion to the disastrous expedition to Quiberon, see No. 
8669, &c. 

The other part of the original design is No. 8473. 
6| X 4f in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub October 5 J 795 by S W Fores N $0 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving. A scene on the Steine at Brighton. A small, fashionably 
dressed man carries (1. to r.) a large and muscular man, who sits astride 



his back, naked, holding his hat to shield his person. Two ladies (r.) 
walking together stare at him, one holding up a fan and looking through 
the fingers she puts across her eyes. A dog (r.) snarls at the naked man. 
On the 1. the Prince of Wales stands full-face, legs astride, arms akimbo, 
ogling a lady who stands (1.) in profile to the r., staring at him immodestly 
( ? Lady Jersey). Another lady smiles at the Prince. In the background are 
promenading couples, and a house with a circular bow window. Beneath 
the title : NB The singularity of the Spectacle & the Largeness of the Object 

caused much mirth among the Ladies — Lady C [ ? Cholmondeley] 

Exclaimed with a Sigh oh it is too much for any Man!! 

Sir John Lade made a bet with the huge Lord Cholmondeley (see No. 
591 1) that he would carry him twice round the Steine. At the appointed 
place he ordered Cholmondeley to strip, and on the latter's refusal won 
his bet. H. D. Roberts, 'Some Brighton Caricatures', Print Collectors 
Quarterly, xxiii. 109. 
9x^X131 in. 

8680 THE TIMES. [i Nov. 1795] 

Etched by Barlow 

Carlton House Magazine, iv. 345. A reissue of part of No. 7658. A ragged 
procession (originally Foxite electors for Westminster in 1790) walks with 
banners inscribed No Taxes and Property and Independence. 
Eight lines of verse explain the print, beginning : 

The times are wondr'ous bad! 
and ending: 

Of scarcity of food each man complains. 
His hungry brood, on milk and water fed, 
Scarce know the luxury of cheese and bread! 

For the dearth of 1795 see No. 8664, &c. The other part of the original 
design is No. 8677. 
6f X 4I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 



Pub^ Nov^ J*' 1795. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The King sits impassively in his badly 
damaged state coach, which is being assailed by a mob ; facing him sit two 
courtiers in abject terror. Pitt (r.), dressed as the coachman, drives 
furiously, lashing the horses, the hind legs only of the wheelers being 
visible on the extreme r. These are trampling on Britannia who lies 
prostrate, her shield and broken spear beneath her. Four footmen in striped 
liveries stand behind, one holding the straps ; the others hold each other's 
waists : Loughborough, the Lord Chancellor, wearing his wig, stands next 
the coach ; behind him is Grenville, then Dundas, wearing a plaid and with 
a bottle projecting from his coat-pocket. Last is Pepper Arden wearing 
a judge's wig. All, like Pitt, wear jockey-caps. 

Lord Lansdowne (r.), a sansculotte, composedly fires a blunderbuss 
point-blank through the coach window, aiming at the King. Fox and 
Sheridan, facing Lansdowne, run beside the coach, holding on to it. Both 



are tattered ruffians brandishing clubs, but wear breeches. The other 
three assailants cling to the spokes of the back wheel to stop the coach : 
(1. to r.) the Duke of Grafton, neatly dressed and wearing a cocked hat with 
tricolour cockade. Lord Stanhope, and little Lord Lauderdale, both wear- 
ing bonnets-rouges. Behind, a sea of heads indicates the mob ; they carry 
a tricolour flag inscribed Peace and Bread and a loaf draped with black and 
spiked on a pitchfork. A cat, stones, and eggs shower on the coach, the 
crown on the top of which is broken. 

When the King drove to open parliament on 29 Oct. 1795 his coach 
was attacked by a mob and a stone or bullet pierced and starred the plate 
glass. Lord Westmorland and Lord Onslow were in the coach. The cries 
were 'Down with Pitt', 'No War', 'Give us bread', 'No famine', 'No 
George', &c. The Lords were informed of the attack by Grenville. Lans- 
downe thereupon accused the Ministers of provoking the disturbance for 
their own ends; Moira, Bedford, and Lauderdale also spoke, apparently 
to the same effect. The History of two Acts . . ., 1796, pp. i if. See Rose, 
Pitt and the Great War, pp. 282-3 5 ^- M- Trevelyan, Lord Grey of the 
Reform Bill, 1929, pp. 90-2. The incident is fully described by Place in 
B.M. Add. MSS. 27808, ff. 42-9; 35143, At. 15-19, 37-50. Lord Holland 
states that Lord El don assured him that 'he had in his possession the stone 
which had broken the window . . .'. Further Memoirs of the Whig Party, 
1905, p. 252. According to Twiss's Life of Eldon (i. 293), stones were 
thrown, and one of the windows was perforated, apparently by a bullet 
from an air-gun. Eldon calls it ('Anecdote Book') 'the shot'. This aflfair 
followed the mass meeting of 26 Oct., see No. 8685. For the dearth and 
discontent of 1795, see No. 8664, &c. The satire is double-edged : Britannia 
is trampled on by the royal horses owing to Pitt's furious driving; other 
ministers are lackeys behind the King's coach. See Nos. 8691, 8692, 8708, 
8782, and cf. No. 9035. The sequel was the 'Treason and Sedition Bills', 
see No. 8687, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 192-3; Wright and Evans, No. 132. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
9fXi3f in. (pL). 


[Gillray, ? after Sneyd.] 

Pu¥ Nov'' j^ 1795, by H. Humphrey, New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, fast asleep, wearing only night- 
cap and night-shirt, walks down a staircase holding up a lighted candle 
in his r. hand. On his r. only are banisters, on his 1. the steps abut on 
a gulf indicated by the top of an arch supporting the stair ; he is about to 
descend the first step, perilously near the 1. edge. Behind him, in a wall of 
heavy masonry, is an open door surmounted by a crown. A tall gothic 
window pierces the wall of the building. 

Cf. No. 8681, published on the same day, where Pitt drives furiously 
over the prostrate Britannia. This print appears to have been from a draw- 
ing by Sneyd, see letter to Gillray of 31 Dec. 1795, Bagot, Canning and his 
Friends, 1909, i. 57. Its (Pittite) authorship indicates the extent of the 
scepticism relating to the conduct of the war. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 191 ; Wright and Evans, No. 131. Reprinted, G.W.G., 



Collection de Vinck, No. 4384: 


WOKInv. [O'Keefe.] 

Nov^ 7 lygs Pub. by J. Aitken Castle Street Leicester Square 

Engraving (coloured impression). A pugilistic encounter between Pitt 

and Fox. Fox's bottle-holder holds a bottle of brandy, Pitt's a bottle of 

Claret. The two seconds clench their fists. One of several prints of 

Pitt as an oppressor, but exceptional in that Fox represents 'Reason'. 




Pu¥ Nov'' 9'* 1795. by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design in two compartments ; between 

the two titles is etched: [Fatal Effects of the French Defeat]. 

On the 1. Fox hangs himself in a ramshackle garret. His neck is in a 
noose which hangs from a beam, his r. foot rests on a low stool, his 1. hand 
holds the rope. He leans back with an expression of terror, dropping an 
Account of the Republican Overthrow. On the wall (1.) is a H.L. portrait 
of Pichegru holding a sabre. The poverty of the room is indicated by peel- 
ing plaster showing patches of bricks, by the raftered roof, and a small 
casement window (r.). 

On the r. Pitt and Dundas drown themselves in wine. Both are on the 
floor; they have overturned a round table behind them from which the 
sliding bottles pour their contents over Pitt, who holds up a brimming 
glass in his 1. hand. He leans against an overturned chair holding a paper: 
News of the Victory over the Carmagnols; he looks up smiling. Dundas sits 
behind and on the r., in profile to the r., more serious and more intent. He 
drinks with concentration, spilling his wine and waving his wig above his 
head. He wears a plaid over his coat. On the wall is an oval bust portrait 
of George III^, the head cut off by the upper edge of the design. 

Unofficial news of the defeat of Pichegru and Jourdan on the Rhine by 
the Austrians, in October, reached London on the evening of 6 November, 
Lond. Chron.y 7 Nov. The treachery of Pichegru was then unknown. 
Sorel, V Europe et la, 1909, iv. 442-3. The news arrived at a period 
of great distress and discontent, cf. No. 8664, &c. For the reactions of 
Pitt and Fox cf. Nos. 8518, 9248, &c. For Pitt and Dundas as topers, see 
No. 8651, &c. and cf. No. 7282. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 191, Wright and Evans, No. 138. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
9^X13^ in. 



Pu¥ Nov" 16*^ 1795' by H. Humphrey New Bond S* 
Engraving (coloured impression). A large rattlesnake with the head of 
Fox, its tail coiled round an oak tree with rattle erect, rears itself towards 
a plump squirrel with the head of the Duke of Bedford, which is springing 



from the tree into Fox's open mouth. Fox fixes his protruding eyeballs 
upon the squirrel, a fang issues from his mouth. There is a landscape 
background. Below the title: The Rattle Snake is a Creature of the greatest 
subtilty ; when it is desirous of preying upon any Animal which is in a situation 
above itself, it fixes its Eye upon the unsuspecting object, & by the noise of 
its Rattle, fascinates & confounds the unfortunate Victim, till loosing all 
Sense & discernment, it falls a prey into the Mouth of the horrid Monster. 
Pliny's Nat. Hisfy, Vol 365 — 

The young Duke of Bedford was a devoted follower of Fox, echoing in 
the Lords the motions and speeches of his leader. On 11 Nov. he pre- 
sided at an extraordinary meeting of the Whig Club where the resolutions 
(against the Treasonable Practices and Seditious Meetings Bills, see No. 
8687, &c.) were seconded by Fox. Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 1796, pp. 120-3. 
Fox, Memorials and Corr. iii. 125. Cf. Nos. 8690, 8783. For Fox as a 
serpent, cf. No. 9214. This print is mentioned in the D.N.B. as 'following 
up' the attack of Burke in his Letter to a Noble Lord . . ., 1796 (see 
No. 8788). 

Grego, Gillray, p. 194; Wright and Evans, No. 136. Reprinted, G.W.G.y 
1830. Reproduced, Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin, ed. C. Edmonds, 1890, 
p. 285. 

8684 A A copy, J. Gillray Imf, vignette, without inscription below the 
title. PI. to Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin, ed. C. Edmonds, 1859, P- 240. 


J' G-'' des"" et fec^ 

Pii¥ Nov" j6'* J795. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A large and plebeian crowd is being 
addressed from three roughly made platforms, one being in the middle 
distance, another in the background. In the foreground (r.) a man, sup- 
posed to be Thelwall, leans from his rostrum in profile to the 1,, shouting, 
with clenched fists, and raised r. arm. Behind him stands a ragged barber, 
a comb in his lank hair, holding out a paper: Resolutions of the London 
Corresponding Society. Next him, a man with the high-crowned hat and 
bands of a dissenting minister holds a tattered umbrella over the orator. 
A man on the steps leading to the platform, wearing a bonnet-rouge (the 
only one in the crowd) has a vague resemblance to Fox. From the next 
platform (1.) a butcher, supposed to be Gale Jones, bawls at the crowd 
with raised r. arm. Beside him stand a man holding a scroll inscribed 
Rights of Citizens. The third orator is a tiny figure (Hodgson) with both 
arms raised. 

All the platforms are surrounded by crowds, and hats and arms are being 
waved by those addressed by the butcher. In the foreground (1.) a man 
sits holding out for signature a document which is supported on a barrel 
of Real Democratic Gin by Thelwal & Co. Three little chimney-sweepers 
stand round it, one of whom, holding a pen, has just made his mark on 
the Remonstrance, below the signatures of Jack Cade, Wat Tyler, Jack 
Straw. All wear caps with the name of their master on a brass plate 
(according to the Chimney- Sweepers' Act of 1788); this is Thelwall. A fat 
woman sells a dram to one of the crowd. Another presides over a portable 



roulette or E.O. table, a 'teetotum', inscribed Equality & no Sedition Bill; 
three barefooted urchins are staking their pence. The heads in general do 
not appear to be portraits, but in the centre of the design, with his back 
to the woman selling drams, is Priestley, caricatured, standing with folded 
arms facing Thelwall. There is a landscape background with trees up 
which spectators have climbed. Beneath the design: "/ tell you. Citizens, 
we mean to new-dress the Constitution and turn it, and set a new Nap upon it." 


Two mass meetings (besides an earlier one in June) were held by the 
London Corresponding Society (see No. 9189, &c.) in a field behind 
Copenhagen House, a popular resort in Islington, one on 26 October at 
which there were three 'tribunes', the chairman John Binns. It was 
addressed by Citizens Thelwall, Hodgson, and Gale Jones. It acclaimed an 
'Address to the Nation', demanding universal suffrage and annual parlia- 
ments, a Remonstrance to the King, and Resolutions against the War, &c. 
This seems to be the meeting here depicted, except for the inscription on 
the roulette table, which points to the meeting on 12 November to protest 
against the Bills against Seditious Meetings and Treasonable Attempts. 
At this meeting there were six rostra. Citizen Duane in the chair. Hist, 
of Two Acts . . ., 1796, pp. 98-106, 125-34. S^^ No. 8701. For the meet- 
ing in June see No. 8664. For the Bills see No. 8687, &c. Cf. a description 
of a similar meeting on 7 Dec. by Farington, Diary, i. 1 18-19. The 
popularity of the republican Thelwall's lectures had brought the lecture- 
room within the Seditious Meetings Act. For the Constitution cf. No. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 193; Wright and Evans, No. 134. Copy (part only) 
in Grego, Hist, of Pari. Elections, 1892, p. 298. 
9X13! in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: N" ly iyg5 by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly Corner of 

Sackville Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Three citizens seated at a small round 
table to drink punch, smoke, and discuss the news, are interrupted by a fat 
Justice (r.) who stands in profile to the 1., drinking from their punch-bowl. 
He says: By Virtue of my Authority. I am come to taste whether there is any 
Sedition in the punch Bowl!!! From his pocket protrude two papers: 
Convention Bill and Riot Act. Under his feet is the Bill of Rights. The 
three men, grouped close together (1.), look at the intruder with expressions 
of angry dismay. On the table are glasses, a pipe, and newspaper : Telegraph. 
Under the table are two dogs, their collars inscribed John Bull and Pitt. 
The former (1.) is closely muzzled (cf. No. 8693, &c.); between his fore- 
paws is a bone at which Pitt sniffs. 

A satire on the Bill for preventing seditious meetings (popularly Con- 
vention Bill). Justices of the Peace were empowered to disperse meetings 
by proclamation. Lecture-halls (owing to the popularity of Thelwall's 
lectures) had to be licensed by two magistrates, and a magistrate might 
enter at any time. The Society of United Publicans held a meeting of 
protest against the Bill as tending to prevent the meetings of clubs and 
friendly societies in public houses. Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 1796, p. 306. 
See No. 8687, &c. 



One of the Family!! (pub. Fores, 20 Dec. 1795) is a similar subject. 
A J.P. intrudes upon husband (in dressing-gown) and wife : / be Justice 
Mittimmus a wery great man in the Sedition line of business. . . . See also 
No. 8688. (A. de R. v. 8.) 



Pub Nov ly 1795 by S W Fores 50 Piccadilly the Corner of Sackville 
Street. Folios of Caricatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, very tall and thin, towers above a 
crouching and terrified John Bull (r.) on whose back is tied a mountainous 
burden of five bundles, inscribed respectively: Pensions, Subsidies, Tax, 
Taxation, Debt. Pitt, glaring angrily, raises a huge club above his head 
inscribed Convention Bill, about to smite his victim. 

The Seditious Meetings Bill (moved 10 Nov. by Pitt) and Treason- 
able Practices Bill (moved 6 Nov. by Grenville) were popularly called 
Convention Bills (see No. 8706). They were so styled by the radical clubs : 
it was anticipated in a circular letter by Hardy, in the spring of 1794, that 
*a Convention Bill', i.e. a Bill to prevent a general Convention of the 
People,' might be passed. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 488, The name derives from 
an Irish Act to prevent the summoning of delegates to a National Con- 
vention, much attacked in the Northern Star c. Nov.-Dec. 1792. The 
Seditious Meetings Act imposed restrictions on meetings of over fifty 
persons (preliminary notice to the magistrates, and the presence of a 
magistrate with summary powers). The other Act gave statutory authority 
to constructive treason as interpreted by Hale and Foster. They were the 
result of mass meetings organized by the London Corresponding Society, 
see No. 9189, &c., and of the attack on the King, see No. 8681. See Hist, 
of Two Acts . . ., 1796; Pari. Hist, xxxii. 244 ff.; Coleridge, The Plot 
Discovered, Bristol, 1795; Veitch, Genesis of Parliamentary Reform, 1913, 
pp. 325 ff. ; Rose, Pittandthe Great War, pp. 282 ff. See also Nos. 8685, 8686, 
p. 201, 8688, 8689, 8690, 8691, 8693, 8694, 8697, 8698, 8700, 8701, 8703, 
8704, 8705, 8706, 8708, 8709, 8710, 871 1, 8780, 8782, 9046, 9233, 9286. 
I2f X9I in. 


/ C [Cniikshank.] 

[London Pub: N 18 1795 by S W Fores N'* 50 Piccadilly-Corner of 
Sackville Street^'] 

Engraving (coloured impression). An elderly Justice of Peace (1.), in profile 
to the 1., approaches the side of a rustic latrine, a lean-to without a door; 

' A pamphlet by Gerrald was published by Eaton in 1794: A Convention the only 
means of saving us from ruin .... The name was a subject of dispute (April 1794) 
between the London Corresponding Society and the Society for Constitutional 
Information, the former (spokesman Thelwall), insisted on 'Convention'; the latter 
would have preferred 'Meeting'. P.R.O., P.C. 1/21 (quoted V. C. Miller, jfoel 
Barlow, Hamburg, 1932, pp. 11-12). See W. H. Hall, British Radicalism, 1791^ 
^797> 1912, pp. 182-96, and No. 8624. 

^ Imprint cut off, given from A. de R. v. 11. 



within, concealed from the man, an old woman in profile to the 1. is super- 
intending a little girl who sits on the seat; in her hand is a torn paper: 
The Last Speech or Dying words of Liberty. On the side of the shed has 
been chalked a childish caricature of Pitt with (or hanging from) a gallows. 
The magistrate, who wears old-fashioned dress, says, with wrinkled nose 
and extended hand : / am sure I smell Treason and by Virtue of my office 
I have a right to peep every where, Mercy on us! — what a Seditious Grumbling. 
See No. 8687, &c. 
iif X8| in. 'Caricatures', viii. 188. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

{London Pub: N° 20 1795 by SW Fores N° So Piccadilly Corner of 

Sackville S* NB Folio Caracatures lent for the Evening. 
Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt and Fox, much caricatured and 
with large heads, sit back to back. Pitt (1.) sits in profile to the 1. on a 
chamber-pot ornamented with a crown, his hand held out deprecatingly. 
He says: / wish from my heart these cursed field meetings were put a stop to. 
From his pocket protrudes the Convention Bill. Fox (r.) sits on a low chair 
directed to the r., his arms folded, scowling over his shoulder towards Pitt. 
He says : If that abominable long Bill Passes into a Law, it will be all over 
with the opposition Boys! From his pocket protrudes a paper : Copenhagen 
Meeting. On the back of his chair hangs a tiny bonnet-rouge, far too small 
for his huge head. 

For the Bill against Seditious Meetings see No. 8687, &c., and for the 
field meetings at Copenhagen House, No. 8685. For Fox's views on the 
Bill see his Memorials and Corr., 1854, iii. 123-7, ^^'^ -^o- 8690. 
lox 15I in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Published No 20 iyg5 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly. 

NB Folios of Caracatures Lent out for the Evening 
Engraving (coloured impression). Fox, as a quack doctor, addresses a mob 
from the front of a platform which rests upon five beer-barrels inscribed 
Whitbreads entire (cf. No. 8638). Four other mountebanks are performing. 
Fox wears the full wig and old-fashioned laced coat and waistcoat of a 
doctor; he points to a young man (Bedford) behind him (1.) who stands 
on his head, coins pouring from his pocket into a box. A Pierrot (Grey) 
stands behind the platform holding a trumpet and saying: Turn me Grey 
Gemmen if I dont read you the particulars of his curing 30,000 Patients in 
one day; when Brother cit. has done tumbling. On a slack-rope stretching 
across the 1. part of the platform is little Lord Lauderdale, holding a 
balancing pole. He and Bedford are dressed as acrobats. On the r. is the 
doctor's zany, Sheridan, wearing a fool's cap and a tunic and trousers 
dotted with representations of the Devil. He scatters, and kicks towards 
the spectators below him, a shower of paper scrolls inscribed : An Infaliable 
cure for a bad constitution ; Aether for Arguments ; Caustics for Crimps [cf. 
No. 8484] ; Mercury for Ministers; Preparations against Prosecution ; Powder 
[cf. No. 8629] /or Placemen [twice]; Pain for the Poor [cf. No. 8146]; A 



Rope for Reeves [cf. No. 8699]; Gibets for Justices [cf. No. 8686]; Aqua 
Regis for Royalists. The crowd (r.), who are T.Q.L., eagerly hold out their 
hands to catch the papers. Next the platform is a well-dressed man re- 
sembling Grafton. The man on the extreme r. is a butcher wearing a 

Fox says : Dis is de first Tumbler in de Vorld Gemmen, dat is Citoyen de 
Bedforado, who vas stand so long upon his head dat all de money vas Tumble out 
of his pockets; de Next is Citoyen Van Lathertalo, who's trick upon de slack 
rope are delightfull it is expected he vil von Day dance on de Tight Rope ha ha!! 

The men and women composing the crowd on the 1. all raise a hand in 
affirmation; all are shouting. A man dressed as a militiaman, standing 
prominently beside the platform, raises a hand from which two fingers are 
missing; he shouts All. All. Perhaps Edward Hall, 'Liberty Hall'. 

A satire on the meeting in Palace Yard on 16 November to petition the 
House of Commons against the Seditious Meetings and Treasonable 
Practices Bills. The platform was rapidly erected outside the King's Arms 
Tavern, having been removed from Westminster Hall. The meeting was 
addressed by Fox, who was seconded by Bedford (cf. No. 8684). The 
petition was then read by Grey; Sheridan made a speech which was 
received with prodigious applause. The petition (see No. 8697) was carried 
by a show of hands. Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 1796, pp. 232-42; Fox, 
Memorials and Corr. iii. 126. Farington {Diary, i. 108 f.) describes the 
occasion ; he concluded from the demeanour of the people 'that the Bill 
may be passed with safety'. See also Ann. Reg., 1795, p. 54*. For Fox 
as a quack doctor with his zany see No. 6398 ; for Sheridan as a zany cf. 
No. 6384, &c. For Aqua Regis (or Regia) cf. No. 8805. See No. 8687, &c. 
ii-|Xi7f in. 


J' Qy des"" etfed 

Pu¥ Nov" 21'* 1795, by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.), as a toreador, rides a rearing 
white horse (of Hanover) with a spear directed horizontally against a bull 
(John Bull) snorting fire and bleeding from many wounds. He wears a 
short tunic and sash ; his saddle-cloth is a leopard-skin on which is a crest : 
the white horse of Hanover enclosed in a Garter ribbon inscribed Honi soit 
qui mal y pense, and surmounted by a crown. He looks alarmed and spurs 
his horse viciously. Two tiers of spectators in an arc of the arena are freely 
sketched. In the upper row George IH looking through a glass is in the 
centre, on his 1. is the Queen, on his r. Loughborough. The man next the 
Queen is (?) Grenville. In the lower tier Fox is conspicuous with (?) 
the Prince of Wales on his 1. ; Sheridan stands behind them. The other 
spectators are members of the Opposition or ragamuffins. Those who can 
be identified are (r. to 1.): Stanhope, Derby, Grafton, Lansdowne. A 
chimney-sweep applauds with brush and shovel. Beneath the title: 
Description, From the Royal Bull Fight of lygS 

Then entered a Bull of the true British Breed, who appeared to be extremely 
peaceable 'till opposed by a Desperado, mounted upon a White Horse, who by 
numberless Wounds provoked the Animal to the utmost pitch of Fury, when 
collecting all its strength into one dreadful effort, & darting upon its opponent, 
destroyed both Horse & Rider in a Moment. 

A double-edged satire (cf. Nos. 8704, 8836): Pitt, by misgovernment 



and oppression, has provoked John Bull to treason (see No. 8681) which 
is applauded by the Opposition. For Pitt's unpopularity cf. No, 8669, &c. 
He said (Nov. 1795) to Wilberforce: 'My head would be off in six months, 
were I to resign.' Wilberforce, Life, ii. 114. For the Treason and Sedition 
Bills see No. 8678, &c. For Pitt and the White Horse of Hanover see 
Nos. 6476, 8488, 8644, 8655, 8704, 8708, 8842, 9430. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 194. Wright and Evans, No. 141. Reprinted, G.W.G.y 
8fxi3f in. 

N(nf 21 ijgs Pub: by J. Potsley Pimlico No 50 

Engraving (coloured impression). A balloon, its upper part cut off by the 
upper margin of the design, floats above the roofs of houses grouped below. 
The car attached to it has some resemblance to a coach ; in it Pitt (1.) and 
George HI (r.) sit facing each other. Between them sits the Devil, manipu- 
lating two oars or propellers ; all three smile. Pitt holds a rope (or pipe) 
which descends into an open Trap Door in the roof of the largest of the 
buildings below: the P — / — m — n — t House. The car is decorated with the 
Royal Arms and with stars and is draped with fringed curtains. The King 
says : Surely never was an Invention more Deserving our Patronage then this 
for now we can go too & fro with Safety. Pitt answers : Not only Intitled 
to your M—j — 5 — ty's Patronage but Also a Handsome Yearly Allowance, 
for we never shall be Afraid or Terrified again while we can go in this Manner. 
A satire deriving from the attack on the King while driving to open 
Parliament, see No. 8681. For other balloon satires see volumes v and vi 
and index. A crude and presumably cheap print. 
ii|x8f in. 

[? West.] 

Pu¥ Nov'' 23 iyg5 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly the Corner of 
Sackville Street — Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.) stands in profile to the r., hold- 
ing with both hands the staple of a huge padlock with which he has trans- 
fixed the lips of John Bull, so as to close his mouth. He bends forward, 
very thin, the large key of the padlock dangling from a ribbon slung across 
his shoulder ; he says : Dont be alarmed Johnny, it will not hurt you — you 
will scarcely perceive it, When you are a little used to it — it will only keep 
your tongue from running quite so fast, in future! John Bull, a stout citizen 
wearing a small hat, glares at Pitt with an expression of angry alarm. 

One of many satires on the Seditious Meetings Bill and the Treasonable 
Practices Bill, see No. 8687, &c. For the padlocked mouth cf. Nos. 8686, 
8709, 8710, 871 1, 8780, 9046, 9286. 

[? West.] 

Pub Not/ 23 iyg5 by S W Fores iV» 50 Piccadilly the Corner of 

Sackville Street — Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 
Engraving (coloured impression). An obese bill-sticker stands in profile 
to the r. posting up with a long-handled implement a bill: Five Hundred 



Pounds Reward Wheras Under his arm is a rolled bill. He 

wears a cocked hat and bag-wig, with a large apron. On the receptacle for 
paste slung from his shoulder is a coat of arms with the motto Templa quant 
dilecta and a marquis's coronet. He says : There it is in capitals, — the Libel 
at full length, and jive hundred pounds reward — he that runs may read, I think 
I shall be a match for the Ghost!! Other adjacent bills are inscribed: In the 
Dead of Night a new Song; O Dear what can the matter be, and Theatre 

Royal Good Natur'd Man Part of Croaker by Farse of the Alarmist. 

Although the arms are incorrect, they are intended for those of the 
Marquis of Buckingham, who is the bill-poster. He writes, 13 Nov. 1795, 
of an 'impudent forgery' published in the True Briton, signed Nugent 
Buckingham, offering ;^500 reward 'for a paltry libel upon the whole race 
of Grenvilles, which I would not have given 5 farthings to have kept out 
of every newspaper'. Hist. MSS. Comm., Dropmore MSS., iii. 146. The 
play-bill allusions seem directed against the Treason and Sedition Bills, 
see No. 8687, &c. The (correct) motto is that of the Grenvilles. 


R'^ Newton fecit 

London Pub No-if 24 lygs by W*^ Holland N" 50 Oxford S^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design in two ovals representing the 
glasses of spectacles; the rim of one (I.) is coloured yellow, of the other 
black. On the 1. a peasant sits in a chair, a child on his knee, another 
beside him; he holds out a tankard to his buxom wife who sits (1.) at a 
large spinning-wheel. Beside her is a table on which are a pitcher and 
plate. Behind is the comer of a cottage. A pig (1.) puts his head into the 
design. A spade and pitchfork lean against the man's chair. Above their 
heads is a crown with the words God save the king. Beneath the oval : The 
land we live in and may those that dont like it leave it. 

On the r. a headless man (Louis XVI) stands with his hat under his arm, 
pointing towards a head which lies on the ground. Behind him (1.) stands 
the Devil, grinning, his hands on his hips. The oval is surrounded by a 
string of (twenty-five) decollated heads. Beneath: A Philosophical cure 
for all evils Licentious Liberty is Destruction. Verses are inscribed beneath 
each oval, beginning: 

See how, beneath the Crown's protection smiles 
The peaceful Subject of these happy Isles! 
While equal Laws secure the Peasant's shade. 
Who dares his well earned Property invade? 

The Crown removed — behold the sad reverse, 
When raging Factions seize the public purse; 
Urg'd by the Fiend, and drunk with lawless Power 
They reign the cruel Tyrants of an Hour. 

An exception to the prevailing attacks on dearth (see No. 8664, &c.) and 
oppression (see No. 8687, &c.). Cf. No. 8284, &c. 
Ovals, 7ix 6 8g in. ; 7|x 6^ in. PI. lof x 14I in. 





London Pu¥ Nov'' 25 lygs by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the Corner 
of Sackville S* — NB Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). A stout justice (r.), wearing a cocked 
hat, sits in an arm-chair, his hands on his knees, glaring up at a lean and 
dishevelled tradesman, wearing an apron, who stands (1.) in profile to the 
r., his hat under his arm, his fingers interlaced. The justice says: How dare 
you fellow — not having the fear of me before your eyes) write over your shop 
The barber answers : Please your Worship, I had advice of Counsel — he said 
I was a great fool for so doing but your Worship would be a greater if you took 
any notice of it. 

For the political capital made out of Burke's unfortunate phrase see 
No. 8500, &c. An actual occurrence, see Place Press Cuttings, xxxvii. 29. 
(B.M.L., Colindale.) 
iif X9i in. 


[?I. Cruikshank.] 

London Published Nov^ 26 lygs by S W Fores No 50 Piccadilly. 
Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Sheridan and Fox walk (1. to r.) one 
behind the other, bending under the weight of huge bundles of petitions 
which they carry on their heads. Both wear bonnets-rouges ; Fox is dressed 
in a tattered shirt and breeches. Smaller petitions project from their pockets. 
Sheridan's petitions are : House of Correction, Petition in Favor of Sedition, 
for Sedition, Girls Petition, Boys Petition, Washerwomens P", Pickpocket from 
Newgate, Drunkards, Marshalsea, Burow Clink [the Clink prison in the 
Borough of Southwark], Bridwell. He says: These will serve for a few hours 
Jaw, & if we can but procrastinate the Bill a few days we may be able to 
Effect something in that Time. 

Fox's petitions: S^ Lukes from Thelwal with an Essay on Deism [cf. 
No. 9286], Gamblers Peti\ti\on Dustmens, an adressfrom that oppresed body 
of Men on Board the Hulks [convicts]. Bankrupts P [above Banker's, scored 
through], Nightmen, Scavengers, Card & Dice Makers, an adress. Fish 

A satire on the petitions against the Treason and Sedition Bills, see 
No. 8687, &c., and on the attempts of the Opposition to delay their passing 
in order to give time for meetings of protest. There were actually ninety- 
four petitions, with a total of 131,284 signatures. These were chiefly from 
towns; those from London included petitions from Journeymen Taylors, 
Bakers, Weavers of Spitalfield, &c. (presented by Sheridan, i Dec), 
Publicans, and a few other bodies of tradesmen. Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 
1796, pp. 826-7; Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, "• 138-41- There were also 
sixty-five counter-petitions in favour of the Bills, including one from 
Yorkshire to which much importance was attached, see Life of Wilberforce, 
ii. 1 17-33 ; Fox, Memorials and Corr. iii. 127. For the Westminster Petition 
see No. 8690. 





Pu¥ Nov'' 26^^ 1795' by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, thickly coated with feathers, stands 
terrified between Sheridan and Fox. Only his face, hands, and (bare) feet 
are uncovered. He turns his head in profile to the r. towards Fox, clasping 
his hands. Fox, much caricatured, and grinning broadly, pushes a dripping 
mop in his face. Its stick is inscribed Remonstrance of the People. He has 
dipped it in a steaming cauldron (of tar) inscribed Rights of the People, 
under which are blazing papers: Seditioti Bill, Ministerial Influence, and 
Informations. Round Pitt's neck is a noose, the rope from which hangs 
over a lamp-bracket. On the lamp is a crown ; on the post a placard : Fate 
of the Sedition Bill. Sheridan (1.), with a sinister glare, raises in both hands 
a huge cap of Libertas, from which feathers shower down on Pitt's head. 
Beneath the title: "Nay & you'll stop our Mouths, beware your Own." 

One of many satires on the two Bills which were the result of mass 
meetings and the attack on the King, see No. 8687, &c. A campaign against 
them was led by Fox and the Opposition, see Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 1796; 
Pari. Hist, xxxii. 244 ff. For Pitt's unpopularity cf. No. 8669, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 194. Wright and Evans, No. 137. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


J" & des"" etfed 

Pu¥ Nov 2h^ 1795- by H. Humphrey N 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt as hangman stands beside a fire of 
faggots immediately outside the door of the Crown & Anchor (name on 
door-post). In his right hand is an axe; he drops an open book into the 
flames, and looks over his shoulder at Reeves who is disappearing into the 
tavern. On one page (r.) is the trunk of a tree sumiounted by a crown and 
the words The Royal Stump, on the other: No Lords No Commons No 
Parliame[nt] Damn the Revolution. He wears a long coat with a hang- 
man's noose tied round his waist, a round hat, and wrinkled gaiters. From 
his pocket protrudes a book : Ministerial Sincerity and Attachment a Novel. 
He says: 

Know, villains, when such paltry slaves presume 

To mix in Treason, if the plot succeeds, 

You're thrown neglected by: — but if it fails. 

You're sure to die like dogs! 

Reeves, with hands outstretched in protest, says : O Jenky! Jenky! have 
I gone through thick & thin for this ? From his coat-pockets hang papers : 
£400 p'' Ann, To the Chairm[an] of the Crown & Anchor, and. List of Spies 
Informers Reporters Crown & Anchor Agents. 

On the r. Fox, Sheridan, and Erskine blow at the fire ; the two former 
on hands and knees, Erskine, in wig and gown, between them, an arm 
across the shoulders of each. Smoke and the lower parts of the adjacent 
houses form a background. 



The title continues : See the Proceedings of the House of Comm*^ Nov'' 26"' 
1795 — To the Charman & Members of the truly Loyal Association at the 
Crown & Anchor this small token of Gratitude for Favors received, is respect- 
fully dedicated by the Author. 

Reeves founded, and became chairman of, the Association for preserving 
Liberty and Property against Levellers and Republicans, known as the 
Crown and Anchor Society, see No. 8316, &c. In 1795 he published 
anonymously 'Thoughts on the English Government . . .', denounced on 
23 Nov. by Sturt as a libel on the constitution ; Sheridan, Fox, and Erskine 
spoke. On 26 Nov. the debate was continued, being opened by Sheridan, 
who read the offensive passage : that the government was a monarchy, the 
ancient stock from which the branches, the Lords and Commons, had 
sprung, and might be lopped off, and the tree remain a tree. Erskine and 
Fox spoke. The pamphlet was defended by Windham, whose arguments 
were opposed by Pitt, and it was agreed to appoint a Committee to inquire 
who was the author. Its report (i Dec.) showed that Reeves was the 
author, and that he had ordered six copies to be sent to the office of Lord 
Hawkesbury (the Board of Trade, of which Reeves was Law Clerk). 
Hawkesbury ('Jenky') denied (2 Dec.) that copies had been sent to him. 
Pari. Hist, xxxii. 608 ff.; Farington, Diary, i. iii. See also Coleridge, 
Essays on his own Times, 1850, i. 79-80; State Trials, xxvi. 530 ff. ; Monthly 
Review, 1795, p. 443, 1800, p. 81. Wolcot wrote verses on the incident, 

in which Reeves ('R ') was 'the Grand Informer'. See Liberty s Last 

Squeak, 1795, pp. 23-6. Cf. Nos. 8365, 8690, 9286. For the dedica- 
tion cf. Nos. 8316, 8318. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 194-5. Wright and Evans, No. 139. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
8^X13! in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

Lond. Pub Nov 29 J795 by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly. Folios of 
Caracatures Lent out for the Evening. 

Engraving. An ugly man in old-fashioned dress stands full-face, toes 
turned in, squinting, and looking downwards. An Address is in his r. hand, 
his 1. hand is in his Ijreeches pocket ; a document inscribed obervation [sic] 
protrudes from his coat-pocket. His scanty audience is behind him, on 
each side of a fireplace, for the most part asleep. A broken candle on the 
chimney-piece drops wax into the mouth of a sleeping man (r.), to the 
amusement of his neighbour. Over the chimney-piece is a large clock-face, 
the hands indicating 10.56; above it is a carved owl and the words About 
your business. Beneath the design: Gemmen At a General Meeting, you 
Impowered me whenever the situation of public affairs Ran down & the main 
Spring of good order Broke, then Gemmen as I before said you Empowerd 
me to call you together; now is your Time, & a moment lost belike may never 
be Regaind, unless you exert yourselves to unhing [sic] that bold Monster 
Sedition who Stalks abroad in Broad Day Light Gemmen to destroy our 
Glorious Constitution & Throw tJie Balance of power from its place & Canker 
our principles with the Rust of Democracy, Gemmen its unknown the Villany 
thats abroad there are wheels within wheels that Regulate the Encreasing Tide 
of Traitorous Measures in this here big Town therefore in order to Check 



this growing Evil I have called you together^ that we may know how and 
about it. 

A satire on 'cits' and on the addresses deploring seditious meetings and 
approving of the measures taken against them which were made in opposi- 
tion to the petitions against the Treason and Sedition Bills, see No, 
8687, &c. Two Deputy Aldermen (and others) presented such an address 
on 25 Nov. Lond. Chron., 28 Nov. 1795. Perhaps a satire on Birch, one 
of the two Deputies, who was noted as a 'city-orator'. City Biography, 
1800, p. 152. See Baker, Biog. Dram., s.v. Birch, and Vol. vi. 
8|x8f in. PI. 14x91 in. 


/ C [Cruikshank.] 

London Published Decern^ i lygS by S W Fores N 3 Piccadilly — 
Folios of Carecatures Lent out for the Evening. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Pitt as Gulliver strides 
across the design stooping to put an extinguisher over a crowd of gesticula- 
ting Lilliputians (r.) confined within a hoop inscribed Copenhagen. He is 
dressed as a watchman, with long coat in whose belt is a rattle ; his lantern 
is inscribed For Protecting His Majesty's Person; its rays are directed on 
the crowd. He wears a peaked hunting-cap and the coat is blue with red 
facings, indicating the Windsor uniform. His extinguisher is surmounted 
by a crown, and inscribed For Preventing Seditious Meetings. He says : Aye! 
Aye! My Seditious Lads Pm down upon You Pll Darken your Day lights 
Pll stop your Throats. 

Among the Lilliputians are Stanhope (1.), wearing a bonnet-rouge, in 
profile to the 1., both arms held up; Fox, full-face, and Sheridan next him 
in profile to the r. are conspicuous. A thin man in the centre, raised above 
the crowd, and haranguing them, is probably Thelwall. They say: He'll 
put us out to a Certainty. 

A satire on the Treason and Sedition Bills, which became law on 
18 Dec, see No. 8687, &c. For the meetings at Copenhagen House see 
No. 8685. The debates on the Bills {Pari. Hist, xxxii. 301, 326, 334, &c.) 
turned largely on the (alleged) connexion between the meeting at Copen- 
hagen House and the attack on the King (see No. 8681). 
"16X171 in. 


[Collings del. Barlow /.] 

Engraving. Carlton House Magazine, iv. 359. Two monks have been flung 
to the ground by a mule whose kicking hind legs appear on the r. Three 
other monks flee in terror. Trees form a background. The text explains 
that religion is 'getting out of fashion', France has set the example which 
England seems inclined to follow, by saying that bishops and priests are 
but men. 

For 'dechristianisation' see No. 8350. The reissue of part of a plate 
published in the Attic Miscellany, ii. 153 ; the other part of the design is 
No. 8645. 
6f X4I in. B.M.L., P.P. 5448. 

209 P 



[? West.] 

Pu¥ DecenV 13 1795 by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the corner of 
Sockville S*, NB folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull, fat and grotesque, half-lies 
on the ground, supported on his 1. hand, and looking up with goggling and 
terrified eyes at Pitt, who rams a document inscribed Conven\tion\ down 
his throat with the butt-end of a musket. Pitt, his head in profile to the r., 
legs wide astride, holds his weapon in both hands, saying : What it sticks 
in your Throat does it? Oh I'll ram it down I warrant you, and when it is 
once past, you'll easily digest it ? You must not be obstinate Johnny ; when Laws 
are made you have nothing to do but to Obey them!!! Pitt is very thin ; in 
spite of the vigour of his action he has an expression of alarm. 

A satire on the Seditious Meetings and Treasonable Practices Bills 
(popularly called Convention Bills), see No. 8687, &c. The words here 
attributed to Pitt were spoken (with some qualifications) by Horsley, 
Bishop of Rochester, in a debate on the latter Bill: 'In fact, he did not know 
what the mass of the people in any country had to do with the laws but 
to obey them, with the reserve of their undoubted right to petition against 
any particular law. . . . ' For this he was attacked by Lauderdale. Pari. 
Hist, xxxii. 258, 264; Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, ii. 141-2. Cf. Nos. 9046, 

J* Qy d: etf: 

Pu¥ Def if^ 1795' by H. Humphrey, 37, New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A close parody of 
West's picture, The Death of Wolfe (1771). The three officers supporting 
the mortally wounded Pitt are (1. to r.) Burke, Pepper Arden (Master of 
the Rolls), and Dundas. From Burke's pocket projects a paper Reflections 
upon £3700 P^ Ann. (The policy indicated by his famous book, see 
No. 7675, &c., had been rewarded by two pensions, see No. 8654.) Dundas, 
wearing a kilt, offers Pitt a glass of wine (in place of stanching his wound) ; 
a bottle of Port projects from his coat-pocket. The officer behind holding 
the British flag is identified by Lord Holland as Chatham and the man 
who supports him as Powys, noted for his propensity to tears (see No. 
6642). The White Horse of Hanover (cf. No. 8691, &c.) on the flag is more 
conspicuous than in West's picture, and a scroll inscribed Magna Chart[a] 
has been added. 

In the group facing Pitt the place of the Mohawk Indian seated on the 
ground is taken by Loughborough, half-naked, the purse of the Great Seal 
replacing the Indian's beaded bag, the mace that of his musket, a blood- 
stained headsman's axe that of his tomahawk. In place of the beaded head- 
dress is the Chancellor's wig surmounted by a monster with the head of 
a cock, whose limbs are snakes. The two men who lean forward to Wolfe, 
pointing back to the messenger with the news of victory, are dressed as 
running-footmen in livery and hold the long sticks with the head enclosing 
an egg carried by these men. Ink-pots are slung across their shoulders by 
bands inscribed i** Treasury Runner and 2*^ Tre . . ., showing that they are 



the two Secretaries to the Treasury, George Rose and Charles Long. 
Grenville, in peer's robes, stands between Lord Mansfield and Windham, 
who supports him. 

In place of West's handsome young officer who runs up with the French 
flag is a man with the face of a demon holding a tattered tricolour flag 
inscribed Libertas, its shaft broken. A large bonnet-rouge lies on the 

The couple who stand on the extreme r. watching Pitt with clasped hands 
are Richmond and a man with a wooden leg. Richmond, in general's 
uniform, his bald head contrasting with the luxuriant hair of West's 
corresponding figure, has a cannon slung to his back to indicate his Master- 
ship of the Ordnance (cf. No. 6921, &c.) in which, however, he had been 
succeeded by Cornwallis (Feb. 1795), see No. 8341. His weeping com- 
panion has been identified as Wilberforce, though his wooden leg might 
indicate Brook Watson, Commissary- General (see vol. vi). 

The background differs from West's picture. In place of the confused 
fighting and the smoke which surrounds the Heights of Abraham, the 
Ministerial cavalry advance in even line, rank upon rank, and put to flight 
a small body of sansculottes with bonnets-rouges (1.). They have a standard 
on which is a crown. Beneath the title : " We have overcome all Opposi- 
tion! exclaimed the Managers, "/'m satisfied." said the Dying 

Hero, & Expired in the Moment of Victory. 

To Benj^ West Es(f President of the Royal Academy, this attempt to 
Emulate the Beauties of his unequal' d Picture, of the "Death of Gen^ Wolfe", 
is most respectfully submitted, by the Author. 

A satire on the passing of the Treason and Sedition Bills (see No. 
8687, &c.) which became law on 18 Dec, similar in spirit to No. 8691. 
The heavy Ministerial forces are entirely disproportioned to the tiny body 
of (unarmed) sansculottes. For Gillray's attitude towards history painting 
cf. No. 7584. 

Sneyd wrote to Gillray, 31 Dec. 1795: 'The Great Wolf is very capital 
indeed, and I regret with you that Mr. Canning did not make his debut 
in Mrs H's window in so excellent a print.' Bagot, Canning and his Friends, 
1909, i. 56-7. For West's picture see Whitley, Artists arid their Friends in 
England lyoo-iygg, i, 281 f. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 195 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 140. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 

[I. Cniikshank.] 

London Pu¥ Dec" 21^ I795 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly. Folios 
of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.) and Fox face each other, their 
heads in profile. Pitt's face, hair, and elegant riding-dress are spattered 
with mud ; he holds a hat and switch, and stands with bent knees, saying, 

These are the Blessed effects of Your Patriotism, & be D to you. Fox, 

neatly dressed and very fat, holding his hands to his chest, grins broadly, 
saying : 

Why dost thou shake thy Dirty Locks at me ? 

Thou canst not say I did it — Muddy Banquo! 



A satire on Pitt's unpopularity, owing to dearth and military failure, see 
No. 8664, &c., and to repressive measures which were violently opposed 
by the Opposition. See No. 8687, &c. For Fox as Macbeth cf. No. 9244. 
lof X14I in. 


Puh Dec'' 23 lygs by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly the Corner of Sack- 

ville Street NB Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening. 
Engraving (coloured impression). A lean Frenchman, probably an emigre, 
and a fat Englishman face each other in profile. The Frenchman (1.), who 
has a long thin queue, ruffled shirt, and wears a spencer (see No. 8192) 
over his coat, leans on a tasselled cane, and says with raised forefinger, 
Pray Monsieur what be de meaning of theese Convention Bills? The shorter 
Englishman, who is very obese and wears clerical bands, his stick under his 
arm, his hand thrust in the pocket of his old-fashioned waistcoat, looks up 
at the Frenchman with a grotesque scowl, shouting Hold your Jaw!! 

A satire on the Treasonable Practices and Seditious Meetings Bills, see 
No. 8687, &c. 
12X9I i^- 



Pub^ Dec'' 24^^ 1795 by H Humphrey New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Ministers sit at a round dinner-table 
guzzling guineas, while through the window is seen a hungry mob. Pitt, 
in profile to the 1., sits on the r., a large fish made of guineas on a dish 
before him, of which he shovels huge lumps into his gaping mouth; he 
sits on a Treasury chest which is closed by a padlock inscribed WP. 
Opposite him on the extreme 1., seated on the woolsack, is Loughborough, 
indicated by an elongated Chancellor's wig in back view (cf . No. 6796) ; 
he clutches a large bowl of Royal Turtle Soup, holding a large ladle-full 
of guineas to his mouth. The others sit on the farther side of the table : 
Grenville next Loughborough, Dundas in the middle, Pepper Arden next 
Pitt. Grenville stoops, putting his mouth on the level of his dishful of 
guineas. Dundas, wearing a plaid, gnaws a fish which he holds in both 
hands. Arden, between Pitt and Dundas, holds a lump of coins on his fork. 
Between him and Dundas are three bottles labelled Bur[gundy'], Cham- 
paign, Port. On the table are sauce-boats and small dishes full of guineas. 
Before Dundas are two glasses of wine. 

At the near side of the table, between Loughborough and Pitt, is a group 
of three sacks on each side of which is a large wine-cooler filled with bottles. 
The central sack is : Product of New Taxes upon John Bulls Property. On 
its mouth rests a small basket of potatoes inscribed Potatoe Bread to be 
given in Charity. The other sacks are labelled Secret Service Money. 
Behind (r.), three steaming dishes are being brought in, held high by foot- 
men (their heads obscured): a haunch of venison, a sirloin, and a large 
bird. They wear, not livery, but the Windsor uniform, and the sym- 
metrical pair immediately behind Pitt are probably the two Treasury 
Secretaries, Rose and Long; this is supported by Gillray's Lilliputian 



Substitutes (i8oi). On the wall are two placards : Proclamation for a General 
Fast, in order to avert the impending Famine and Substitutes for Bread 
Venison, Roast Beef, Poultry, Turtle Soup, Fish, boild in Wine, Ragouts, 
Jellies &c. Burgundy, Champaign, Tokay, &c., &c. The heads of men wear- 
ing bonnets-rouges are seen through the window ; they hold up a loaf on 
a pole with a scroll inscribed 14 Pence p^ Quartern and two placards: 
Petition from the Starving Swine (see No. 8500, &c.) and Grant us the 
Crumbs which drop from your Table. Beneath the title: To the Charitable 
Committee, for reducing the high price of Corn, by providing Substitutes for 
Bread in their own Families, this representation of the Hard Shifts made by 
the Framers & Signers of the Philanthropic Agreement, is most respectfully 

Ministers are devouring the fishes of office without the loaves. Measures 
for reducing the consumption of wheat were debated in the Commons 
on II and 16 Dec. Proposals included mixing rye, barley, and potatoes 
with wheat and making coarser bread, &c. An agreement was approved 
by which the signatories undertook to reduce the consumption of wheat 
in their households by at least a third. Dundas approved the principle : 
'that while the rich were enjoying other luxuries, they should diminish 
their consumption of bread, that more . . . should be left for the use of 
the poor . . . '. It was also said that in one of the Westminster parishes 
'1400 loaves, of an inferior quality, were distributed weekly among the 
poor'. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 687-700. For Fasts ordered by Proclamation see 
No. 8428, &c. For the dearth see No. 8664, &c. ; for food prices, No. 
8665, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 195-6. Wright and Evans, No. 135. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
8^X131 in. 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Dec* 26 lygs by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caracatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, assailed by an angry mob, is gallop- 
ing for shelter to the gate of the [Tre\asury (1.), which his horse's head has 
just reached. He stoops forward to escape a shower of brick-bats, onions, 
eggs, cats, &c. A cat strikes his face, an egg, broken against the Treasury 
wall, bursts into his mouth. A man holds his horse by the tail, helped by 
a sailor and another man who form a chain. A tall man ( ? Thelwall) is 
about to hurl a cat which he holds by the tail. Another cat, a wig, a shoe, 
a rat, &c., are flying through the air. A Bill to Prevent Sedition is behind 
Pitt and above the heads of the crowd. A bulldog, his collar inscribed 
[John] Bull, runs viciously under Pitt's horse, about to bite. Pitt's horse 
has a saddle-cloth on which is a crown and is evidently the White Horse 
of Hanover, cf. No. 8691, &c. On the Treasury wall is a torn placard: 
Proclation [sic] looo. . . . 

A satire on the unpopularity resulting from the Seditious Meetings and 
Treasonable Practices Bills, see No. 8687, &c. After the attack on the 
King (see No. 8681) a proclamation was immediately issued offering ,^1,000 
reward for discovery of the 'authors, actors or abettors'. Hist, of Two 
Acts . . ., 1796, pp. 21-2. See No. 8664, &c. 
8^X13 in. 





[ ? Newton.] 

London Pu¥ by Will"" Holland^ N'> 50 Oxford 5*, De(f iyg5 

Engraving (coloured impression). Sheridan (1.) and Fox (r.) face each 
other in profile across a narrow table on which they lean with folded arms. 
They are large H.L. figures. Their lips are closed by padlocks (see No. 
8693), their faces register anger and alarm. Above their heads: Mwm, — 
is the order of the Day!! See No. 8687, &c. 

T. French. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A man in ragged clothes stands, heavily 
shackled, directed to the r. His mouth is closed by a padlock, his hands 
are tied behind him. Below the title : the Admiration of the World; the 
Envy of Surrounding Nations; &c &c. 

Probably a satire on the Sedition and Treason Acts, known as the Con- 
vention Acts, see No. 8687, &c. For the padlocked mouth see No. 8693, &c. 
It is probably aimed at Pitt's whole policy of repression, embodied also in 
the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, May 1794. See Rose, Pitt and 
the Great War, chap, vii ; P. A. Brown, England and the French Revolution, 
pp. i5off. Cf. No. 871 1. 

A copy with alterations by W. Spencewas published byT. Spence in 1796. 

8711 A FREE BORN ENGLISHMAN! [? 1795]' 
Engraving (coloured impression). A grotesque man, lean and ragged, 
stands in profile to the r., his mouth closed by a padlock inscribed No 
Grumbling. His hands are tied behind his back, but his 1. hand awkwardly 
holds a pen and a paper: Freedom of the Press | Transportation. He wears 
heavy leg-irons chained to an iron ring round his waist. One of his feet, 
bare except for fragments of leather, rests on Magna Charta, a book with 
torn binding, the other on a torn paper: Bill of Rights, across which lies 
the handle of a headsman's axe whose blade (1.) is inscribed Law of Libel. 
On the ground (r.) is his cap of Liberty. A bird pecks at his bald head. 

Behind (1.) is a tumbledown house on which is a placard: M' Bull 
removed by the Tax Gatherers over the Way. In front of it sits a woman ; 
a child, a naked infant, and a dead or dying dog are beside her. Before the 
group is the inscription Free discussion — a farce \ Right of Petitioning, 
reserved to Families only. On the r. is a debtors' prison, a man walks past 
it, out-at-elbows and empty-handed, trying to ignore the appealing hands 
and faces pushed through the bars of the window, above which projects 
a sign : Pray Remember the poor Debtors. Below the window is the contribu- 
tion box. Beneath is an inscription: Tampering at Elections — allowed to 
Ministers only!! Lord Lieutennants of Counties & other Local Authorities 
must be tools of government — for Necessary Purposes, employ Clerical Mages- 
trates. Beneath the title: The Admiration of the World!!! And the Envy 
of Surrounding Nations!!!!! 

' Imprint cut off. 'No Gnimbling' suggests that the print was originally issued 
in connexion with the Bills of 1795. Some of the inscriptions may relate to 18 19. 



Apparently a satire on the Treason and Sedition Bills, see No. 8687, &c., 
and probably also on the Scottish Trials of 1793-4, see Nos. 8359-63, 
8506-12. For the padlocked mouth cf. No. 8693, &c. ; for 'No Grumbling', 
No. 8646, &c. Cf. No. 8710. 

Copied by G. Cruikshank, Reid, No. 228; see also ibid.. No. 229. 

Reissued, Fores, 15 Dec. 1819. (A. de R. xv. 194.) 
I if X 8| in. 'Caricatures', xii. 3. 

THE SWINE [? 1795] 

WOKInv' [O'Keefe.] 

London Pu¥ by P. Roberts 28 Middle Row Holbom 
Engraving. Pitt, leaping through the air and surrounded by demons, 
pursues (1. to r.) fleeing swine with human heads. In his r. hand he flourishes 
a scourge with three weighted lashes, two inscribed Powder Tax, the third 
Wig Tax. The swine wear wigs or have long hair. In his 1. hand he holds 
a sceptre terminating in a spike with which he prods a pig which turns 
round to snarl. Two of the attendant demons breathe fire and hold fire- 
brands. A small demon prods with a trident and seizes the tail of a large 
pig which leaps through the air, its wig flying from its head. Another rides 
a pig, flourishing a scourge. Four birds (r.) fly away. Pitt is grotesquely 
caricatured as are the heads of the swine. 

A satire on the powder-tax, see No. 8629, &c., and on Burke's phrase, 
'the swinish multitude ', see No. 8500, &c. The imprint may indicate a 
reissue later. 
8f Xi3f in. 

PIPER. [? 1795] 

. . .^ idor del^ [? Traditor] Jtistitia sculpsit 

Engraving (outline). Probably an Irish print. A design in outline with 
many figures grouped symmetrically in front of the colonnade of the Dublin 
Parliament House, whose dome is on fire. In the centre foreground stands 
Grattan, his r. foot on the body of a man lying face downwards ; he clasps 
two money-bags inscribed: This not brass Money and L 50, 000. He turns 
his head in profile to the r. towards a group in academic dress; the fore- 
most holds out a paper: To the R* Hon^^^ Ry G — tt — n. Two boys also 
wearing gown and mortar-board stand beside him, one holding a book: 
Paine's Works. A symbolical figure on the extreme r. turns her back on 
the group and walks away with bowed head; she wears quasi-classical 
draperies with a winged helmet, and holds in her r. hand a small globe on 
which rests the point of a triangle ( ? symbolizing Learning or Geometry). 

The prostrate figure lies with his hands on a sword below which is a 
paper: Lord C — // — es Answer. Beside it is an inverted earl's coronet which 
a dog is befouling. A paper : Submission to M^ B d lies beside him. 

On the 1. another group advances; the foremost, a man wearing top- 
boots, holds out a paper inscribed Catholic Address ; from his pocket hangs 
a paper: Widow Lincoln's Account. The next man holds under his arm a 
document inscribed Licence for Dram?; from his pocket hangs a paper: 
Settlement with Ja^ Connor of Rush. These two are followed by rough- 
looking peasants one of whom holds a flag inscribed No figure money. The 

' Mutilated. 



last of this group on the extreme 1. is a grinning satyr, taller than the others, 
holding a large horn or cornucopia inscribed Whisky. 

Immediately behind Grattan are two men, both with shackled ankles. 

The nearer (r.) holds out a paper inscribed To M^^ alias Jackson 

Bridge Street. Under his arm is a paper: Observations by D^ Drennan. The 
other (1.) wears a barrister's wig and gown; under his r. arm is a large 
document: Resolutions of the United Irishmen. He looks down dejectedly; 
over his 1. arm hangs a bag inscribed M.T. (empty). 

In the middle distance (1.) a man with shackled ankles holds out his 
hands to a woman with downcast head who holds a bottle labelled Poison. 
(He is evidently the William Jackson who died of poison, previously given 
by his wife, while in court to receive sentence for high treason on 30 April 
1795.) On the r. a man on horseback rides off to the r. with a halter round 
his neck; another well-dressed man wearing a cocked hat holds the end 
of a halter which is round his neck. Both are probably portraits. 

In the background (1.) on undulating ground are a number of gibbets 
from which hang one, two, or three bodies. On the r., as a pendant to this, 
men with muskets, tiny figures, fire at a larger body armed only with sticks, 
some of whom lie on the ground. 

A comprehensive satire on the events of 1795 in Ireland, showing the 
disorder which broke out after the recall of Fitzwilliam (see No. 8632) and 
culminated in the battle of the Diamond (21 Sept., when Catholics attacked 
a smaller but better-armed body of Protestants and were defeated), probably 
here depicted. On the recall, many addresses from Catholics (and from 
the Protestants of Londonderry) were made to Grattan, including one 
from the 'Roman Catholics of Dublin' and the 'Students of the University 
of Dublin' (Mar.-Apr.). Life and Times of Henry Grattan, iv. 215 ff. 
For the gift of ^^50,000 in 1782 see No. 6003. The United Irishmen were 
compromised by the trial of Jackson, showing their relations with France. 
State Trials, xxv. 783 ff. Dr. Drennan, the poet, was a leading member 
of the United Irishmen ; he was tried for sedition and acquitted 26 June 
1794. Curran, perhaps the barrister here depicted, defended Drennan and 
Jackson. For Jackson see No. 7059; for his death in Court see Life of 
J. P. Curran by his son, i. 327-31. The prostrate earl is probably Clonmell, 
Chief Justice in Ireland, who had been compelled to apologize for his gross 
rudeness to the bar (see D.N.B.) ; he tried Jackson. 
11^X16^ in. 





Pu¥ May 26'* J795, hy H. Humphrey New Bond Str 

Engraving (coloured impression). T.Q.L. portrait of the Duke of Queens- 
berry, old and rakish, standing in profile to the r., and leering through a 
quizzing-glass. He wears a battered hat and ruffled shirt. His cane hangs 
from a coat-button. See No. 8867. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 196. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, E. B. 
Chancellor, Lives of the Rakes, v. 116. 
7|X3iin. (pi.). 


J' Gy des*" etfed 

Pu¥ June 23^ 1795 by H Humphrey N 57 New Bond Street 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted. A man walks away from the spectator, 
slightly to the r., showing a whiskered r. cheek. He wears a high round hat 
with a curved brim, sparrow-tail coat, and spurred top-boots. His shoulders 
are sprinkled with hair-powder (see No. 8190, &c.). In his r. hand is a 
riding-switch. He is in shadow. On the extreme r. is the arm and 1. leg 
of a man in the exact position of his shadow, dressed in the same way. 

Said to be Thomas Thornton (1757-1823), Col. of the W. Riding 
Militia till 1795, sportsman and writer on sport, see D.N.B., who believed 
that he resembled the Duke of Hamilton (see No. 8175, &c.) and imitated 
his gait. 

Wright and Evans, No. 406. Reprinted, G.W.G.y 1830. 
10 X 6| in. With border, 1 1 1 X ^fi in. 


f Gy des^ etfec* 

Pu¥ June 29^* 1795 by H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A W.L. caricature- 
portrait of Prince William Frederick of Gloucester in profile to the r. wear- 
ing military uniform. He is very thin, elongated, and knock-kneed, and 
stands with his r. hand in his breeches pocket. His profile resembles that 
of his uncle, George III (cf. No. 9014). 

Said to be an excellent likeness of Prince William (1776-1834), who had 
served in Flanders in 1794 as Major-General. Creevey (in 1821) called the 
Duke of Gloucester (as he became) 'slice of Gloucester' or 'Slice'. Creevey 
Papers, 1904, ii. 6, 7, &c. Cf. No. 9290. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 197 (copy). Wright and Evans, No. 407. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
9^X4iin. ; 



f & des*" etfed 

Pu¥ July ^ 1795, by H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A man walks on tiptoe away from the 
spectator. He is ungainly, the I. shoulder lower than the r., with ill- 
dressed hair in a small tail. He wears a grotesque cocked hat poised on his 
head, an old-fashioned coat, and striped stockings. The stone wall of a 
house, showing part of a street-door and one window, forms a background. 

John Burges, M.D. (1745-1807), a distinguished Fellow of the College 
of Physicians in Warwick Lane, whose health was too weak for general 
practice. See D.N.B. 

Grego, G£//rfly, p. 198. Wright and Evans, No. 418. Reprinted, G.^T.G., 


f G^ des"" et fed 

Pu¥ July 4^ 1795 hy H. Humphrey N" 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A creature with the head of Sir Joseph 
Banks, a body defined by the ribbon of the Bath and roughly in the form 
of a chrysalis, and with the wings of a butterfly, rises (r.) from a mud flat 
surrounded by sea. His head and body are decorated with trails of leaves ; 
on his wings are sea-creatures: a shell, lobster, starfish, &c., and an (empty) 
cornucopia. He wears the jewel of the Bath with three insects (in place of 
crowns) in the centre. He is rising towards rays which radiate from a sun 
enclosing a crown in the upper r. corner of the design. Caterpillars are 
emerging from the mud flat. Beneath the title: Description of the New Bath 
Butterfly — taken from the "Philosophical Transactions for 1795" — "This 
Insect first crawl d into notice from \ among the Weeds & Mud on the Banks 
of the South Sea; & being afterwards placed in a Warm Situation by the 

Royal Society, was | changed by the heat of the Sun into its present form 

it is noticed & Valued Solely on account of the beautiful Red which encircles \ 
its Body, & the Shining Spot on its Breast; a Distinction which never fails 
to render Caterpillars valuable. 

A satire on the investiture of Banks with the Order of the Bath on i July 
1795. For his South Sea expedition see No. 4695; for the presidency of 
the Royal Society, No. 7431. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 198 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 410. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 

8719 MODERN ELEGANCE. | A Portrait 

Pu¥ May 22^ 1795 by H Humphrey N 37 New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A lady, her head in profile to the 1., 
looks sideways at her reflection in a large wall-mirror. She wears a loose 
high-waisted dress, giving the appearance of pregnancy, her figure defined 
under its folds. Locks of hair are twined in, and escape from, a turban- 
like cap ornamented with four erect ostrich feathers. In her r. hand is a 
fan. On the floor is a patterned carpet. 



A portrait of Lady Charlotte Campbell, afterwards Bury, and also a 
satire on costume, see Nos. 8388, 8571, 8896, &c. (Lord Holland notes 
'the face not very like'.) She was noted for wearing draperies which defined 
her beautiful figure. Lady Stafford writes, 3 Feb. 1794: 'Lady C. Campbell 
is sadly abused about her Dress. I think it very bad, but her Beauty makes 
the women severe . . . .' Private Corr. of Lord Granville Leveson Gower, 
1916, p. 79. Cf. the first of the satires introduced as (supposed) passages 
from Ireland's Vortigern (see No. 8883): 

I. Lady Ch. C— b— 11. 

"Looke what a shape! 

"Limbs fondlie fashioned in the wanton moulde 
"Of Nature! — ^Warm in Love's slie wytcheries 
"And scorninge all the draperie of Arte, 
"A spider's loome now weaves her thinne attire, 
* * * * [Bate-Dudley,] Passages . . . on the great 
literary Trial of Vortigern and Rowena, p. 17. 
See No. 8720, an altered impression. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 196. Wright and Evans, No. 400. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1800. Reproduced, Paston, PI. xlviii. 
iifx8 in. 

LATION. [? 1795] 


Engraving. A version of No. 8719, altered by erasion and water-colour, 
and with water-colour additions. The profile is altered, the neck and arms 
are thicker. Curls have been added round the forehead and three of the 
four feathers of the head-dress have been replaced by two birch-rods. In 
the r. hand, in place of a fan, is a birch-rod. On the ground (1.) are the 
legs of a girl kneeling to receive punishment ; another kneels beside her, 
the legs covered by petticoats. On the r. are books and an overturned stool 
suggesting a struggle. On the panelled wall, flanking the large mirror, 
are pictures: Justice holding scales and a birch-rod (1.) and (r.) a young 
woman disrobing. Attached to the print, and in water-colour, are the title 
(as above), 'Gillray, 1792', and inscription: 'Vide Monthly Recorder June 
the i^* 1792. The Pupils of Birch or the Severe Aunt a Scholastic Scene 
Frequently Performed by Lady Eliza W******. The Beauty of Worcester 
upon her Juvinile Offenders Her usual recepta for the Cure of Idleness, 
Carelessness. &c. &c &c. See the Vth Chap^ of the above work.' Endorsed 
in the same hand: 'vide The Covent Garden Monthly Recorder June i^' 
1792. The Pupils of Birch The Severe Aunt and Governess and the 
Lovely Flagellation.' 

The print cannot be earlier than No, 8719. 
ii|x8 in. 

burg Theatricals 

f Qy des** et fed 

Pu¥ June 13^^ 1795 by H. Humphrey N° 3y. New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). An enormously fat lady stands in profile 
to the 1., holding a bowl (resembling a punch-bowl), her 1. hand on her 
hip, holding up the frilled apron which drapes her quilted petticoat. She 



wears ringlets with a small ribbon-trimmed straw hat poised on the side 
of her head. Her girth is accentuated by her quasi-peasant costume, with 
laced bodice, and flowered over-dress looped up in festoons, giving her a 
globular contour. Beneath the design: 

" Ay, here 's the masculine to the feminine gender" (words spoken by 

Cowslip, the young dairymaid in O'Keefe's Agreeable Surprise). Below 
the title: 

''As a Cedar Tall & Slender; 

"Sweet Cowslip's grace 

"Is her nom'tive case, 

"And she 's of the feminine gender." [Song in Act Ii.] 

A satire on the Countess of Buckinghamshire, who frequently performed 
at the private theatre of the Margravine of Anspach at Brandenburg House, 

Grego, Gillray, p. 196. Wright and Evans, No. 403. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Paston, PI. xxxvii. 

jf' Qy des effect 

Pu¥ June 2cf^ 1795, by H. Humphrey N jy New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). A tall handsome lady walks diagonally 
forwards from 1. to r., her 1. hand on the arm of a much shorter companion 
with a larger head, perhaps a young girl. The latter, though her dress is 
simple, has a grotesquely high bunch of erect feathers in her turban, and 
holds a large fan. The tall lady wears an elaborate high-waisted dress, 
with voluminous petticoats and a flowing train. Drapery is twisted in her 
hair and also round her waist and festooned about her skirts. She wears 
two feathers in her hair. In the background ladies with erect feathers in 
their hair are freely sketched. An officer in back view leads a lady by the 
hand, an enormous cocked hat in his 1. hand. Beneath the title: Characters 
in High Life. Sketch' d at the New Rooms, Opera House. 
"Delightful Task! to teach the young Idea how to shoot!" 
They are identified as the Duchess of Rutland and her unmarried sister 
[sic]. Lady Gertrude Manners. She had no unmarried sister-in-law. (Her 
unmarried sister was Lady Elizabeth Fitzroy.) More probably one of her 
two young daughters, Lady Elizabeth, m. 1798, or Lady Katherine, m. 
1800. Cf. No. 8567. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 196. Wright and Evans, No. 404. Reprinted, G.W.G. 
Reproduced, Paston, PI. 1. 

jf' Qy des"" etfec* 

Pu¥June 22^ 1795- by H. Humphrey. N" 37. New Bond Street. 
Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Design in an oval. 
H.L. portrait, scarcely caricatured, of a woman in profile to the r., smiling. 
She has a long nose and projecting chin, and wears a muslin cap, her hair 
hangs down her back with the ends looped beneath its heavy mass. Her 
neck is much swathed and she wears a fichu over her dress. 
6^X5 in. With border, 7^X5^ in. 




/ C [Cruikshank,] 

London Pub Nov'' 7 1795 by S W Fores N 30 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Marquis of Salisbury, holding a 
long wand of office and wearing military uniform, with a plumed cap and 
spurred boots, walks stiffly in profile to the 1., his coat-tails flying out 
behind him. His gold key of office is hung to a blue ribbon which 
crosses his shoulder. Above his 1. boot is a garter inscribed Hone [sic]. He 
is caricatured, and has a long projecting nose. Below the title: The Tallest, 
Fittest , Properest Man to walk before the King!!! 

Probably suggested by No. 8649. Salisbury, K.G., was Colonel of the 
Herts. Militia. 

Dighton fecit 

Published as the Act directs, Nov* 6'* 1795^ by R. Dighton, Charing 

Photograph of an etching. H.L. portrait of Whitefoord (see No. 8169) in 
profile to the 1., holding an eye-glass to his r. eye. He wears a cocked hat, 
wig, and double-breasted coat, and has a cane under his 1. arm. Beneath 
the design: 

The pleasantest part of my Trade is 

To Retail Joe Miller to Ladies; 

And no Judgment is equal to mine 

In Old Pictures— Old Wit—& Old Wine. 

According to Mathias: *If you do but touch him, puns and quills alike 
stand ready on this fretful porcupine. ' Pursuits of Literature, Dialogue 
iv, 1797. 

Dighton. fecit. 

Published as the Act directs, 28^^ Not/ 1795^ by R. Dighton, Charing 

Engraving (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A H.L. portrait of 
James Hare (1749-1804), the wit, M.P. for Knaresborough, see D.N.B. 
He is in profile to the 1., wearing a cocked hat. 
4|X4 in. 

8727 DERBY & JOAN. 
Drawn & Etched by Digh\ton\. 

Published as the Act directs, Nov* 6^ ^795^ ^y ^- Dighton, Charing 

Engraving (coloured impression). Miss Farren (1.) and Lord Derby (r.) 
lean on the front of a box, each holding an opera-glass. He gazes in profile 
to the 1., she turns her head to look fixedly at him. Her 1. hand is in an 
enormous muff, Derby's 1. hand, holding his glass, rests on her 1. elbow. 
He is slightly caricatured. A play-bill: The Constant Couple or a Trip to the 



Oaks . . . to conclude with the Weding Day. Above their heads is etched 
an earl's coronet above crossed palm branches. Beneath the title : 

Long look' d for — Come at Last. 
Riches — Honor — & Titles, the reward of Virtue. 

The marriage did not take place until i May 1797 (see No. 9074). They 
are Derby and Joan in Nos. 6263 (1783), 9075, 9077. The Oaks was Lord 
Derby's place in Surrey: Burgoyne's Maid of the Oaks was written and 
performed for Derby's marriage (1774). 
6f X8f in. 

J N lygi [Nixon.] 

Puh Jany ijgs by E & S. Harding Pall Mall 

Engraving. A full-face sketch of a man (identified as Dr. Willis) is placed 
side by side with the full-face head of Trim M^ Nixons Cat to stress a 
resemblance. Willis has a bald head with tufts of hair which correspond 
to the cat's ears. His drooping, slit-like eyes, indeterminate nose, and thin 
lips drawn down at the corners complete the resemblance. 

For the Rev. Francis Willis, M.D. (1718-1807), who attended George III 
in 1788-9, see No. 7394, &c. and D.N.B. 

SQUARE; . . .] 

JNdelf [Nixon.] 

Pub. by L Herbert Great Russell Street Bloomsbury Aug^ 12 iyg5. 

Engraving. From the 'Ode \ut supra] . . ., by Peregrine Pindar'. James 
Lackington climbs into a coach, looking over his r. shoulder at a group of 
jeering bystanders (r.). His r. foot rests on a pile of three large books: 
Bible, Tillotson, Common Prayer. Under his r. arm is a large volume. My 
Ozvn Memoirs. From his pocket protrudes a paper: Puffs & Lies for my 
Book. On the coach are the letters J L. The coachman, on the extreme 1., 
looks down at his master with amusement, his hammer-cloth is inscribed : 
Small Profits do great Things. In the foreground is an open book, on one 
page an oval portrait, on the other : The first 40 years of the Life oflL. This 
a dog is befouling. The spectators are a barber's boy holding a wig, a 
butcher, an old woman, and three men. Behind them is a large corner 
house, Lackington's 'Temple of the Muses' in Finsbury Square. Across 
it runs the inscription 5000 P^ C cheaper than any Bookseller in the World. 
From three open sash-windows amused spectators look down on Lacking- 
ton. Others stand on the flat roof, from which rises a tower with a large flag. 
Lackington (1746-1815) published in 1791 the Memoirs, which are 
satirized in the Ode (B.M.L. 644. k. 24/12); they describe his successful 
career as a bookseller by means of selling cheaply for cash, and his pleasure 
at setting up a country house and coach (on which the motto was 'Small 
profits do great things', op. cit., p. 234). His shop, 'The Temple of the 
Muses', at the corner of Finsbury Square, was one of the sights of London. 
Charles Knight, Shadows of the Old Booksellers, 1865, pp. 282-3. Cf. 
No. 9085. 




Pu¥ Feby 15 iyg$ by Ja^ Aitken N" 14 Castle Stree Leicester Square 

Engraving. Kemble (1.) seizes a young woman round the waist, she 
struggles to free herself; he holds her 1. hand in his r., the fingers inter- 
laced. He wears a cloak, slashed doublet, and hose. Behind him (1.) is an 
overturned chair, on the r. a table from which slide the ink-stand and a 
paper: \Arti] cles of Agreement . . . Del Campo M^ Bombast She must have no 
objection to take any Male Part whatever in either Tragedy Comedy or Farces 
thats ojferd to Her. Kemble tramples on an open book (1.): Rules for good 
acting serving to shew the late Dav^ Garricks mode of playing Erronious a 
Drawling delivery Justifiable [cf. No. 7590]. A woman, probably Mrs. 
Kemble, enters by a door (r.), her 1. hand raised in astonishment. A man 
looks over her shoulder. 

On the handsome chimney-piece is a statuette of Shakespeare, a burlesque 
of Kent's monument in Westminster Abbey, his r. forefinger pointing down 
at the struggle. He wears a grotesque mask which smiles sardonically. On 
the wall (r.) is a picture of a woman wearing weeds and holding a little boy 
by the hand (probably Kemble's wife, the widow of William Brereton). 
After the title: 

III plunge into a Sea of my Desires 

I II tear up pleasures by the Roots 

And Quench my Fires tho I Drown my Fame 

Rochesters Valentinian Tragedy 

The lady is Maria Theresa De Camp (1774-1838), then acting with 
Kemble at Drury Lane, afterwards wife of Charles Kemble. Towards the 
end of 1795 Kemble published an apology in the newspapers for having 
made unwelcome and over-violent advances to her. D.N.B. She had 
played Macheath in The Beggar's Opera at the Haymarket in 1792. 


/ Kay lygs 

Engraving. A group of six officers and six ladies walking from r. to 1., all 
in profile. In front walks General Francis Dundas, then Colonel of the 
Scots Brigade (afterwards 94th). In the centre, the tallest figure, wearing 
the cap and feather of the Edinburgh Volunteers, is Sir Harry Jardine, 
then a lieutenant in the corps and the secretary of the Committee for raising 
it. Immediately behind him is Sir Robert Dundas of Beechwood, also an 
original member of the Edinburgh Volunteers. Behind, and in the fore- 
ground, is an officer wearing a lady's long veil over his face ; he is Captain 
Hay (on half-pay), who occasionally wore such a veil, in retaliation for the 
veils which ladies would pull down when he ogled them. The last figure 
(r.) is Lord Eglinton in Highland dress. He was Colonel of the West 
Lowland Fencibles, who wore the kilt. Two ladies, wearing the same 
heavily feathered bonnets and military coats, are the two eldest daughters 
of Sir William Maxwell of Monreith, Lt.-Col. of the West Lowland 
Fencibles, in the uniform of their father's corps, as was then fashionable. 
Three other ladies wear long transparent curtain veils from their hats. 
The other persons are unidentified. The print well illustrates Edinburgh 
society (and costume) during the Volunteer period. Grass on the ground 



probably indicates the Meadow Walks, a favourite promenade. For the 
Edinburgh Volunteers see No. 8513. 

'Collection*, No. 194. Kay, No. cclxxx. 


/. Kay fecit lygs 

Engraving. An officer in Highland dress walks in profile to the r., driven 
by a tall young woman, wearing the coat and feathered bonnet of a High- 
land officer, with breeches and high-heeled feminine shoes. She holds the 
strings of a short petticoat which is round the neck of the officer, and holds 
a whip against her r. shoulder. 

Said to be the Marquis of Breadalbane and his wife. He raised the 
Breadalbane Fencibles in 1793. The print is said to have been suggested 
by some officers of the corps who had been refused leave, and believed the 
refusal due to Lady Breadalbane. Cf. a similar satire on the Duke and 
Duchess of Gordon, Nos. 5314, 5315. 

'Collection', No. 190. Kay, No. ccxlviii. 

/. Kay fecit lygS 

Engraving. A stout man in Volunteer's uniform, wearing a large cocked 
hat and a sword hanging from a sword-belt across his shoulder, stands on 
the back of an eagle in flight, his arms by his side, and slightly thrown back 
as if to display his person. He looks at the spectator with a complacent 

He is William Grinly, an auctioneer, quartermaster of the Leith Volun- 
teers, embodied in 1795. He was vain of his appearance and was called 
the Spread Eagle from his rotundity and a strange manner of throwing out 
his legs and arms in walking. For the Scottish Volunteers cf. No. 8513, &c. 

'Collection*, No. 193. Kay, No. cxcvi. 

7. Kay lygy 

Engraving. The drill-sergeant of the Edinburgh Volunteers, Patrick Gould, 
stands (1.) in profile to the r., his cane raised, drilling an absurdly broad 
and short volunteer who stands in back view, holding his musket. 

A satire on the civic portliness of the Edinburgh Volunteers, see No. 
8513. The volunteer is intended for James Laing, a saddler. 

'Collection', No. 219. Kay, No. clxxxv. 

Rowlondson [sic] Del* 

Pub JavP j»« lygs by S. W. Fores N" 3 Piccadilly.^ 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured impression). A pretty young 

woman leans from an open street-door towards a stout fishwoman who has 

' Another imprint appears to have been erased ; this was London publish' d Sepr i 
1786, by Alex* M^Kenzie N" loi, Bertvick Street Soho. 



planted a basket of fish on the step. A second fishwoman stands beside 
her, her basket on her head, hands on her hips. The house is a corner one, 
the door has a carved pediment. Behind are low-gabled houses with case- 
ment windows. Beneath the title : 

That Fish Madam 's sweet! the girl made no reply. 

Afraid of her life {and to bid was to buy) 

The Fagg gave a volley her sister squard Trim 

Smell the fish! what it stinks Eh? you saucy young Brim. 
6fX5f in. 


FuVjaW 22^ J 795 by S W Fores N" 3 Piccadilly^ 

Aquatint (coloured impression). A pretty young woman stands behind a 

small round table making punch ; she squeezes a lemon. On the table are 

punch-bowl, bottles, and glass. Four elderly men (H.L. and T.Q.L.) gaze 

at her with admiration. One (r.) is an officer who looks at her through 

a quizzing-glass. 

5|x6| in. With border, 6^X9 in. 


T, Rowlandson 

Published November 24 iyg5 by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the 

Comer of Sackville Street — NB Folios of Caracatures Lent out for 

the Evening 
Engraving (coloured impression). A scene in the Assembly Rooms, Bath. 
The stout Master of the Ceremonies brings up an elderly man (r.) who 
bows, chapeau-bras, with an ingratiating smile, to an elderly lady seated 
against the wall in profile to the r. She looks at him with a disparaging 
expression. In the foreground (1.) a young man is talking ardently to a 
pretty young woman who inspects the room through an eye-glass. In the 
background (r.) couples are dancing with great vigour and display of leg, 
probably in a cotillon (cf. No. 7441). Above them and on the extreme 
r. is the musicians' gallery. The wall is decorated by large oval mirrors 
and candle-sconces. A chandelier hangs from the ceiling. 

The Master of the Ceremonies for the Upper or New (and more impor- 
tant) Rooms was Richard Tyson (cf. No. 7229), for the Lower Mr. King. 

Also a proof, uncoloured, without title or imprint. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 326 (reproduction). 
10X14I in. 

Two designs on one plate 

8738 HARMONY. 
T Rowlandson lygs 

Engraving (coloured impression). A lady (1.) and a yeomanry officer (r.), 
both T.Q.L., sit side by side. She has an open music-book on her lap, 
and gazes at him. He wears a high feather-trimmed cap, short tunic, and 
sabre, and is playing a flute. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 173 (reproduction), 174, describing an impression 
dated 1785, when the companion print was Discord. 

* Another imprint, date 1786, has been scored through. 

225 Q 


8739 LOVE. 

T Rowlandson lygS^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A young man seated on a settee embraces 
a young woman who lies across his knees, her head resting on the arm of 
the settee (r.). She kisses him, putting her arm round his neck. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 328. 
PI. I2f X8| in. (clipped). 'Caricatures', ix. 5. 

8740 DR BOSSY. 
A Van Assen del 

Pub. Sep. I. J795 — Sold by W. Richardson N° 2 Castle Street 
Leicester Square. 

Engraving. A scene in Covent Garden, the pediment of the church on the 
r., market stalls with plants indicated on the extreme 1. The doctor, wear- 
ing a cocked hat and sword, stands in profile to the r., holding out a 
medicine-bottle to a boy with a bandaged head. Other patients with 
crutches, a bandaged leg, &c., sit facing him in a row of chairs, while 
others stand behind (r.). Behind the doctor is a table with bottles. In the 
background are the houses of the Piazza. See No. 8183. 
2|^X3jg in. With border, 3-IX4I in. 


Pu¥ Sepr 3 lygs by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the Corner of 
Sackville Street — Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening. 

Engraving (coloured impression). On a small platform a quack doctor 
stands on the 1., while a dissenting parson wearing bands sits on a chair (r.) ; 
both lean towards their customers. Behind is a curtain with the inscription 
The cheapest Booth in the Fair. The quack, an open box of medicine-bottles 
beside him, holds out a bottle, saying. This is the only cure my Dear Friends 
for every disorder incident to the human body but for cure and comfort to your 
Souls I must beg leave to refer you to my Partner the other side of the stage. 
A woman and a man gaze up at him. 

His partner holds out a pamphlet to an elderly woman who reaches up 
eagerly for it, proffering a coin. He says: All my last books of Sermons 
going for two pence a piece cheaper by one penny than you can buy them on 
those days that I preaches in the fields: and if any of you ketchd a cold at that 
time Fd advise you to apply to my partner for a bottle or two of his Stuff. 
The heads and shoulders of two other persons complete the audience. 

Engraving. A tall obese doctor (1.) and a shorter and much slighter one (r.) 
face each other in profile. The taller, who is dressed in an old-fashioned 
manner, puts his hand in his coat-pocket and listens meditatively to the 
other, who holds out his hat and raises his r. hand. From the latter's 
pocket issues a paper: Pillula Salutarian [sic]. 

The same persons are depicted in No. 8743 by the same artist. 
9X7^ in. 

' The date appears to have been altered. 



8743 AMBO OCCIDERE PARES. [?c. 1795] 

Design in a circle. Coloured and uncoloured impressions. The profile 
busts of the two men in No. 8742 are joined together back to back, and 
stand in a dish, one head (1.) being much smaller than the other. Beside 
the smaller are a medicine phial, syringe, &c. ; beside the other, medi- 
cine phial and ( ?) pill-box. Beneath the circle is etched : 
The ^sculapian Calves Head in a Dish. 

Thus Impudence and Quackery combined. 
Produce a Janus of this Mongrel kind 
Thus Clumsy, Clownish, Corpulent, & thin. 
They Join exact like Milton's Death & Sin. 
Diam. 4i|in. PI. 7|X5|in. 

8744 BEFORE 

R^ Newton Designd et fecit 

London Pub. by W Holland N" 50 Oxford St lygS 

Engraving (coloured impression). A courtesan, impudent and alluring, 
stands with folded arms, returning the stare of a rakish-looking man, much 
caricatured, who stands, arms akimbo, in profile to the 1., a club under his 
arm, his 1. hand in his coat-pocket. On the r. a boy or dwarfish man holds 
out a hand-bill to him inscribed Leak (advertising the notorious quack pill). 
Behind the woman, who is fashionably dressed, is the open door of a house. 
9|Xi3|in. (pi.). 


Design,d & Ethd by R^ Newton 

London Pu¥ by W. Holland, Oxford Street Feb. 10, J795. 

Aquatint (coloured impression). An elderly invalid sits in an arm-chair 
in profile to the 1., looking down, with gaping mouth and face distorted 
with terror. Round him dance in a circle, holding hands, seven grotesque 
little naked demons, one wearing large jack-boots. On a round table (r.) 
are a medicine-phial and a book: Essay on the Power of Imagination. The 
parted curtains of the bed form a background. Cf. No. 9391, &c. 
i4|X9fin. 'Caricatures', X. 115. 


Designed and Ecthed by R^ Newton 

London Pub by W"" Holland N° 50 Oxford S May 13 lyg^ 

Engraving (coloured impression). A Jewish pedlar, much caricatured, with 
his open box strapped to his back, turns away aghast from a sow and a 
young pig which run towards him. His hair rises on his head. His starting 
eye-balls turn towards his box, from which a young pig looks out. In his 
1. hand is a pair of spectacles ; others are fastened to the lid of his box. 
Behind, a butcher (r.) clasps his sides in helpless laughter. The pedlar has 
just left a small inn (r.), from the window of which leans a man smoking 
and grinning. In the background (I.) is a cottage. 
9|Xi3f in. (pi.). 




Drawn & Etch'd by R Newton 

London Pu¥ by W. Holland, Oxford S^ April 3. lygs 

Engraving (coloured impression). In the middle distance (1.) a well- 
dressed man hangs from a tree. In the foreground (r.) an Irish labourer 
seated with folded arms on a stile looks over his 1. shoulder at two well- 
dressed men who stand (r.) behind a low fence shaking their fists at him. 
A third runs towards the hanged man with an expression of horror. In 
the background is a river beyond which are bare fields in which stands a 
church. Beneath the title: An Irish Gentleman, deranged in his mind, made 
two attempts one morning to drown himself, but as he was an expert swimmer, 
in spite of his wish to die, he could not help emerging from the water; so making 
to the land, he tuck'd himself up in his garters on a neighbouring tree; soon after, 
a party of his friends came on foot in pursuit of him, and saw him dangling 
in the air, while an Irish cow-keeper was whistling on a stile very near perfectly 

unconcerned "Why, you thief \ says one of them to the poor fellow, "could 

you be after standing here whistling, and see the poor Jontleman tuck himself 

up, without offering to cut him down!" "Arra, pon my conscience", says 

Paddy, "I was not so impartinent ; for as I saw the Jontleman come out of the 
water as wet as a drowned rat. Devil burn me, but I thought he had only hung 
himself up to dry!" Cf. No. 8748. 


Neddy Naboulish Pinx^from Nature 

Pu¥ Felf 14 1795 by S W Fores N° 3 Piccadilly where may be se[en 

the largest Collection of Carica^]tures in Europe Admit', j* Folios 

of Caricatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene on a curving road leading to 
a bridge over a stream in flood ; a post is inscribed To Ring's End. A man 
in back view is clumsily seated on a rough-looking horse which has just 
lost a shoe, carrying on his head a trunk labelled S^ Dennis Doylwith Speed; 
he kicks his apparently stationary mount. In the stream is a thatched 
hovel (1.) with the sign: Good dry lodgings; a man walks from it through 
the water carrying a child and a young pig. His wife stands on the bank 
wringing out her petticoat, while a large pig struggles to land. A cow looks 
from the window, two cats are on the roof. 

A board on the bridge is inscribed Dangerous when you See the 2 Small 
Posts in the Water become Invisable — if you cant Read Inquire at Davy 
Drench's whole tell you all about tt. A sailing-boat has collided with the 
bridge, and large stones fall on the heads of its two occupants. 

On the r. is a large tree ; a man sits astride a branch which he chops off", 
while a who holds a rope attached to it is looking quizzically over his 
shoulder at the rider carrying the trunk. Man and branch are about to 
fall on a barrow laden with crockery. On the tree-trunk is a board on 
which timber- workers are depicted with the inscription: 

My honest Frinnds as you pass by 
Were hard at work and very dry. 

' Mutilated. 


In the foreground (r.) a man amusedly points out the pending accident 
to a woman holding a child who stands beside him. At their feet sits a 
child eating out of the same dish as a lean pig. Cf. No. 8747. 
13! X2of in. 


G M Woodward Del I C [I. Cruikshank f.] 

London Pub: June 7 ijgS by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly corner of 
Sackville St 

Engraving (coloured impression). Three elderly hags are dressed as young 
girls, and leeringly imitate a girlish simper. One (perhaps the school- 
mistress) sits on a chair under a tree (r.) reading to the others, from 
Juvenel [sic] a Novel. In her 1. hand is another book. An Ode to Beauty. 
Beside her sits a dog clipped in the French manner. The others stand facing 
her, one closing her eyes and clasping her hands, the other, who holds a 
fan, leers at her companion. These two wear nosegays. All have high- 
waisted dress with sashes. The reader wears a straw hat tied on with a 
scarf. Behind her is a tree on whose trunk letters are carved: W and / C 
(for the artists). In the background (1.) is the corner of a house inscribed 
Young Ladies Genteely Boarded & Educated by A Bidl. No. 9312 is a 
companion print. 
ii|X9| in. 


Published as the Act directs by Pearce, Bookseller, A^" yo, Dean Street, 
Soho, 10 Jany 1795^ 

Engraving. No title. A parson, bald-headed, his gown flying behind him, 
hurries forward after a dog running off (r.) with his wig in its mouth. On 
the ground (1.) is a broad-brimmed hat. Behind (r.) is a church among 
trees. Probably by an amateur, 
i2iX9|in. (pi.). 


John Nixon lygS Etch'd by R Newton 

London Pub by W Holland N° 50 Oxford St June 10 lygS 

Engraving. An elderly couple, wearing nightcaps, lean out from a casement 
window to punish a number of plump cats who are howling and gambolling 
on the roof above their heads. The old woman holds up a broom, the man 
holds a pot whose contents he is about to throw. Other cats are on adjacent 
roofs, and are dislodging tiles. In the background, above the roofs (r.) is 
a square gothic church tower, and below (1.) is a house. 
i6jxii| in. 


Another version (coloured) of No. 8751, reversed, and differing in details, 
the design cut off just below the window from which the couple lean. The 
man says: Let me at them Katty Coogan I'll give them a dose of my Double 
Soda Water!! 

1 1^ X 8| (cropped). 'Caricatures', x. 40. 

' Another imprint has been erased. 



8752 THE CRITIC. [? c. 1795]' 

Designed by H Wigstead 

Engraving (coloured impression). A youngish man, pen in hand, sits look- 
ing at the spectator, resting his head on his 1. hand, his elbow supported 
on the (single) arm of his chair. A lean cat sits at his feet. His r. hand 
rests on a small table on which are papers and ink-stand. The room is 
poverty-stricken, with a raftered ceiling, casement window, and a piece of 
meat dangling by a string in front of the fire. On the floor are two folio 
volumes, a pitcher, and a bowl. On the wall bills or prints are pasted, one 
inscribed Theatrical . . . Puffs House of Commons. 
9|X9in. 'Caricatures', viii. 198. 



Pu¥ Nov" 9'* 1795. by H. Humphrey, N° J7, New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A stout man (r.), seated at a round 
table, tells a story to a parson on his 1., who grins broadly. Two women 
fix the raconteur with expressions of absorbed amusement, while an officer 
is more frankly amused at watching the lady on his r. All are elderly. On 
the table are a decanter of Port and glasses. A patterned carpet completes 
the design. From a sketch by an amateur. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 198. Wright and Evans, No. 412. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Fuchs, p. 261. 
7iX9ii ^^' With border, 8|x iif in. 

8753 A A copy faces p. 138 in The Caricatures of Gillray. 

6|X9| in. With border, yfx 10 J in. B.M.L. 745. a. 6. 

8754 PARASOLS, FOR 1795. 

f Qy des. etfed 

Pu¥ June 15*^ 1795. by H. Humphrey N° 37, New Bond Stre 

Engraving, slightly aquatinted (coloured impression). A man and woman 
dressed in a burlesque of the fashion walk mincingly in back view. He 
leads her by the hand ; she holds out in her 1. hand a tiny fringed parasol, 
the hinged stick bent at a right angle. Her small straw hat of masculine 
shape is trimmed with three enormous aigrettes of straw ; her hair covers 
her back like a cape, and her dress hangs limply round her ankles. The 
man wears a hat with a round crown of usual size with an enormous brim 
curving upwards at the sides and bent down back and front, so that it covers 
his shoulders. He is thin and elongated, with tail-coat, long breeches, 
striped stockings, and half-boots of Hessian cut. In his r. hand is a cane. 

The parasol, which anticipates the Victorian carriage-parasol, is in 
striking contrast to the earlier type, with a long stick used as a walking- 
stick, cf. No. 5518 (1778). See No. 8756. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 197 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 405. 
Reproduced, Paston, PL xliv; Fuchs, p. 281. 
ii|x9 in. 

' Pub. Fores, 21 June 1796. A. de R. v. 70. 



Pu¥ June jo'* 1795, by H. Humphrey N° J7, New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). A lady sits in back view before a tall 
pier-glass, twisting a piece of drapery round her head. Two young women 
(r.) hold up festoons of the immensely long drapery, the end of which trails 
across the floor and is worried by a small dog, shaved in the French manner. 
The glass is surmounted by an earl's coronet and decorated by triple ostrich 
plumes, suggesting that the lady, who wears a loose wrapper, may be Lady 
Jersey. The mirror is lit by two candles. Through a window (r.) is a 
crescent moon, sinking into clouds. The second attendant wears a hat, 
suggesting that she is a milliner. Both are dressed in the short-waisted 
fashion of the day (cf. No. 8571). An elaborate bowl of flowers stands on 
a pedestal or small ornate table. A patterned carpet covers the floor. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 197. Wright and Evans, No. 409. Reprinted, G.W.G.y 
1830. Reproduced, Paston, PI. lii. 
8fxii|in. With border, 9fxi2f in. 

O'Keeffe Ini/ et Sculp 

July 12 Pu¥: by S: W: Fores N" 50 Piccadilly 1795 
Engraving. A stout and flamboyant womans walks to the 1., looking to the 
r., her dress bristling with trimmings and ornaments of straw. Her straw 
hat is trimmed with flowers and feathers made of straw, a sheaf of corn 
forms its crown. Her girdle, chatelaine, hair-tie, &c. are of plaited straw ; 
a large sheaf of straw flowers projects from her bosom, similar flowers 
ornament her shoes. Her dress is sprinkled with ears of corn, and she 
wears a ring and large earring of straw. Beneath the title: "My Spouse 
is Remarkable Tastey in his Dress, & he likes to see me So. 

From the last few years of the eighteenth century there was a great 
increase in the English straw-plait industry owing to the war, which cut 
off the foreign supply. It was fostered by charitable ladies ; cf. Nos. 8754, 
8757. A copy in No. 8765. 
I if X 9 in. 


Pu¥ Aug'* 4 1795 by S W Fores N" 30 Piccadilly the Corner of Sack- 

vill Street. Folios of Caracatures Lent out for the Evening. 
Engraving (coloured impression). Four ladies stand displaying burlesques 
of the most recent fashions; their dresses all hang from a line slightly 
below the neck and, though varying in length, display the ankles. That 
of a very fat lady has a globular contour. The sleeves, all long, vary con- 
siderably; two have large puffs to the elbow. Hats and hairdressing are 
also satirized, showing the fashion for hair hanging down the back, or 
falling on the shoulders and looped up. Bunches of straw (see No. 8756) 
trim two of the hats. The slippers are heelless or low-heeled. A lady (1.) 
whose dress reaches only to the calves and defines her legs, wears cross- 
gartered stockings, imitating the French shoes *en cothurne' (cf. No. 9328). 
See No. 8758. 

Reproduced, Paston, pi. xlix. 
14X II in. 




Pub De(f g. 1795 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly the Corner of Sack- 

ville Street — NB Folios of Caricatures lent out for the Evening 
Engraving (coloured impression). A lady stands full-face, arms extended 
to display her striped dress which hangs straight from neck to ankles. The 
sleeves are full, reaching half-way between elbow and wrist. Two watches 
with seals hang from her neck, to indicate that the waist is at that place. 
She wears a turban (see No. 8755) trimmed with two feathers. Beneath 
the title : The present fashion is the most easy and graceful imaginable — it is 
simply this — The petticoat is tied round the neck and the arms put through the 

See No. 8757. This fashion temporarily modified the tendency to the 
increasing definition of the figure below clinging draperies, cf. No. 9457, &c. 
I2|X9 i^- 

Will. Hanlon del et Sculpt. 

Pub. July 11^^ 1795 by S. W Fores. 50 Corner Sackville S* Piccadilly 
Engraving (coloured impression). A thin elderly woman stands full-face, 
looking sourly to the 1., holding out her r. arm, from which an enormous fan 
points to the ground. Her 1. arm is akimbo. She wears a short-waisted 
dress with a separate train; her drooping breasts are defined by drapery, 
her thin arms by tight-fitting sleeves; her neck is heavily swathed. Her 
hair falls down her back from a twisted turban (see No. 8755) decorated 
with a group of erect ostrich-feathers, and a huge brush-aigrette. She 
wears large earrings, and an oval medallion is suspended from her neck 
on a heavy chain. 

A copy in No. 8765. 
I2|x8f in. 

Will Hanlon Sculpt. 

Pub. June i, 1795 by S W. Fores Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A short fat man, much caricatured, 
stands directed slightly to the r., looking at the spectator, his fingers spread 
in a deprecatory gesture. He is grotesquely dressed in an attempt to follow 
the fashion. His long breeches reach almost to his ankles, and resemble 
trousers. He wears a bulky ill-fitting spencer (see No. 8192) over his coat. 
His hat is round with a curved brim, his swathed neckcloth terminates 
in a bow. His short striped waistcoat does not reach below the ends of his 
neckcloth. From it hangs a ribbon in place of a watch and seals. Under 
his 1. arm is a bludgeon. Beside him (r.) is a small dog. Beneath the title: 
Did you ever see such a Fool as my Wife has made of me? 

Will Hanlon del et Sculpt. 

Pub: July ii*^ 1795 by S W. Fores 50 Corner Sackville Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A man stands full-face, r. hand on his 
hip, 1. hand on the head of a tall cane. He wears a wide-brimmed hat 



curving upwards at the sides, his neck and cheeks are swathed, he wears a 
spencer (see No. 8192) over his coat, and a short double-breasted waist- 
coat, with wide revers. From his high waist hangs a heavy chain with seal 
and watch-key inscribed S. His long breeches reach below his calves and 
descend into spurred half-boots with deep tops. His cane is swathed with 
a scarf. A copy in No. 8765. 
i2X8-| in. 

W Hanlon Del. et Sculpt 

Pub, July 4^ 1795 by S W. Fores Corner of Sackville S* Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A small thin man, his hands in his waist- 
coat pockets, stands full-face between two robust courtesans. One (1.), 
dressed in the fashion of the day with high-waisted dress, and tall feathers 
in her hair, a large fan hanging from her wrist, seizes his r. arm. The 
other, a burly woman (r.) wearing a hat and pelisse, puts her hand on his 
r. shoulder; in her 1. hand is a birch-rod. 

G Woodward del: [L Cruikshank f.] 

London Pub N° 20 iyg$ by S W Fores N° $o Piccadilly NB Folios 
of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design in two compartments. On the 
1. a well-dressed man staggers back in horror as he regards his queue of 
hair which he holds in his r. hand. His hair has been roughly cropped at 
the back of the neck. He says : 

Tis gone, — and like the baseless fabric of a Vision, — left not a zoreck behind. 
Behind him is a table on which are a decanter and glass. 

On the r. a plainly dressed farmer's wife gazes with horror at her hus- 
band (1.) who stands with his back to her, grinning, his hands deep in his 
coat-pockets, his hat under his arm. She says : Bless me our John — tohat 
hast thee done with thy toil? He answers, Dock'd un, to be the go! His hair 
is cropped showing an ugly expanse of neck. 

The handsome Duke of Bedford was noted for his cropped hair. For 
the Bedford Level see No. 8639. 


C Churchill [PO'Keefe.] 

Pub July 13 by H. Humphrey New Bond Street [? 1795] 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). An elderly and ugly 
woman sings to a guitar. She sits, directed to the 1., on a stool on which 
is a tasselled cushion. She wears the flowing hair, feathered turban with 
brush aigrette, and the high-waisted dress of 1795. Her fingers are sharply 
pointed and her angular knees are defined by her dress. The background 
is a wall with a panelled dado and striped wall-paper common in prints 
of about this date. 



8765 THE FASHIONABLES, 1795. [i Oct. 1795] 

Engraving. PI. to the Hibernian Magazine. Three W.L. standing figures 
copied from Nos. 8756, 8761, 8759, the original title engraved over each. 
7isX i3i in. B.M.L., P.P. 6154. k. 

8766 D N'D HOT 

Dighton fecit N° 12 Charing Cross [} c. 1795]' 

Engraving (coloured impression). A fat cit (H.L.), directed to the r., his 
head in profile, raises his wig to mop his head. His nose is carbuncled; 
he wears a loose neckcloth and double-breasted waistcoat. Copied in 

No. 8563, with the companion pi. (not in B.M.): 'D n'd Cold'. 

6|x6 in. 


Dighton fecit Charing Cross [} c. 1795]' 

Engraving (coloured impression). An obese butcher (T.Q.L.), in profile 
to the 1., leans back from the waist, sucking a long pipe held in his r. hand. 
His ill-fitting wig is perched on a bald head. He wears apron and over- 
sleeves, a steel hanging from his waist. Copied in No. 8563. 
6|x sit in. 


38s Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver No. 6g St. Paul's 
Church Yardy London. 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). A copy of No. 8767 in an oval, with 
alterations: the figure is H.L. The butcher smokes his pipe, and in his r. 
hand is a knife. The wig is made better fitting by the addition of a curl. 
For the series see Nos. 8417, &c., 8768, 8769, 8917, &c. 
5/gX4jg in. 'Caricatures', ii. 122. 


[Dighton del.] 

386 Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver No. 6g St. Paul's 
Church Yard, London. [} c. 1795] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A man (H.L.) in 
profile to the r., slyly holds his thumb and forefinger against his nose. 
His hair falls on his collar from under a powdered wig. 
5IX4I in. 'Caricatures', ii. 123. 

[Dighton del.] 

387 Printed for & Sold by Bowles & Carver, No. 6g St. Paul's 
Church Yard, London. [} c. 1795] 

Mezzotint (coloured impression). Design in an oval. A foppish man 
(H.L.) in profile to the 1., holds up and closely inspects a licence to wear 
hair-powder (see No. 8628): Stamp Office Certificate, N" ly 02, June iyg5 
— No 50 Lombard S^ for the year lygs London District [signed] W. Gillman. 

' Not later than 1794. See No. 8563. 


His powdered hair or wig frames his face and falls in a queue. He wears 
a round hat and voluminous neckcloth. Under his 1. arm is a cane. For 
the powder-tax see No. 8629, &c. 
5IX4I in. 'Caricatures', ii. 123. 

Series of 'Drolls' 

8770 A VESTRY DINNER. 149 

Published 21'^ April 1795 by Laurie & Whittle, 53, Fleet Street^ 

Engraving. Six members of a parish vestry, seated at a round dinner- 
table whose top stretches across the design, guzzle rapaciously. In a door- 
way (r.) a thin and ragged man stands raising his hat and holding out a 
paper inscribed Spare me a Bit your Worships. A beadle pushes him back 
with a stick, saying, Keep off you Hungry Dog. On the wall is a notice: 
Vestry Creed. Sit See & Say Nothing. Eat Drink & pay Nothing. 

Vestrymen dine at the expense of the Poor Rate, as in No. 6877. See 
also No. 9639. 

8771 DEBATING SOCIETY. 152 [1795] 
Engraving (coloured impression). The (plebeian) debaters (T.Q.L.) argue 
angrily with each other, disregarding the speaker on the rostrum (1.) who 
shouts with raised hammer. One man stops his ears. On the wall : a print 
of an ass's head braying, and a placard: Debate this Evening. Whether a 
Man's Wig should be Dress' t with Honey or Mustard! Beneath the title: 
( Substitute for Hair Powder) | Silence Gentlemen! to Order! to Order, Only 
ten Speak at a time! for if you all Bray together, it 's impossible to decide on 
this important Question. Imprint cut off. 

For the hair-powder tax see No. 8629, &c. Cf. The Robin Hood Society ^ 
No. 6331 (1783). 
^T^^9\ in. 'Caricatures', ii. 138. 

[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 2cfi^ June, lygS by Laurie & Whittle, 53, Fleet Street^ 

Engraving. A street scene. An elderly man and woman, wearing tawdry 
finery, dance opposite each other, to the music of a wooden-legged fiddler 
(1.). Between and behind them a grinning face looks from a pyramid of 
greenery, supported on the feet of the Jack in the Green. A couple of 
chimney-sweeps dance in the middle distance on the extreme r., and in 
the background (1.) two other climbing-boys on a tiny scale dance together. 
Beneath the title: 

We'll banish Care, and all his Train 

Nor thought of Sadness round us play 

Fly distant hence, corroding pain 

For happiness shall crown this Day. 
Cf. May-day in London, No. 6740. 



[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published Jj** July 1795. by Laurie & Whittle, 53, Fleet Street, 

Engraving. The top of a rectangular table stretches across the design, 
surrounded by artisans, &c., who listen with eager satisfaction to one who 
reads a newspaper. Pipes, a tobacco-box, and a frothing tankard are on 
the table. A tailor holds a pair of shears, a barber has a comb stuck in 
his hair. On three shelves pewter tankards are ranged upside down. A 
clock points to 8.20. Beneath the title: (Settling the Affairs of the Nation.) 

For this favourite theme cf. No. 5074, &c. 

[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 12*^ Sep' lygS- by Laurie & Whittle. 5J Fleet Street, London. 
Engraving. Street scene. The showman (r.) stands in profile to the r. 
looking up at Punch and Judy who perform on their tiny stage, the 
supports of which are covered by a checked material. A monkey wearing 
a cocked hat and coat stands on his shoulder and takes an apple from the 
basket on the head of an apple-woman. A man plays a hurdy-gurdy in 
the foreground on the extreme r. The spectators gaze up intensely amused : 
A milkman (1.), his yoke on his shoulder, has put down his pail, from which 
a second monkey dressed as a woman is drinking. A young woman holds 
out a hat for coins, while she picks the pocket of a spectator. A third 
monkey crouches on the ground. Beneath the title: 

Now 's the Time for Mirth & Glee, — Sing & Laugh & Dance with me. 

[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published :f Ocf 1795. by Laurie & Whittle, 53 Fleet Street, London. 
Engraving (coloured impression). A fat and apoplectic citizen toils up a 
grassy slope heavily burdened with a little girl and a bag of bottles. He 
holds his hat in one hand, a stick terminating in a stag's head in the other. 
The child holds up a toy and clutches her father's neckcloth. His pretty 
young wife walks clinging to her husband's arm and holding his wig, but 
looks languishingly towards a fashionably dressed man (1.) who holds 
behind his back a letter addressed Noodle. A little boy clutches her petti- 
coats. In the background (r.) is a path across fields, dotted with pedes- 
trians, leading to London, St. Paul's being conspicuous. Beneath the 
design are twelve lines of verse : 

No more to Primrose Hill she'll go 
But dash away to Brighton ho 
Now mount the Airy Pheaton 
And quit old Noodle, for S'' John 

For the Sunday outing of the *cit' (traditionally a cuckold) cf. No. 
^ ^' ' 'Caricatures', ii. 140. 



[?I. Cruikshank del.] 

Publtsh'd 12 Nov^ 1795, by Laurie & Whittle Fleet Street London. 

Engraving. A theatre seen diagonally from the pit, with the stage on the r., 
two side boxes forming a background. On the stage a man in quasi- 
classical dress holds a dripping dagger, a woman lies at his feet; through 
an open door the prompter is seen. The audience is much disturbed: in 
the foreground a stout citizen holds a smelling-bottle to the nose of his 
(apparently) fainting young wife; she takes a note from a young man on 
the bench behind her. Behind stands a bearded Jew. In the stage-box 
two seated figures resemble the King and Queen, a man standing behind 
resembles Pitt. Cf. No. 9098. 

[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published 2&^ Nov. 1795 by Laurie & Whittle. 53 Fleet Street 

Engraving. A wizard, much caricatured, is seated (r.) at a table, his 1. hand 
pointing at a book of cabalistic signs, and resting on the tail of a serpent 
which coils round his arm. In his r. hand is a wand pointing to a swarm 
of grotesque demons shooting up among flames from a circular hole in 
the floor. Two terrified spectators, a woman clutching a man, stand within 
a small circle on the 1., round the outside of which a serpent is darting. 
A crocodile is suspended over the wizard; an owl sits on his head, a cat 
beside him miaows; a skull advances across the floor supported on tiny 
elongated limbs. 

8778 SNAP DRAGON. 165 
[? I. Cruikshank del.] 

Published Dec"" 12*^ I795- by Laurie & Whittle, N° 5J, Fleet Street 

Engraving. Six country people surround a flaming bowl on a small round 
table. A man jocosely holds a terrified cat over the bowl to force it to pull 
out a raisin. A man wearing a shirt or surplice stands with both arms held 
up, from one hand dangles a ( ?) burnt rag. A mastiff (r.) snarls at the cat. 




J" Gy d. etfecK 

Pu¥ JaW 9**1 179^' by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A stout and florid 
woman holds up on her two large hands the baby princess, face down- 
wards. The infant holds out her arms towards the Prince of Wales, who 
advances tipsily through a doorway (r.), and touches her hand. He is 
dishevelled, with unlatched shoes and ungartered stockings; his garter, 
inscribed honi soil, dangles round his r, leg. He is followed by M. A. 
Taylor, on the extreme r., who carries on his head a wicker cradle orna- 
mented with the Prince's feathers. 

Behind the infant are Fox and Sheridan, stooping obsequiously to kiss 
her posteriors ; Fox clutches her long robe which reaches to the floor. In 
the background rows of guests are freely sketched, drinking ( ?) caudle 
from two-handled cups. The two on the extreme 1. and in the front row 
resemble Sandwich and Erskine (to whom a man (not dressed as a servant) 
hands a tray of steaming cups). 

The Princess Charlotte was born on 7 Jan. See also Nos. 8781, 8785. 

The title of this print is said to have caused proceedings against Gillray 
in the Ecclesiastical Court. Grego, p. 25. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 199. Wright and Evans, No. 142. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


[? Woodward del.] 

Pu¥ JarC 25 i'/g6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly corner of Sackville 
Street NB Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Six elderly citizens sit round a table lit 
by two candles. All are muzzled, with straps fixed tightly over their 
mouths. One raises his clenched fist, as if speaking. On the wall are two 
large placards : Question to be thought on this Evening How long may toe be 
permitted to Think? Above the chairman (1.): Rules to be observed \ by \ The 
Thinking Club \ Chair to be taken at eight \ To prevent any Member from \ 
Letting his tongue run \ Constitutional Muzzles \ are sold at the door \ That 
mum be the Order of the day \ The President to signify the \ subject to be 
thought on in \ writing in a conspicuous Part of the room. 

A satire on the Treason and Sedition Bills, see No. 8687, &c. Farington 
notes, 24 Jan. 1796: *Mr Pitt was also informed of a Society having been 
estabUshed by the Jacobins, since the Sedition Bills passed, where the 
members ... sit with a kind of muzzle over their mouths, and converse 
only by signs and writing. Pitt laughed at the ridiculous description.* 
Farington Diary, i. 137. Cf. Axon, Annals of Manchester, p. 122, and No. 
8693, &c. The German print, Der Denker-Club, c. 1820, is based upon this 

' The 9 appears to have been etched over a 10. 


print; it is reversed and has two additional figures. (Reproduction, 

Fuchs, p. 242.) 


[Woodward delin. 

Pu¥ Jan^ 2g iyg6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly corner of Sackville 
Street Folios of Caracatures Lent out for the Evening. Prints and 
Drawings lent out on the Plan of a Circulating Library. y 

Engraving (coloured impression). Ten single figures arranged in two rows, 
their words etched above their heads. An artisan wearing an apron waves 
his hat, saying: Huzza! Huzza! No Popery! — rare news for Old England. 
A thin and dour old woman says: Nine Months — wanting one day!! A 
buxom and jovial woman, standing full-face, says, / should like to be Wet 
Nurse. A dissenting preacher with lank hair says, / will make a sarmon 
on the occasion, — and extort all the willageH The tattered and dishevelled 
inmate of a debtor's prison, holding a frothing tankard, says : / will drink 
to a speedy Goal delivery. A slim and foppish man, chapeau-bras, and 
dressed in the height of the fashion, but holding a band-box, says : When she 
grows up I hope she will not persecute us man Milliners I wish I had the pro- 
viding the child bed linnenH A plainly dressed and oafish-looking man says: 
How glad our Nan will be when she hears of it. she allways doated upon blood 
royal. A stout and elderly parson says : Go thou home, and do likewise that 
is a very good text! A little girl holding a doll says : How I should like to see 
the Baby! An obese and self-important citizen says: / must go and acquaint 
the Corporation immediately. 

See No. 8779, &c. 'No Popery' is an allusion to Mrs. Fitzherbert. 
Perhaps one of a set, see No. 8541, &c. 
12 X 18 in. 'Caricatures', viii. 31. 


y^ Qy des*" et fec^ 

Pu¥ Feby i'^ iyg6 by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The two members for Middlesex 
simultaneously address a meeting of freeholders from a hustings against 
a building (The Mermaid, at Hackney) which forms a background. Both 
lean forward in profile to the r. Byng (1.), thin and elegant, gesticulates 
with clenched fist, r. arm above his head. He frowns, while Mainwaring 
(r.) grimaces insinuatingly, his hands held out deprecatingly. From Byng's 
pocket issues a paper: Treatise on the use of Cocoa. On the extreme 1., 
behind Byng, stands Fox, holding Byng's hat. The other men on the 
platform, all wearing hats, are freely sketched. On the wooden barrier of 
the hustings are two bills, the lower part of which is concealed by the 
heads of the spectators, which reach across the lower edge of the design : 
Mermaid Hackney Meeting of the Freeholders for obtaining a Repeal of the 
odious, detestable, obnoxious, unconstitutional oppressive treasonable . . . and 
Address to his Majesty by the Freeholders. 

A meeting, called by the sheriff's, was held on 21 Nov. to petition 
against the Treason and Sedition Bills, see No. 8687, &c. Mainwaring, 

' Plate cropped; title, &c., from A. de R., v. 146. 



the Ministerial member, was ill received ; Byng was acclaimed. The meet- 
ing agreed on a petition to the throne and an address of congratulation to 
the King on his escape (see No. 8681). Hist, of Two Acts . . ., 1796, 
pp. 340-6; Lond. Chron., 23 Nov. 1795. Cf. No. 9240. Byng was nick- 
named 'Coco', cf. No. 9240. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 199-200. Wright and Evans, No. 143. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. Copy, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, 
p. 299. 


jf' Qy des"" etfed 

Pu¥ Felf 3^ -^796. hy H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Aquatint (coloured impression). The Duke of Bedford, a stalwart, hand- 
some and smiling farmer, strides (1. to r.) across a newly ploughed field, 
scattering guineas from a pouch slung to his shoulder; on his back is a 
large sack inscribed £. As he sows the tips of bonnets-rouges and daggers 
sprout up ; behind him (1.) they progressively emerge more completely, 
and appear as little Jacobins, a raised dagger in each hand, crowding in 
close ranks towards the horizon, where they hail (or are smitten by) 
thunderbolts which dart from clouds in the upper 1. corner of the design 
and explode on reaching the ground. The soil is prepared by Fox, 
Sheridan, and Lauderdale: Fox's smiling face is the centre of a sun which 
issues from clouds and shines on Bedford. A bull (John Bull) is harnessed 
to a plough which is guided by Sheridan wearing a bonnet-rouge. Lauder- 
dale (bare-headed) raises a whip to flog the weary bull. 

Bedford was an ardent supporter of Fox, see No. 8684, and a friend of 
Lauderdale ; for his lavish expenditure for party purposes cf. No. 8786. 
He was a great agriculturist, an original member of the Board of Agri- 
culture (1793). Cf. No. 8648. 

Grego, Gtllray, p. 200. Wright and Evans, No. 147. Reprinted, G.W.G., 

8784 [ENVY.] [II Feb. 1796]' 

Engraving (coloured impression). A serpent with a human head, having 
satyr's ears, rises on its tail which issues from an inverted earl's coronet. 
The body is coiled in a horizontal figure of eight, the head is in profile 
to the r., glaring fiercely, words issuing from the mouth in a blast: let the 
Minority go to the Bell. No title, above the design: 

All human Virtue to its latest breath 
Finds Envy never conquered but by death 

Perhaps a satire on the Earl of Abingdon, eccentric and reputed foolish, 
who opposed the Treason and Sedition Bills, see No. 8687, &c. There is 
some resemblance to Abingdon, none to the leading Opposition peers. 
No debate in the Lords is reported in the Pari. Hist, between 2 Dec. 1795 
and 4 Mar. 1796. Cf. No. 8520. 

' So dated by Miss Banks ; presumably the date of purchase. 




[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub Feb"^ 13 iyg6 by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly. Folios of 
Caracatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving. George III sits in a simply furnished room facing the fire, 
holding the baby Princess on his knee, and feeding her with a spoon whose 
contents flow down the front of her robe. He watches her with affectionate 
intentness. Over his 1. arm hangs a coral and bells; on his head is a night- 
cap. Beside him (1.) is a small round table on which is a small pot of pap. 
The fire is indicated only by a corner of the fender (r.), by a rail of towels, 
and by a cat crouching towards it. See No. 8779, &c. 
11^X8^ in. 


Vide, Scene in Bloomsbury Square 

f Gy d: etf 

Pu¥ Feby 25'* I']g6. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Burke (1.) as a shambling beggar, holds 
out his hat towards the Duke of Bedford who looks between the folding 
gates of Bedford House, holding one side to keep them almost closed. 
Their words float upwards from their mouths: Burke says: "Pity the 
Sorrows of a poor old Man, add a trifle to what has been bestowed by Ministry 
to stop my Complaints: — O give me opportunity of recanting once more! — Ah! 
remember me in your Golden Dreams! — great Leviathan of liberty, let me but 
play & frolick in the Ocean of your royal Bounty, & I will be for ever your 
Creature ; — my Hands, — Brains, — my Soul & Body, — the very Pen through 
which I have spouted a torrent of Gall against my original Friends, and covered 
you all over with the Spray, every thing of me, & about me, shall be yours — 
dispence but a little of your Golden store to a desolate Old Man". Bedford 
says: Hark'ee, old double Face, — its no use use [sic] for you to stand Jawing 
there, if you gull other people, you won't bother us out a single Shilling, 
with ail your canting-rant, — no, no, it wdnt do, old Humbug! — let them 
bribe you, who are afraid of you, or want your help, — your Gossip wont do 
here: — 

Burke wears the red and blue of the Windsor uniform, his dress is 
tattered, one foot protrudes through his shoe. In his r. hand is a sheaf of 
broadsides: Last Dying Speech of Old Honesty the Jesuit [cf. No. 6026, &c.]. 
On his back is a sack inscribed £4000 p' Annum indicating his two 
pensions. From his back protrudes a book inscribed Reflections upon 
Political Apostacy. The design is framed by the stone gateway of Bedford 
House, each side surmounted by a sphinx (cf. No. 8639). 

A satire on Burke's Letter to a Noble Lord, published Feb. 1796, see 
No. 8788, &c., on his former position as the pen and brains of the Whigs, 
and on his supposed apostasy, a favourite theme of Gillray, see No. 7865 
(1791), &c. For his pensions see No. 8654, &c. For Bedford's wealth 
cf. No. 8783. 

Grego, GiV/roy, p. 200. Wright and Evans, No. 144. Reprinted, G.PF.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Magnus, Edmund Burke, 1939, ?• 273- 

241 R 




Pu¥ March 4*^ 1796. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox and Sheridan officiate at the 
wedding of Lady Lucy Stanhope and an apothecary who is made up of 
medical implements. The bride is a pretty girl wearing a feathered hat 
from which a transparent veil falls over her face. Stanhope (1.), without 
breeches, and wearing a bonnet-rouge, stooping in profile to the r., pushes 
her towards the bridegroom who is placing a ring on her finger ; from his 
coat-pocket protrudes a three-masted vessel flying a tricolour flag (see 
No. 8640). The bridegroom, Taylor, is also a sansculotte; his posteriors 
are formed of a syringe, his body is a mortar, from which issues a pestle 
supporting a bonnet-rouge. His arm is made of two medicine-phials. 

Fox stands full-face behind the altar balustrade holding open Paine's 
Rights of Man (see No. 7867, &c.). He wears surplice and bands. Sheridan 
stands (r.) in profile to the 1., reading from ThelwaVs Lectures (cf. No. 
8685), he wears a lay coat with bands ; both wear bonnets-rouges. On the 
wall which forms a background, and immediately above Fox, is a large 
picture. Shrine of Equality: three men wearing bonnets-rouges officiate 
at a guillotine ; the blade is about to fall on a man wearing a ducal coronet ; 
other peers stand (r.) waiting their turn. On the ground by the guillotine 
lie coronets which have just been chopped oflF. 

Lady Lucy Stanhope married Mr. Taylor, a surgeon of Sevenoaks, on 
26 Apr. 1796; 'Citizen' Stanhope (cf. No. 8448, &c.) treated the match as 
a misalliance. Stanhope and Gooch, Life of Charles, third Earl Stanhope, 
pp. 238-9 (reproduction). 

Grego, Gillray, p. 201. Wright and Evans, No. 146. Reprinted, G.W.G., 

[1. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March 8 iyg6 by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caracatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Burke (1.), pen in hand, sits on an 
uprooted oak-tree, leaning against his son's tomb. He looks angrily towards 
a large dolphin-like creature with the handsome cropped head of the Duke 
of Bedford, which swims in water inscribed Ocean of Royal Bounty, and 
spouts cascades to 1. and r. which reach Burke. These streams are inscribed 
Cromzvellism, Envy (three times), Leveling, Orleanism, Revolutions, Egalite, 
Democracy. Under his neck are two (?) bladders, inscribed Pillage of 
Monasteries Churches & Religious Houses and Confiscation of Estates 

Burke holds an open book : My Feeble efforts for my country sgood. Above 
his head: Ah Wretch! Why attack a Defenceless old Man? whose seclusion 
from all Public concerns & whose Irreparable loss of an only & beloved Child 
should have sheltered his Declining Head from the Malicious Attacks of a 
Monster wallowing in Luxury & Wealth Oh Orleans Oh Bedford!!! The 
tomb (on the extreme 1.) is inscribed: Sacred to the Memory of an Only 



Son whose Manly Virtues & well informed Mind was the only Enjoyment the 
Parent knew in his Declining Years but Alass — The Loss of a Finished Man 
is not easily Supplied. Beneath the title: The Leviathan among all the 
creatures of the Crown. — He tumbles about his unwieldy bulk; he plays and 
frolicks in the ocean of the Royal bounty. Huge as he is and whilst "he lies 
floating many a rood", he is still a creature, His ribs his fins, whalebone, his 
blubber the very spirales through which he spouts a torrent of brine against 
his origin, and covers me all over with the spray — every thing of him, and 
about him is [j]rom the Throne. — Is it for him to question the dispensation of 
the Royal Favor? 

Vide Burke's Letter to a noble Lord Page 3^-38 
Lengthy quotations from Burke's 'long promised' Letter to a Noble Lord 
appeared in the London Chronicle for 23 and 25 Feb. The print illustrates, 
besides the passage quoted, that in which he compares himself to an old 
oak torn up by the roots, owing to the death of his son. The attack on 
Burke's pension, see No. 8654, was made by Lauderdale, i Dec. 1795, in 
a motion for copies of grants made from 1791. The ensuing debate was 
described by Woodfall as 'one of the most disorderly conversations I ever 
heard in a House of Parliament'. (He had reported Irish debates.) Burke 
was defended by Auckland and Bedford's speech is not reported. Parlia- 
mentary Register, xlv. 1 18-19; Auckland Corr. iii. 325-6. See Nos. 8786, 
8792, 8795, 8825, 8826, 9168, 9240, 9345. 


Three etchings after drawings by an officer on the Duke of York's staff 
in Flanders, illustrations to Narrative of the War by an Officer of the Guards. 
Published Mar. 1796. (Advertisement, London Chronicle, 19 Mar.) 

Engraving. PI. to Narrative . . ., i. 88. Staff officers are seated smoking 
and drinking, the Duke of York at the head of the table (r.) smokes a long 
pipe, three glasses before him. The officer on the Duke's 1. is assailed by 
a pellet, while the man next him puffs smoke at his head. Over the carved 
lintel of the door (1.) is a coat of arms. On the wall (r.) are maps: Map of 
Germany and The Seat of War. 

The text explains that it was a favourite amusement at head-quarters 
(Aug. 1793, near Dunkirk) to throw pellets of bread, &c., at Col. Robert 
Johnstone, D.Q.M.G., whose good nature was proverbial. Hewgill and Clin- 
ton would then puff smoke at him. (William Henry Clinton, Lt. and Capt. 
ist Foot Guards; Edwin Hewgill, Coldstream (promoted Capt. and Lt.- 
Col. 22 Jan. 1794). Army List (annotated), 1794.) Johnstone was of great 
service to the brigade of Guards in Holland owing to his knowledge 
of Dutch, having served the Dutch Republic in the Scotch brigade. On 
succeeding to the command of the ist batt. of the 3rd Guards he resigned 
his office on the staff, and died shortly afterwards. Narrative, i. 88, loi n. 
Cf. No. 8327, &c. 
3j'gX6-| in. B.M.L. 993. a. 22. 


Engraving. PI. from Narrative of the War, i. loi. Officers (r.), at a table 
measuring distances on a Plan of the Low Countries, turn round in surprise 



at a procession of officers (1.) carrying on their shoulders a slim officer 
who appears about to hurl himself forward on to the table. The officers 
interrupted are three seated (two with stars) and three standing. 

The text explains that a number of the A.D.C.s and officers on the Duke 
of York's staff voted the D.Q.M.G. (Johnstone, see No. 8789) to have been 
of great service to the army, and to be chaired. They carried him through 
a long suite of rooms at the Abbaye St. Martin, Tournai (1793), and 
entered one where they found the Duke, Coburg, Mack, Prince Hohenlohe, 
and others in a council of war; in their dismay they let Johnstone fall on 
the table. Cf. No. 8327, &c. 


Pu¥ by Cadell & Davies, Strand. 

Engraving. PI. to Narrative of the War, ii. 36. Cavalry are struggling in 
confusion, deep in bog or water, immediately outside the gate of a walled 
and fortified town (r.). The sky is covered with dark clouds. 

The text explains that the British army in Flanders, in May 1794, was 
forced to make a five-mile detour and leave the paved road for a mire 
because the gates of Valenciennes were closed against them ; a thunder- 
storm added to the confusion. The Austrians never allowed foreign troops 
to pass through their fortified towns, and treated their own troops as 
foreigners when co-operating with their English allies. Narrative, ii. 
35-6 n. Cf. No. 8327, &c. 
3/6X6|in. B.M.L. 993. a. 23. 

I C [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: March 28 iyg6 by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Folios 
of Caricatures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (1.) as a will o' the wisp, naked, 
and poised on a cloud, holds out a dark lantern to a terrified John Bull. 
Pitt holds up in his r. hand the end of a swirling drapery which blows about 
him, his hair blows over his face. The rays of his lantern are : New Pro- 
posals', U Eclair-, peace; French Gentleman just arrived from the continent', 
armstice. Small attendant sprites float above his head and assist in frighten- 
ing John Bull : Burke, naked but wearing a Jesuit's biretta (cf . No. 6026), 
holds a bag inscribed 4000 and a dark lantern whose beam is inscribed 
Services done the Public. A naked woman excretes a blast inscribed Plans ; 
she triumphantly holds up, in each hand, a money-bag inscribed 2000 Ann 
and 2000 (she is perhaps intended for Mrs. Burke). A demon with an 
ass's head holds a lantern whose beam is: for extended services 20,000. 
Another beam is inscribed Pensions. 

John Bull, a fat citizen wearing a cocked hat, struggles to step from the 
Slough of Despond or Quagmire of War. He holds out his hands towards 
Pitt's lantern, screaming. This is a terrible boggy Ground I have got into — 
but I shall certainly catch it at last it can't be far off now. 

A desire for peace was foreshadowed in the King's speech of 29 Oct. 
1795 (derided as insincere by the Opposition) and again on 8 Dec. in a 
message to Parliament. A scheme by Pitt for a general pacification was 
in progress in Jan. 1796; on 15 Feb. Parliament was informed of the 
negotiations {Pari. Hist, xxxii. 725). The overture (believed insincere by 



the French) was made through the British Minister in Switzerland to the 
French Ambassador on 8 May (of. No. 8825). Its failure was announced 
in a Ministerial note of 10 Apr. when the documents were published. Ann. 
Reg., 1796, pp. 209*-2ii*; Camb. Hist, of Br. Foreign Policy, i. 260-5; 
E. D. Adams, Influence ofGrenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1904, pp. 36 ff. ; 
Guyot, Le Directoire et lapaix de V Europe, 1912, pp. 145-56. For the uncer- 
tainty as to Pitt's intentions and the prospects of peace, see Fox, Memorials 
and Corr. iii. 127-30 (24 Dec. 1795, 18 Feb. 1796), and cf. No. 8813. For 
Pitt's unpopularity cf. No. 8664. For the later peace overtures see No. 
8829, &c. Previously, the Opposition had made repeated motions for peace, 
see No. 8644, &c. For general v/ar-weariness cf. No. 8328, &c. For 
Burke's pension see No. 8654, &c. 
8|Xi2| in. 



Pu¥ April 4^ I7g6. 

Engraving. Wilberforce and Bishop Horsley revel indecorously with two 
negresses. Wilberforce and a fat negress face each other sitting cross- 
legged on the bolsters at opposite ends of a settee ; both smoke cheroots. 
The negress wears a large straw hat over her turban, her breasts are un- 
covered. On the ground by Wilberforce is a torn pamphlet: Tryal of . . . 
& . . . [names illegible] convicted of Perjury in the case of Capt^ Kimber. 
On the r. the fat bishop embraces a negress who is poised on his knee, 
holding up a wine-glass. Behind him and on the extreme r. is a table on 
which are books: Rochester s Jests, Charity covereth a Multitude of Sins 
(open). Humanity a Masque, Mathematick, Ghost of Clarence, and a paper: 
Defence of Orthodoxy, better late than never. Both women wear loose 
patterned dresses. A little grinning black boy (1.) brings in a tray of filled 
glasses. The room is well furnished with a patterned carpet. On the wall 
are four pictures and a candle-sconce. Above the door appears the lower 
part of a picture of a man seated on the ground : Capt" Kimber in the Cells 
of Newgate. Above Wilberforce's head is a picture. Inkle & Yarico: Inkle 
discovers Yarico, a negress, reclining under a palm tree in a mountainous 
landscape. (For Colman's opera, 1787, cf. No. 7260.) Above Horsley's 
head is a picture of a stage-coach driving r. to 1. ; a fat bishop (almost recog- 
nizable) looks out of the window to inspect the legs of an outside passenger 
which dangle from the roof. On the extreme r. is a picture of Westminster 

Wilberforce's Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was defeated on 
15 Mar. by 74 to 70. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 901 ; Coupland, Wilberforce, 1923, 
pp. 224-5. Clarence had been one of the most vehement opponents of 
Abolition in the Lords. Ibid., pp. 174-5, 216; cf. also No. 7260. For the 
trial of Kimber for the murder of a negress see No, 8637, &c. Horsley, 
Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, spoke forcibly against the 
Slave Trade. He was a distinguished mathematician and published many 
scientific and theological works. He attacked the unorthodox doctrines of 
Priestley and opposed the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts (1790). 
Abbey, The English Church and its Bishops, 1887, pp. 263-9; D.N.B. 
Cf. No. 8703. 



8793 A An earlier state without title or imprint. There is less shading 
and the dresses and the cover of the sofa are not patterned. The book on 
the floor is absent and the inscriptions on the papers and books on the table 
are different. In place of 'Defence of Orthodoxy' is Circular Letter, to the 
Clergy of S* David's in Wales — Beware how you dare to talk of science 
during Elections [words erased] — terial Influence at your Peril. The page 
facing Rochesters Jests is blank. The next volume is Essay on [words 
erased] ] — . . ford Edition. The inscription 'Ghost of Clarence' is absent. 
The picture of the coach is less explicitly drawn, but has the title : Love 
at first Sight — or — The Charms of a Cook — Maids Legs — 

There appears to be some attempt to confuse Horsley with the Hon. 
William Stuart, Bishop of St. David's, who, however, took no part in the 

8794 THE DOG TAX. 

X [Gillray.] 

Pu¥ April 12^^ 1796, by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Two dogs with human faces hang from 
a gibbet inscribed not Paid for; two others stand beneath, looking up at 
them with complacent triumph, these are To he Paid for. The gibbet is 
formed of two uprights with a cross-bar. The pendent dogs who face each 
other in profile with expressions of despair are Sheridan (1.) and Fox (r.); 
their necks are linked by a chain. Fox has a fox's brush (as in No. 8796). 
He urinates upon Dundas who is immediately beneath him, facing Pitt. 
Dundas is a fat mongrel, Pitt a lean greyhound (as in No. 8797). 

The dog tax was proposed by Dent on 5 Apr. and accepted with altera- 
tions by Pitt, for 'the dogs of the opulent'. See Pari. Hist, xxxii. 994-1006. 
It was operative from 6 July. See Nos. 8796, 8797, 8802, 8803, 8840, 9017, 


Grego, Gillray, pp. 201-2. Wright and Evans, No. 145. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Social England, ed. Traill, 1904, v. 649. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: April 13 iyg6 by SW Fores N 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Carecatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Burke and the Duke 
of Bedford sit on opposite sides of a small round table. Fox, full-face, sits 
between them, his arms resting on the table, fingers interlaced, and thumbs 
together. He looks down oracularly, saying. Take the Advice of a common 
friend — the less said about the matter the better! Burke's back is towards 
Fox, he looks angrily over his 1. shoulder at Bedford, who watches Fox 
intently. Burke and Fox wear wigs and are not dressed in the latest 
fashion, as is Bedford, with cropped hair, swathed neckcloth projecting 
in front of his chin, and tight pantaloons reaching almost to his ankles. 
For the quarrel see No. 8788, &c. Fox's attitude is in keeping with his 
conduct on Burke's death ; for his own quarrel with Burke see No. 7854, &c. 
8fXi3f in. 




[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub April ig iyg6 hy S W Fores No 50 Piccadilly. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Ministerial dogs, their collars inscribed 
GR, stand under a gibbet from which dangle three dogs wearing bonnets- 
rouges (these have been coloured blue and buff). All have human faces. 
The dogs on the gibbet, whose cross-piece is inscribed Triajuncta in una, 
are Sheridan (1.), Fox (with a fox's brush as in No. 8794), and Stanhope (r.) 
whose back is to the other two. Above is the inscription Not worth the tax. 
Below the others is the inscription Good dogs paid for. On the extreme 
1. is Pitt, his profile grossly caricatured, who is chained to the [T]reasury 
kennel, from which he is looking. Portland looks up at the victims, next 
is Loughborough wearing his Chancellor's wig, and Burke who looks 
defiant. Facing him is Grenville and on the extreme r. is Dundas, his fore- 
paws on the post of the gibbet looking up. Beside the gibbet is a large 
thistle. Beneath the title : 

Budgets & Loans so thick we see 

And Taxes press so hard Sir 

That Poor John Bull can't pay the Fee 

For Dogs his only Guard 

And tho" near empty Johnnys purse 

Yet cruel 'tis to say sir 

For R / [Royal] Dogs which are his curse 

Poor Johnny's made to pay Sir 

See No. 8794, &c. 
12X9^ i^- 



Pu¥ April 2cf^ 1796 by H. Humphrey New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull, blind, maimed, and ragged, 
walks (r. to 1.) near a chasm, the edge of which stretches across the fore- 
ground of the design. His wooden r. arm terminates in a hook to which is 
attached a cord from the collar of a lean greyhound with the head of Pitt 
(as in No. 8794). Pitt drags him forward and slightly towards the gulf; 
in his mouth is a large bare bone, his collar is inscribed Licenc'd to Lead. 
In John Bull's 1. hand is a staff, on his back a burden inscribed Loans. He 
has a wooden leg, which a dog with the head of Sheridan and a collar 
inscribed Licenc'd to Bite is biting savagely. Behind and on the extreme 
r. is a dog with the head of Grey, and a collar inscribed Grey Hound; he 
bites John Bull's coat. Fox, a mastiff with a fox's brush, stands behind 
Pitt, glaring fiercely, on his collar is Licenc'd to Bark. Behind is grass and 
a tree (1.) and in the distance the roofs and spires of London, showing 
St. Paul's. After the title: ^^ Among the Faithless, Faithful Only found". 

A satire (double-edged like many others by Gillray) on the dangers and 
burdens of the times in a form occasioned by the dog tax, see No. 8794, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 202. Wright and Evans, No. 148. Reprinted, G.W.G., 





Pu¥ April 20*^ iyg6. by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A tun of Wine lies on solid trestles 
inscribed Treasury Bench. From its huge bung-hole emerges the naked 
body of Pitt, as Bacchus, crowned with vine branches. He leans back 
tipsily, a brimming glass in each hand. Behind him stands Dundas as 
Silenus, fat, and partly draped in tartan ; his r. hand grasps Pitt's shoulder, 
in his 1. he holds up a brimming glass. He also is crowned with vine 
branches. Bunches of grapes hang down from a vine above their heads 
and are indicated as a background to the cask whose trestles are on a dais 
covered with a fringed carpet. Opposite the tun stands John Bull in profile 
to the 1., looking up at Pitt, hat in hand; in his 1. hand is a lank purse, under 
his arm three empty bottles. He is a yokel, with lank hair and hydro- 
cephalic head, wearing a smock and wrinkled gaiters. He says: Pray 
M^ Bacchus have a bit of consideration for old John; — you know as how I've 
emptied my Purse already for you — & its waundedly hard to raise the price 
of a drop of Comfort, now that one's got no Money left for to pay for it!!! 
Pitt says: Twenty Pounds a T-Tun, ad-additional Duty i-i-if you d-d-don* t 
like it at that, why t-t-t-then Dad & I will keep it all for o-o-our own Drink- 
ing, so here g-g-goes old Bu-Bu-Bull & Mouth!!! — 

An additional duty of ^20 a tun {6d. a bottle) was announced in Pitt's 
budget speech, 18 Apr. 1796, and was opposed (by Sheridan, 5 May) as 
equivalent to prohibition. Pari. Register, vol. 60, pp. 449, 450, 599-602, 
653-5. See also Nos. 8799, 8803, 9017, 9391. For Pitt and Dundas as 
topers see No. 8651, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 202-3. Wright and Evans, No. 149. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 
I2|X9^ in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub: April 26 iyg6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caracatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt as Bacchus bestrides a large wine- 
cask, his feet resting on the trestles. He is very thin (with a gouty leg), 
much caricatured, and has ass's ears; his head is garlanded with a vine- 
branch, and is turned in profile to the I. In his r. hand he holds out a glass 
of wine, in his 1. a long pipe whose ashes fall on the head of Dundas (r.) 
seated on an upturned tub and leaning against a large cask. On the 1. the 
Duchess of Gordon (cf. No. 7282) leans against a butt of Gordon's Entire 
supported on trestles, on which she rests a knee. The Duchess holds the 
tap of the barrel whose contents pour into a tub and overflow it. The 
tap of Pitt's cask is ornamented by a crown, the wine gushes out and over- 
flows a large glass which stands beneath it. The Duchess and Dundas are 
tipsily drinking to Pitt. Both spill the contents of their glasses, on hers is 
a ducal coronet. She wears a dress which leaves her breast bare and 
defines her ample contours ; across her shoulder is a tartan plaid. Dundas 
wears a Scots bonnet and a tartan plaid. He and Pitt have coats of the 



Windsor uniform (blue with red facings). A scroll from the mouths of the 
Duchess and Dundas joins above their heads, inscribed: Oh what a God 
is Justice Midas; she sings: oh the Tremendous Justice Midas; he sings: 
Who dare oppose wise Justice Midas. (Chorus from O'Hara's burletta 
Midas (1764). Midas is the stupid, arrogant, and corrupt justice who is 
changed by Apollo into an ass. Cf. Nos. 7393, 7498.) 

For the wine duty see No. 8798, &c. For Pitt and Dundas as topers see 
No. 8651, &c. 


Engrav'd by T' A' [Gillray.] X 

Pu¥ May 3^ iyg6 — hy H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales, on horseback, 
figures as a life-like equestrian statue (of the future George IV) mounted 
on a pedestal of three rectangular blocks, diminishing in size. On the 
middle block: pater urbium subscribi Statuis" JuveK The Prince, in 
regimentals, very fat, sits in profile to the 1., holding a drawn sabre. He 
holds the 1. curb rein, the snaffle lying on the animal's neck. The toe of 
his spurred boot is in the stirrup. He wears a feathered cocked hat, a star 
on his breast and on his hat, a broad sash round his ample waist. A large 
holster hangs from the saddle beneath which is a leopard-skin with a GR 
and crown on each corner. The horse's near foreleg and off hind leg are 
raised. Beneath the design: 

" "/ saw him with his Beaver on 

"His Cuisses on his Thighs gallantly arm'ed 

"Rise from the ground like feather' d Mercury 

"And vaulted with such ease into his seat 

"As if an Angel dropt down from the Clouds, 

"To turn & wind a fiery Pegasus 

"And witch the world with noble Horsemanship — K^ Henry 4^^ 

Probably inspired by the Prince (cf. Farington, Diary, i. 156, 27 July 
1796), in 'his new Light Horse uniform, which is very handsome and 
theatrical' but 'displayed an amount of bulk which probably entertained 
all beholders' (at the departure of the Duke of York for Holland, 1793). 
Quoted, Fitzgerald, Life of George IV, i. 270. The print is said to have 
been copied for a French inn signboard as 'the sign of an English light- 
horseman'. Description, G.W.G., p. u8. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 211 (small copy). Wright and Evans, No. 435. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Angelo's Pic Nic, 1905, p. 23. 
131X91^6 in. 


/ C [Cruikshank f.] GMW [Woodward del.] / C 
London Published May 4'* 1796 by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly. 
Folios of Caracatures Lent 

Engraving (coloured impression). A grotesque general in uniform with 
a huge head and a small body, which dwindles from shoulders to waist, 
stands full-face, r. hand resting on a cane, 1. on his hip. He wears a wide 
cocked hat, lank hair and spectacles, and his dress is old-fashioned, with 



high- quartered shoes. His eyebrows are raised and his mouth pulled down 
in a melancholy and burlesque grimace. Beneath the title : 
Of all the great Generals Europe can boast 
In her annals of war — in times present and past 
None so handy each season to call to his Post 
As that Meagre old General — General Fast 

Probably a satire on the general fasts, enjoined by proclamation, when 
the success of British arms was prayed for, see No. 8428, &c., as well as 
on the dearth which was general in Europe and Britain, see No. 8665, &c. 
10X7! in. 

A companion plate to No. 8801 is General Complaint, pub. Fores, 5 May 
1796. The general, his features twisted in exasperation, holds an empty 
purse in one hand, the London Gazette with a long list of bankruptcies in 
the other, Cf. No. 8328, &c. Beneath the title: 

Dont tell me of Generals, raised from mere hoys 
Though believe me I mean not their Laurel to Taint 
But the General Fm sure that will make the most noise 
If the War still goes on will be General Complaint! 
Reproduced, Everitt, p. 1 1 . Attributed to Rowlandson by Grego (i. 328). 
(A. de R. V. 68.) 

Woodward Delin^ [I. Cruikshank £.] 

Puh^ May 6*^ iyg6by S.W. Fores N" 30 Piccadilly corner of Sackville 
St. Folios of Caricatures lent out for the Evening. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Six groups arranged in two rows, the 
words etched above the head of the speaker, [i] Two tax-gatherers stand 
together (1.), one pointing to a man walking in profile to the r., fashionably 
dressed except that he does not wear a sparrow-tail coat. One says, point- 
ing, Sta?id aside Neighbour — there 's a Puppy, Fm sure. The other answers : 
Dont be too rash — He has got never a Tail! [2] A tax-collector walks off 
to the 1. holding a dog under his arm and followed by its irate and elderly 
owner, who raises her crutched stick to smite, saying: Return my Pro- 
perty you Villain, or I'll knock you down. He says : By virtue of my office, 
in cases of nonpayment, I have a right to retain this Animal as Private 
Property. I fancy I can dispose of him for about fifteen shillings. [3] A 
kneeling tax-collector, holding a bludgeon and an official paper, pulls out 
a terrified man from under the petticoats of a distressed lady, seated in 
a chair (r.). He says : / am sure Madam you have got a Puppy concealed 
somewhere — I saw him enter the premises — O you are there are you ? Creep 
out Sir if you please. [4] A tax-gatherer, spectacles on nose, and open 
book in hand, stoops towards a spitting cat standing on the knee of its 
mistress, a lean old maid with a small parrot perched on the back of her 
chair. She says: / hope Sir the Tax. don't extend to my Poor Tabby. He 
answers: Bless me how near sighted I am — / declare I thought it was a 
Lapdog. [5] A stout man, knife in hand, drags by the cravat a man fashion- 
ably dressed in dark clothes; he says to his colleague (r.): / am sure I am 
right now I caught him in Fops Alley at the Opera House. The other, who 
holds across his shoulder a number of dead dogs, answers : Take care what 
you are about John or you will get us both into some confounded Scrape — 
That is a Parson. [6] A yokel in a smock eggs on a bulldog who springs 



at a collector (r.). He says: At Htm again Towser — we'll teach you to come 
a Dog Tax gathering. The terrified collector says : What the deuce are you 
about you have made me spill all my Japan Ink. 

For the dog tax see No. 8794, &c. Probably one of a set of prints, see 
No. 8541, &c. 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub May 10 1796 by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Careatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox and Sheridan kneel on a rope 
attached to the neck of a mangy dog with the head of Pitt. The rope, 
inscribed Vox Popula [sic], runs over a pulley attached to a gibbet, from 
which Pitt is suspended. The upright of the gibbet is National support, 
the horizontal Excise Office, and a cross-beam forming a triangle with the 
other two is Cross Post. Pitt's head is much caricatured, his body is almost 
bare and his tail hairless; to each hind leg is tied a bottle, one: Sherry, 
labelled additional Duty, the other: Port, labelled New Duty. 

On the ground (1.) a dog with the head of Dundas, a tartan across his 
shoulders and a kettle inscribed not my Dog tied to his tail, runs off in the 
direction of a signpost pointing To Edinburgh. Sheridan (1.), who is well 
dressed, says, A good way to save the Duty. Fox wears a waistcoat with 
a tattered shirt and breeches, but has a neatly powdered wig. He says: 
/ suppose he catch' d the Mange from the Dun Dog. 

One of many indications of Pitt's unpopularity, cf. No. 8664, &c. For 
the dog tax see No. 8794, &c. ; for the wine duty. No. 8798, &c. 'Cross 
post' appears to be an allusion to the increased rate of postage imposed 
in the budget of 1796, which was combined with a new regulation of by- 
and cross-roads. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 1261. 

X [Gillray.] 

Pub^ May 21^ 1796, by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Fox addresses a proletarian mob from 
some point apparently under the portico of St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 
He stands behind a railing, and bends forward, hat in hand, clasping to 
his breast the Pewter-Pot Bill, saying. Ever guardian of your most sacred 
rights, I have opposed the Pewter-Pot-Bill! ! ! The crowd look up at him, 
cheering and shouting a Mug, a Mug. They wear blue and buff favours. 
In the foreground are H.L. figures of a little chimney-sweep with the 
name C. Fox Westminster on the front of his cap (by the Act of 1788 these 
boys had to wear their master's name on their cap), and of a pot-boy, 
with a string of pewter pots slung to his shoulder ; he holds up a foaming 
pot towards Fox inscribed ^^ac/j Slang — Tree of Liberty Petty France. The 
same inscription is indicated on his pots. Beneath the title : Vox populi, — 
" We'll have a Mug!— a Mug!— a Mug!— 

Mayor of Garret 
A quotation from Foote's comedy (1763). 

Fox, as a demagogue addressing a Westminster mob, foreshadows the 



general election (cf. No. 8805). He spoke on 20 Apr. in favour of the 'Bill 
for preventing the purloining of pewter pots', by which publicans were 
prohibited from sending out their beer by pot-boys, calling it 'of great 
public utility'. Lofid. Chron., 21 Apr. 1796. For the Tree of Liberty cf. 
No. 9214. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 203. Wright and Evans, No. 151. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. A small copy, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, p. 301. 
lOj^e X 8| in. With border, i if X 9ii in. 


f Qy desetfed 

Pu¥ May 21^^ iyg6 by H Humphrey New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt as an alchemist, but dressed as 
usual, sits in his laboratory blowing a furnace with bellows formed of a 
royal crown. The furnace heats a large glass retort in which the House 
of Commons is being dissolved : the galleries are collapsing, the Speaker's 
chair is breaking, he and the clerks are asleep, the broken mace drops from 
the table, the books fly into the air and ascend with documents, &c., into 
the curving neck of the retort: Coke, Acts, Statutes, Rights of Parliament, 
Magna Charta, Bill of Rights, a cap of Libertas, the scales of Justice are 
flying upwards. The Ministerial members applaud; the Opposition are 
dismayed. Sheridan and Fox, though tiny, are conspicuous on the front 
bench. A stream of vapour issues from the mouth of the retort containing 
tiny grovelling figures of abject members who fill both sides of another 
House of Commons above and behind the alchemist's head, and prostrate 
themselves before a miniature Pitt, who sits on a throne which replaces 
the Speaker's chair, and is inscribed Perpetual Dictator. He sits arrogantly, 
holding a sceptre ; his legs are those of a bird of prey (cf. No. 7478), one 
foot is planted on Mag[na] C[harta] and Acts of Parl[iameni\. His throne 
is surmounted by his crest, a stork holding an anchor, with the addition 
of a crown on the bird's head. A smaller retort on the extreme 1., inscribed 
Aqua Regia, adds its vapour to that produced by Pitt. (Aqua Regia, used 
punningly, with a double meaning, is a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric 
acids which converts metals, even gold, into chlorides.) 

Pitt (the Alchemist) and the figures he is evoking, as well as the minis- 
terialists in the dissolving House, wear the blue coat with red facings of 
the Windsor uniform. He sits in profile to the r. on the model of a high 
rectangular building, 'a bastille', having a row of windows on the top 
story only ; it is a Model of the new Barracks. From his pocket hangs a 
paper: Receipe — Antidotus Republica. On the r. of the circular furnace is 
a coal-scuttle, inscribed Treasury Cole (cf. No. 6213), and overflowing with 
guineas. On the other side is a pestle and mortar in which is Britannia's 
shield, about to be broken up. 

From the roof hang emblems of nefarious wizardry : a crocodile, a heads- 
man's axe, a scorpion, a bull's head, a locust (cf. No. 8669), an asp issuing 
from an egg, a bat. On the wall are three rows of large jars, some with 
inscriptions: Ointment of Caterpillars (beside Pitt's head, cf. No. 8676), 
[Universal Panacea, Oil of Influence, Extract of British Blood, Spirit of 
Sal: Machiavel. 

A satire on the dissolution of Parliament announced on 19 May: by 
Treasury gold and Crown influence the House will be transformed into 



one completely subservient to Pitt, cf. No. 8980. The building of barracks, 
which was regularly opposed after the Revolution as leading to military 
despotism, became necessary during the war, but was carried out rapidly 
and without parliamentary sanction or adequate Treasury control. This 
was denounced in the Commons as unconstitutional on 8 Apr. 1796. 
Pari. Hist, xxxii. 929 ff. See Fortescue, Hist, of the British Army, iv. 
903-7. For the election see No. 8813, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 203. Wright and Evans, No. 150. Reprinted, G.W.G.^ 
1830. Reproduced, Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections, p. 300. 
13^X9! in. 

CAUSE FOR SEPERATION [scored through and replaced by] DIS- 


Pu¥ May 24^ iyg6 hy H Humphrey New Bond S^ 
Engraving (coloured impression). The Princess of Wales (1.), candle in 
hand, approaches the bed of the Prince, who wakes up, raising his hands 
in dismay. Lady Jersey (here, an attractive woman, cf. No. 881 1) is asleep, 
her head on the Prince's shoulder, her arms round his neck. The distressed 
Princess wears a coronet and triple ostrich plume, her r. arm is flung back. 
Behind her (1.) is an open door through which is seen the baby princess 
in a cradle ornamented with the Prince's feathers, with which his bed is 
also decorated. On the twisting draperies of the bed is the star of the 
Garter. Above the Princess's head hangs a Map of the Road back to 

The separation of the Prince and Princess and the part taken by Lady 
Jersey was well known and a subject of intense public interest: 'every one 
pities and execrates the different parties'. Lond. Chron., 30 May 1796. 
The Princess received an ovation at the Opera on 28 and 31 May, Lady 
Jersey (still a lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess) was in actual danger 
from the mob. Leeds, Political Memoranda, ed. O. Browning, 1884, 
pp. 221 ff. ; C. Abbot, Diary, 1861, i. 44, 52, 59, 61; Corr. of Lord Gran- 
ville Leveson Gower, 1916, i. 12 1-4. See Nos. 8807, 8809, 8810, 881 1, 
8816, 8818, 8824, 8982. For the beginning and end of the liaison cf. 
Nos. 8485, 8983. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 208. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
9^X13! in. 



Pu¥ May 25^^ 1796. hy H. Humphrey New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured and uncoloured^ impressions). The Prince of Wales, 
very fat and pompous, in night-cap, dressing-gown, and slippers, walks 
in profile along a corridor leading from his own door (r.), above which are 
his coronet and feathers, towards that of Lady Jersey, which is wide open 
and reveals its occupant holding apart the bed-curtains with a gap-toothed 
grin. Lord Jersey, dwarfish, shambling, and elderly, dressed in night- 
cap and night-shirt (on which i& z.J with a coronet), stands by the door, 
holding a candle and pointing to the bed ; he raises his night-cap deferen- 
tially to the Prince, who says, with contemptuous arrogance, va-t-en (see 
' In 'Caricatures', iv. 78, 



No. 8809). The Prince walks on a fringed strip of carpet. On the open 
door behind Lord Jersey is A [torn] Map of the Road into the Harbour 
<^fy^[sey] ; the islands of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark and[Je]rsey are depicted, 
with a route leading to Jersey (cf. No. 8810). 

See No. 8806, &c. For Jersey's acquiescence, and his subjection to his 
wife, see Diaries of Sylvester Douglas, ed. F. Bickley, 1928, i. 99. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 208. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 
9X12I in. 


Pub May 25 iyg6 by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly the Corner of 
Sackville Street Folios of Caracatures lent for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). Dundas (r.) turns the handle of a machine 
in which two cylinders revolve in contact. Pitt (1.) drags out by the wrists 
the flattened and elongated body of John Bull from between the cylinders 
where his ankles are still confined. The upper cylinder is marked loan 
loan; the lower, subsidy tax. Pitt says: He'll come out a great deal 
further yet turn the loan stone again he is not half flat enough!! John 
Bull turns his eyes despairingly towards Pitt. Both his tormentors have 
discarded their coats ; Dundas wears a plaid over his shirt. 

A loan of ;^ 18,000,000 was part of the Budget for 1796 (introduced 
7 Dec. 1795); its terms were attacked in a report presented on 9 Feb. 1796 
and debated on 26 Feb, Pari. Hist, xxxii. 763-830. Another loan of 
;^i8,ooo,ooo had been raised in Feb. 1795 when the period of greatest 
difficulty in obtaining loans began. Newmarch, On the Loans raised by 
Mr. Pitt, iyg3-i8oi, 1855, PP- 12-14. The subsidy to Austria was 
strongly opposed. For the burden of subsidies see No. 8821, &c. A varia- 
tion on the hopper in which John Bull is ground down, cf. No. 8654, &c. 

ICDel. [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub May 28 iyg6 by S W Fores 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caricatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A design in four com- 
partments. Beneath the title: The very Stones look up to see. Such very 
Gorgeous Harlotry, Shameing an Honest Nation. 

[i] The Sultan Retiring 

The Prince of Wales in flowered dressing-gown and night-cap stands 
arrogantly with folded arms, saying Va-ten [sic], as in No. 8807, to the 
dwarfish Lord Jersey (r.), who stands deferentially before him, holding a 
candle, and raising his hand to his forehead with a senile grin. The Prince 
stands at the foot of Lady Jersey's bed (1.), where she lies expectantly. It 
is decorated with two earl's coronets, but under it is a chamber-pot orna- 
mented with the Prince's feathers. On the wall (r.) is a picture of a turbaned 
and arrogant Turk, standing among the ladies of his harem, who are seated 
around him. Probably imitated from No. 8807. 

Reproduced, Fuchs und Kind, Die Weiberherrschaft, i. 153. 
8x6| in. 


political satires 1796 

[2] Fashionable Pastime 

Lady Jersey sits on a settee, holding her arms above her head, two 
fingers in each hand extended to simulate horns. Before her is Lord 
Jersey, bending under the weight of the Prince, who sits on his shoulders ; 
he supports himself by resting his hands on his wife's lap. The Prince, 
very fat and complacent in his Light Horse uniform (see No. 8800), wear- 
ing a helmet, with slippers and ungartered stockings, holds Jersey by the 
head, his fingers extended like Lady Jersey's (as in Nos. 88 11, 8816), and 
putting a hand over Jersey's eyes and mouth. Lady Jersey wears a loose high- 
waisted dress, with uncovered breast, and flowing hair. Both say: Buck- 
Buck how many Horns do I hold up. Jersey answers one you say & two there 
is Buck Buck. A cat (1.) slinks off to the 1. On the wall behind the Prince 
(r.) is a picture of Sir R^ Worsley, a free copy of No. 6109, the r. portion 
being cut off by the margin of the design. 

Reproduced, Fuchs und Kind, Die Weiberherrschaft, i. 153. 
8 X 6 in. 

[3] The Discovery 

The Princess (r.) draws aside the fringed curtains of a bed in which lie 
the Prince (awake and dismayed) and Lady Jersey (asleep). She looks 
aside, weeping. Above her head are the words Give me [sic] all you can & 
let me Dream the Res [sic].^ Behind her head is a H.L. portrait of the Duke 
of Brunswick, his head turned towards his daughter but hidden by the 
Prince's helmet, which hangs from the frame. 

[4] Confidence Betrayed 

The Prince is seated full-face, with a distraught expression, his 1. hand 
on his forehead, his r. hovers above a pistol which lies on a table beside 
him. Lady Jersey stands on his 1., holding an open letter addressed The 

D of B c. She puts her forefinger to her nose, saying. Here would 

have been a rare Kettle of Fish to have served up to a German Prince. Through 
an open window (or perhaps in a picture) behind the Prince a landscape 
is indicated with forked lightning. 

The newspapers published accounts of the fate of the letter sent by the 
Princess to her father, but returned by the messenger, Dr. Randolph (who 
was prevented from travelling), to Lady Jersey and shown by her to the 
Prince. Lond. Chron., 30 May 1796. This was the subject of two satires 
(1796) by T. J. Mathias; Epistle in verse to the Rev. Dr. Randolph . . ., 
1796; Equestrian Epistle in verse to the Earl of Jersey .... The correspon- 
dence between Randolph and Lord and Lady Jersey was published. See 
Huish, Memoirs of George IV, 1830, i. 383-7; H. E. Lloyd, George IV, 
1830, 1 98-2 II, and Nos. 8982-3. Thurlow agreed with Leeds (i June 1796) 
that 'the Prince's strange conduct could alone be imputed to madness, and 
expressed himself as much struck by the good sense and discretion which 
the Princess had manifested under so cruel a tryal'. Leeds, Political 
Memoranda, ed. O. Browning, 1884, p. 223. The people greeted her 
(31 May) 'with a transport of affectionate respect'. C. Abbot, Diary, i. 59. 
See No. 8806, &c. 
8|x6 in. Whole design, i6f X I2| in. 

' From Pope's Heloise to Abelard, often reprinted in the eighteenth century 
(cf. No. 9283). 




Pu¥ May 31 iyg6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly Folios of Caraca- 
tures lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales (r.), rising from 
his chair, kicks over a tea-table, the crockery sliding to the ground, and 
lying broken on the floor. The Princess sits on a settee on the opposite 
side of the table, her infant in her arms. She is comely, and melancholy, 
with downcast eyes, and plainly dressed except for the three feathers in 
her hair. Behind the Prince (r.), Lord Jersey, with horns on his head, 
opens a door, pointing behind him to Lady Jersey, who lies on a sofa in 
an indecorous attitude. He says : My Wife is waiting for you in the next 

The Prince grasps a document in each hand ; the inscription on one has 
been erased, on the other (1.) it is Thoughts on Despotism. From his coat- 
pocket issues A Map of Jersey (cf. No. 8807), under his feet are papers: 
Joe the Dustman, The History of Kings, Marriage a La Mode, The Tender 
Husband a Farce. He says : Marriage has no restraints on me! no Legal tie 

can bind the will — tis free & shall be so The Princess says : Obey, 

Alass the Task 's Seviere how can the Female Mind with pleasure yield when 
every look 's a Frown!!/ Alass poor Babe!!! 

On the wall is a picture of the King and Queen on horseback, with a 
signpost pointing to Windsor, apparently copied from The Constant Couple, 
No. 6918, except that the Queen is in back view, her head turned to the 
King. On the frame: The little Wants, dislikes, preferences, antipathies, 
fancies, whims, & even impertinence of Women must be officiously attended 
to, flattered & if possible guesed at, and anticipated by a well bred Man. 

See No. 8806, &c. A complete separation between the Prince and 
Princess took place on the birth of the Princess (see No. 8779). The 
Prince's words suggest a parody of his letter of 30 Apr., saying, 'Our 
inclinations are not in our power.' (Quoted, Fitzgerald, Life of George IV, 
1881, p. 308.) 


J^ Gy ad vivam del^ et fed 

Pu¥ June J*' iyg6 by H. Humphrey New Bond Street — 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene in Lady Jersey's bedroom. 
Lady Jersey as an old hag (cf. No. 8806) lies in a magnificent bed. Lord 
Jersey, carrying the Prince of Wales on his back, supports himself by rest- 
ing his hands on the foot of the bed. The Prince, very fat in his famous 
Light Horse uniform (see No. 8800), wearing helmet, gloves, and spurred 
boots, and the Garter ribbon, holds Jersey's scraggy queue in the manner 
of a rein; he holds up two fingers, saying (as in Nos. 8809, 8816), Buck! 
Buck! — how many Horns do I hold up? Jersey, who is very thin, leers 
towards the Prince out of the corners of his eyes, saying. E'en as many as 
you please! Both are in profile to the r. ; the Prince's eyes are hidden by 
the brim of his helmet as in No. 8816. The Princess's coronet, with its 
triple plume, is conspicuous on a circular close-stool (1.) which is decorated 
with a large J and earl's coronet. On the wall above it, in an ornate oval 
frame, is a picture of Cupid piping to an old sow who dances on her hind- 



legs. The fringed pelmet of the bed is decorated with earl's coronets from 
which spring horns. See No. 8806, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 208. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. 


Tho' Humphrey deP & fed [Gillray.] first Plate June r^ 1796. 
Pu¥ June J** 1796, by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt sits in profile to the r. against the 
trunk of an aged and quasi-derelict tree inscribed Royal-Oak, his feet rest- 
ing on a branch. He is eating a small crown held in his r. hand, and is 
excreting upon the head of a sleeping boy seated on the ground leaning 
against the tree. The boy, 'Johnny', holds a horn-book inscribed John j 
Bull I A.B.C. I D.E.F. 

One of several satires in which Pitt encroaches on the power of the 
crown, cf. No. 8480. As in Nos. 8816, 8817, Gillray adopts a juvenile 
technique which does not conceal his own manner. Cf. No. 8430, &c. 


[L Cruikshank.] 

London Pub June J*' J 79 6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly Folios of 
Caricatures Lent out for the Evening 

Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). Two Westminster 
electors sit face to face in a curiously shaped open car, or 'Mercury', to 
each end of which a horse is attached by a band across the chest. The 
horses have the heads of Sir Alan Gardner (1.) and Fox (r.), each is lashed 
by a postilion, and each attempts to gallop, making the car stationary. The 
car has a curved and symmetrical body, rising behind each passenger in 
a point, its contour resembling a crescent with the horns pointing upwards. 
On the 1. and in profile to the r. sits a fat and elderly parson, his hands 
clasped on his chest. On the 1. panel of the car is a crown. On the r. sits 
a plainly dressed man with his arms folded ; on the r. panel of the car is 
the cap and staff of Liberty. Two roads diverge behind the car at r. angles 
to that on which the horses are struggling, but take a curve which shows 
that they will eventually meet. A double signpost immediately behind the 
car points along them: (1.) To Peace, (r.) To Prosperity. The parson says: 
Aye Aye I can see the Road our Member s promised to take us. The other says : 
This is rare Travelling but methinks it jolt cursedly. Home Tooke standing 
behind the signpost looks down on the coach ; he says, taking a pinch of 
snuff: A Match for the Kings Plate I suppose. 

The postilion riding Gardner is Pitt, his breeches inscribed Treasury 
Influence, his whip is headed by a crown, and (in the coloured impression) 
he wears the Windsor uniform. A signpost by the horse's head points 
to Despotism, and is surmounted by a Union Jack. The other postilion 
wears a tricolour cap and jacket and slashes his horse. The r. signpost 
points to Revolutionism and flies a tricolour flag. After the title : Pull Devil 
Pull Baker. 

At the general election of 1796 the agreement made in 1790 to divide 

257 s 


Westminster between the Ministry and the Opposition, each party sup- 
porting one candidate only, still held good. Hood was raised to the English 
peerage and was succeeded by Admiral Sir Alan Gardner. As in 1790 (see 
Nos. 7638, 7652, &c.) Home Tooke intervened but did not, as before, attack 
Fox for his 'coalition' with the ministerial candidate (cf. No. 9270). 
Polling continued from 27 May to 13 June. While Pitt rides to 'Despot- 
ism', Fox is represented as dominated by the extremists of the radical 
clubs; cf. his letter to Lord Holland (1796), Memorials and Correspondence 
of C.J. Fox, 1854, iii. 135-6, and No. 8814. Press cuttings relating to the 
election are in B.M. Add. MSS. 27,837, ff. 49-72. See also Stephens, 
Life of Home Tooke, ii. 164-229. For the election see Nos. 8814, 8815, 
8817, 9508. Cf. No. 8805. For the desire for peace cf. No. 8792. 

8814 S. ALAN. GARDINER. Covent Garden. [c. June 1796] 

Engraving. Sir Alan Gardner (1.) in naval uniform, bends forward to cut 
off, with a sickle inscribed Loyalty, the head of Fox, which is planted in 
the ground like some monstrous vegetable, the hair terminating in leaves. 
One of these Gardner holds, saying. My Life and Services are ever devoted 
to my King & Country. Fox says: / was always a Staunch Friend to the 
Crops and Sans Culottes but this damn'd Crop is quite unexpected. Gardner 
stands on Constitutional Ground. Behind him stands Britannia, towering 
above him, and holding a laurel wreath over his head; she says: Go on, 
Britain approves and will protect you! On her spear is the cap of Liberty. 
More 'venemous' democrats are being drawn towards flames by the Devil 
(r.), a figure like that of No. 6283. He puts his trident-like rake in the neck 
of Home Tooke, who has a reptilian body with a barbed tail and feline 
claws, saying. Long look' d for come at last Welcome thou Staunch Friend and 
faithful Servant, enter thou onto the Hot-bed prepared for thee. Tooke, his 
head in profile to the r., says. Now will no prospering Virtue gall my jaun- 
diced Eye — nor people fostered by a beloved Sovereign and defended by the 
Wisdom of his Counsellors. — To Anarchy & Confusion I will blow my Horne, 
and wallow in every thing that 's damnable. The Devil clutches in the talons 
of his r. foot the head of Thelwall, who says. This will not Tell well. His 
1. foot tramples the neck of Hardy, who says, / was Fool Hardy. In the 
background is a man-of-war. Queen, her flag inscribed June i^K Below 
the title: Weeds carefully eradicated, & Venemous Reptiles destroyed \ by 
Royal Patent | God save the King. 

For the Westminster election see No. 8813, &c. Gardner commanded 
the Queen at the battle of the First of June, the losses on his ship being 
exceptionally severe, and was made a baronet for his services. Thomas 
Hardy, Tooke, and Thelwall had been tried for high treason in 1794. Cf. 
No. 8502. 

Grego, Rowlandson, i. 327. 

EtcKd by M. N. Bate from, a Drawing by R. Dighton. 

Engraving. A design in outline crowded with figures almost all fully 
characterized and probably portraits. The foreground is filled with West- 
minster electors of note, interspersed with street sellers. Behind, and about 



on a level with the hats of the crowd, is the floor of the hustings, a timber 
structure backed by St, Paul's church; it recedes diagonally from the 
spectator (r. to 1.). It is divided into seven sections by six posts on which 
are boards with the names of the Westminster parishes. The two boards 
on the extreme 1. are without inscriptions and evidently belong to the two 
small parishes of St. Mary-le-Strand and St. Clement Danes. Next is 
S' Martin's ; above the board is the state of the poll : Hon C J Fox 4625 \ 
S^ A Gardner 4496 \ H Tooke Es 2560. To the 1. of this post Gardner, 
in naval uniform, wearing his hat, addresses the crowd with folded arms. 
The other two candidates stand hat in hand: Home Tooke on the 1., Fox 
standing with his 1. arm round the next post, that of S*^ Pauls & S' Martins 
Le Grand. On the r., on the hustings, are many persons, among whom a 
man wearing spectacles resembles 'Liberty' Hall, the secretary of the Whig 
Club. The last post (r.) has the board of 5' Anns. At the end (r.) a man 
wearing a cocked hat leans against the wall, he has some resemblance to 
Captain Morris. A sailor has climbed up the hustings, and looks down, 

The crowd in the Piazza is many ranks deep ; it chiefly consists of well- 
dressed men, especially on the r. On the 1. the crowd recedes in perspective 
to the house next the church, the piazza and street being densely packed. 
Carriages and horses are visible above the heads of the people. A rider 
follows a high gig on which is a coronet. Two coaches pass (r, to 1.), both 
with coronets on the hammer-cloth, and containing attractive women 
wearing feathers. In the foreground on the extreme 1. is a stand for 
spectators, a high timber structure roughly put together (one was blown 
down on 30 May, Lond. Chron., 1 June). Its occupants look down at the 
hustings opposite ; a ragged boy has climbed up to a projecting beam. 

Below, and on the extreme 1., a fashionably dressed and very ugly 
woman walks arm in arm with a man away from the hustings ; she is the 
only woman in the crowd, street-sellers excepted. A dwarfish grinning boy 
holds out a sheaf of papers : Home Tooke Esr Speech. Behind him a man 
threatens with his fists a rough man riding an ass with paniers ; the crowd 
is otherwise orderly, though a constable (perhaps Townsend) near the r. 
of the hustings holds up his staff. A handsome man in riding-dress (1.) is 
a conspicuous figure. Next is a ragged man with a sheaf of walking-sticks 
and a basket of broadsides and ribbons. The only persons wearing favours 
are two women : one, in the centre foreground, holds out a sheaf of The 
Sp\ee\ches of Hon C Fox S'' Alan Gardner Home Tooke Esq, her favour is 
Fox for Ever. The other, old and ugly, offers papers to a very fat man 
wearing a cocked hat, her large favour is Home Tooke for ever. 

A prominent figure (r.), very corpulent, in profile to the 1., wearing 
spectacles, resembles the Marquis of Buckingham (cf. No. 8641). A stout 
man in top-boots holds a cheque: Drummond . . . with the signature 
J. Gregory. Behind him stands Whitefoord in profile to the 1. looking 
through a glass as in No, 8169. In front of the sailor is Hanger, looking 
to the 1., his bludgeon under his arip. A head in profile to the I., wearing 
a cocked hat, to the r. of Hanger, resembles Grafton. In the second row 
the Duke of Norfolk (r.) turns his head in profile to the r. Above the 
crowd (r.) rise the head and shoulders of the artist, Dighton, drawing ; he 
rests his paper on a low penthouse attached to the end of the hustings. 
All the men, except those few specified as wearing cocked hats, wear round 
hats. On the gable-end of the hustings (r.) election bills are posted. 

A realistic representation of the election. The figures indicate the poll 



on Saturday, ii June 1796, so that the scene is probably the closing day, 
the 13th: Fox 5,160, Gardner 4,814, Home Tooke 2,819. (These totals 
are falsified in No. 9508.) The orderly scene should be compared with 
Westminster election prints of 1780, 1784, 1788, and in later years. The 
candidates had agreed that election favours should not be distributed. In 
spite of the compromise (see No. 8813) political issues were hotly urged: 
Fox asked the electors to demonstrate their opposition to 'a war that 
beggars you' and 'bills that enslave you' (see No. 8687, &c.). Home Tooke 
was more demagogic, and his speeches appear to have been still more 
popular. Gardner, who said, 'I am not accustomed to speak in public, 
nor am 1 master of that eloquence which the other candidates possess', 
was much guyed by Tooke. Jordan's Collection of all the addresses and 
Speeches . . ., 1796. See No. 8813, &c. Cf. Dighton's water-colour of the 
1788 election, vol. vi. 515. 


Engraved by H. S. Sadd from a Drawing by Robert Dighton 

A final state (coloured impression) mezzotinted by Sadd and published 
by him in 1839. 


Tho^ Humphrey des. et fed [Gillray.] 

Pu¥ June 16*'' lygO. by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A game of cards at a round table in 
which Lord Jersey (1.) and Mrs. Fitzherbert (r.) face each other in profile. 
Lady Jersey sits full-face, her head turned in profile towards her husband 
and lover: the Prince has left his place (indicated by a stool decorated with 
his feathers) as Lady Jersey's partner to stand behind Lord Jersey, his 
hands resting on his head, forefingers raised to form horns as in Nos. 8809, 
881 1. Lady Jersey has taken seven tricks; her husband has laid on the 
table before him the ace and three court cards. All the players raise their 
hands in surprise. The Prince wears his Light Horse uniform (cf. No. 
8800), his eyes being concealed by his helmet as in No. 88ii. Lady Jersey 
wears three tall feathers in her hair, a locket inscribed J hangs from her 
neck. The fatness of the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert contrasts with the 
leanness of the other two. A candle-sconce is on the wall. 

See No. 8806, &c. For the signature and manner see No. 8812, &c. 


Th(f Humphrey des. et fed — (tged 13 Years [Gillray.] 
Pub^ June 22*^ 1796. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street — 

Engraving (coloured impression). A very fat John Bull (r.), in profile to 
the 1., tugs hard at a rope which is round the fork of a tree, trying hard 
to pull it down, his 1. foot planted on the trunk. In the branches are the 
heads of Dundas (I.) and Pitt (c.) in profile to the r., and of ( ?) Lough- 



borough looking towards Pitt and wearing a collar inscribed To be Killed 
off. Dundas, wearing a tartan neckcloth, is plethoric, Pitt drink-blotched 
and smiling. Near the heads are three money-bags: Sinecures, Treasury 
Pickings, Secret Service Money, and a scroll. Pensions. Against the trunk 
(1.) lies a headsman's axe. Beneath the title: ''Yes, honest John! by your 
Pulling, you have Shaken it!— pull again & it mil Totter, pull once more, 
& it will fall" — Vide Home Tooke Speech Answer to Home Tooke 

'* You may pluck up a Hazel & pull up a Pea, 
But there ne'er was a Man, that could pull down a Tree 
And so Honest John if you'd pluck off the Fruit, 
Leave pulling alone, lay the Ax to the Root! 
Quoted from a speech of 4 June 1796 at the Westminster election, see 
No. 8813, &c., printed Stephens, Life of Home Tooke, n. 195-7. Gillray 
alters 'gentlemen' to 'Honest John', and makes other changes. These 
speeches were published as election hand-bills, see No. 8815, and appear 
in No. 9240. A leaflet 'To the Electors of Westminster. We are tied to 
a Tree — The Tree of Corruption — . . .' was issued 8 June 1796. (B.M.L., 
1389. d. 9/2.) 

The line has a studied childishness in keeping with the signature, but 
the hand of Gillray is not concealed; cf. No. 8812, &c. 
i2X9i in. 


J' & des: etfed 

Pu¥ June jo** 1796. by H: Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). On a small plateau on the top of a 
mountain the Princess of Wales (1.) reaches up to kiss the Prince of Wales 
(r.), who has the body, horns, and beard of a fat goat. He kneels on one 
knee, his forelegs round her waist ; her arms are round his neck. A star 
and ribbon are indicated on his body. She wears her coronet with three 
tall feathers, and her draperies swirl about her. In the middle distance are 
two rocky pinnacles; on one (1.) three men dance hand in hand: Lough- 
borough in back view wearing his Chancellor's wig and gown, the Duke 
of York wearing a cocked hat and his star, and Lord Cholmondeley. From 
the other. Lady Jersey (with the arms and legs of a goat) staggers back- 
wards, she has horns, and three feathers fall from her head. Lord Jersey, 
with the body of a goat and long horns, is about to fall. They are being 
hurled from the rock by thunderbolts inscribed with the words What? — 
What? — What? (the King's well-known phrase) which issue from heavy 
clouds, showing that it is the King who has overthrown them. Behind 
them is the sea with a small island flying a flag inscribed Jersey. 

A satire on the resignation of Lady Jersey (on 25 June) and the supposed 
reconciliation of the Piince and Princess. It was announced in the papers 
that owing to the intervention of the King and the good offices of the 
Duke of York and Lord and Lady Cholmondeley the Prince had returned 
to Carlton House and dined with the Princess. Land. Chron., 30 June 1796. 
Cf. No. 8806, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 208-9. Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, 
Fuchs, p. 263. 




ANCIENT CITY. [? June 1796] 


Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). A spectacled man, 
wearing riding-dress with spurred top-boots, seizes a stout lady by the 
hair and flourishes a riding-whip, saying. Pro bono Patriae. A younger 
man (1.) puts his hand on his shoulder, saying, Fll support you. He is wildly 
cheered by an election crowd (1.), who wave their hats. The lady's feathered 
bonnet lies on the ground, her hair streams down her back, and she holds 
out her arms in terror. A group of cathedral clergy stand on the r. watching 
with gestures and expressions of alarm and disapproval. Behind is a square 
church tower (r.) with pinnacles. 

The costume suggests the year 1796. In the general election polling 
took place in three cathedral cities — Canterbury, Norwich, and Carlisle 
(where a scrutiny confirmed the poll). 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 203-4. Wright and Evans, No. 153. Reproduced, 
Grego, Hist, of Parliamentary Elections, 1892, p. 293. 

I.K. 1796 [Kay.] 

Engraving. Men are fighting with clubs on a wide upper landing and on 
a flight of stairs (r.) which leads to the hall below. Two doors open on 
to the landing, over one (r.) is inscribed Freedom of Election; through the 
other more men are seen with clubs, advancing to join the fray. 

During the general election of 1796 the boroughs of Inverkeithing 
(including also Stirling, Dunfermline, Queensferry, and Culross) were 
contested by Sir John Henderson of Fordel (the ministerial candidate) and 
the Hon. Andrew Cochrane Johnstone. The election of a delegate for 
Dunfermline was of vital importance. To secure this (for Johnstone) a 
party of Dunfermline councillors were lodged at the inn at Kinghorn, 
where the Town Clerk, John Hutton, and the hostess of the chief inn, 
Johanna (or Luckie) Skinner, were expert in managing elections. The inn 
was assaulted (unsuccessfully) by a body from Dunfermline, including 
colliers from Fordel (supporters of Henderson). After a series of incidents, 
arrests, &c., Johnstone was elected (20 June), though the delegate for 
Dunfermline voted for Sir John because the councillors who had been 
successfully taken to Kinghorn were under arrest. The election was con- 
firmed on petition (Mar. 1797). The persons depicted include Col. 
Erskine, the leader of the attacking party, Hutton, and Skinner, and a 
postilion at the foot of the stairs who did great execution with the spoke 
of a wheel. 

'Collection', No. 212. Kay, No. cccvii. 
7X6f in. 

IC [Cruikshank.] 

Pu¥ July 5'* lygO by W. S. Fores N° 50 Piccadilly corner of Sack- 

ville St — Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Evening 
Engraving (coloured and uncoloured impressions). The interior of a 
menagerie; the animals represent the sovereigns of Europe and have 



numbers referring to notes beneath the design. Pitt (1.) stands in profile 
to the I., Hfting in both hands a shovel-full of guineas which he puts into 
the mouth of a gigantic leopard, in a cage which is raised above the level 
of the ground and stretches across the 1. wall. Beside him is a bucket full 
of guineas. Behind him Mr. and Mrs. Bull stand together, a dismayed 
couple of sightseers. Pitt says : You see Tkf Bull how voraciously he Swallows 
the Guineas he is very tame I assure you notwithstanding his terrific appear- 
ance. Mrs. Bull says: They do bolt them rarely, to be sure the Eagles dont 
seem half satisfied. A voracious double-headed eagle, a crown attached to 
a neck, stands on the top of the leopard's cage and stretches its necks for 
the guineas. They are i The Austrian Leopard, a very fierce Animal 
originally but now remarkably tame and 2 The Prussian Eagle also famous 
for gold eating. On a perch beside the eagle a crowned cock sits quietly ; 
he is 3 The Gallic Cock, formerly a great crower! — but now quietly at roost 
in the Menagerie. (Monsieur (recently expelled from Italy) was in Ger- 
many, Artois was at Holyrood.) 

Beneath the leopard's cage are a gigantic frog (resembling an otter) in 
a tub on the extreme 1. and next it a hedgehog in a cage. They are 9 A 
Dutch Frog {a remarkable sleeper) and 5 A Sardinian Hedge Hog lately 

Two large cages are one above the other against the back wall, and just 
behind Mr. and Mrs. Bull. In the lower one a crowned bear sits appa- 
rently asleep ; above, a crowned pig puts its head greedily through the bars. 
They are 4 The Russian Bear — a very prudent Animal and 10 A Swedish 
Pig. On the r. stands Dundas, in full Highland dress, with feathered 
bonnet, plaid, dirk, and sporran. His finger-nails are talons and he 
scratches his arm in accordance with a stock gibe at the Scots (cf. No. 
5940). He holds a long wand surmounted by a crown and says, pointing 
to the r.. Walk in Ladies and Gentlemen and See the curiosities the only 
Complete Collection in Europe the last Beast now bringing in has long kept 
the World at Bay — he now is as tame as the Austrian Leopard!/ Wha 
Walks in — Wha walks in to view the British Menagerie. Two men, one a 
sailor, bring in on their shoulders a cylindrical cage in which crouches the 
Pope, wearing his triple crown and holding his cross. He is ii The Whore 
of Babylon who once was Master of All Europe, but now glad to find a place 
in this Menagerie. In the foreground on the extreme r. are two small rats 
which have come from a little kennel and are nibbling a paper inscribed 
Manof. They are 6 & y Conde and Brunswick Mice — very tame they have 
subsisted for some time on the fragments of old Manifestoes. Behind them is 
8 A Neapolitan Bat, a bat in a cage. 

A satire on the heavy burdens due to subsidies to allies who were greedy 
but inert. For the loan to Austria see No. 8658, &c. England, in the spring 
of 1796, held back the subsidy promised to Vienna ; Prussia had made peace 
with France in 1795 ; a British mission to Berlin (July-Aug. 1796) offering 
territorial gains in Germany or the Netherlands failed. Camb. Hist, of 
Br. Foreign Policy, i. 262, 264, 267. Russia's part had been one of calculated 
aloofness, though she was the nominal ally of England (Feb. 1795) and had 
been offered an annual subsidy of a million in exchange for 50,000 men. 
But in Aug. 1796 Catherine determined to send troops to the Rhine. 
New subsidies were offered to Vienna (as to Berlin). Guyot, Le Directoire 
et la Paix de VEurope, 1912, pp. 100 f., 228 f. The annual subsidy to the 
king of Sardinia was opposed, 3 May 1796, on the ground of the probability 
of peace (and perhaps alliance) between France and Sardinia. Pari. Register^ 



xliv. (bound as vol, 60) 593-6. It was withheld, and peace was made on 
15 May 1796. For the torpid Stadholder, a refugee living at Hampton 
Court, see No. 8822. For Brunswick's manifesto and defeat (1792) see 
No. 8125, &c. The humiliation of the Pope (threatened in 1792, see 
No. 8290) by Bonaparte is anticipated, see No. 8997. For French satires 
on these sovereigns and the gold of Pitt see Nos. 8363, 8674. For the 
burden of subsidies cf. Nos. 8477, 8488, 8494, 8658, 8664, 8672, 8808, 
9013, 9038, 9164, 9285, 9286, 9338, 9400, 9544. 
iif Xi7 in. 


J" Gy inv: et fed 

Pu¥ Sepf 16^^ 1796. by H. Humphrey. New Bond Street. 

Engraving (coloured impression). William V of Orange, a naked fat Cupid, 
lies on his back asleep on a low plateau of grass sprinkled with flowers. 
He clasps a spade in his folded hands ; his shoulders rest against two large 
money-bags, padlocked and inscribed 24,000,000 Ducats. He has been 
planting orange-trees, and these surround him, of varying sizes, in pots 
and in tubs ; the oranges are the heads of infants, all with his own features. 
Dream-figures float towards him on clouds, all women in an advanced state 
of pregnancy. Behind him (1.) floats a milk-woman, her yoke across her 
shoulders, her pail on her head. Next advances, full-face, a fat Billingsgate 
woman, her basket of fish on her head. These two appear to be shouting 
at the sleeping Cupid. From the r. approaches a housemaid carrying a 
mop; behind her three haymakers, holding rake or pitchfork, approach 
together, followed by serried ranks of country women all wearing straw 
hats. After the title : Vide, The Visions in Hampton Bower. 

The Stadholder came to England as a refugee in Jan. 1795, see No. 8631. 
See Farington, Diary, i. 86-7. Lord Holland writes: 'When the Prince of 
Orange resided at Hampton Court, his amours with the servant-maids 
were supposed to be very numerous.' For his somnolence cf. No. 9065. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 212-13. Van Stolk, No. 5386. Muller, No. 5466. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Jensen, p. 148. 
9|Xi3f in. 

8822 A A reduced version, coloured, no title, signed J^ Gy d. et f and 
inscribed Pu¥ by H. Humphrey. 



Pu¥ Oct" I'* 1796. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A stout naval officer (r.) is attacked by 
a taller and slimmer officer (1.), who siezes him by the coat and raises his 
cane to strike. A civilian stands between them holding back the aggressor. 
The stout officer. Captain Vancouver, wears an enormous sword; a fur 
mantle hangs from his shoulders inscribed This Present from the King of 
Owyhee to George HI"^ forgot to be delivered. From his coat-pocket hangs 
a scroll which rests on the ground, part being still rolled up : List of those 
disgraced during the Voyage — put under Arrest all the Ships Crew — Put into 



Irons, every Gentleman on Board — Broke every Man of Honor & Spirit — 
Promoted Spies — His 1. foot is on an open book: Every Officer is the 
Guardian of his own Honor. Lord Grenvills Letter. From the pocket of the 
civilian (Vancouver's brother) projects a paper: Cha^ Rearcovers Letter to 
be published after the Parties are bound to keep y Peace. 

Vancouver's assailant, Lord Camelford, says: Give me Satisfaction, 
Rascal! — draw your Sword, Coward! what you won't? — why then take that 
Lubber!— & that! & that! & that! & that! & that! & — Vancouver, 
staggering back, with arms outstretched, shouts: Murder! — Murder! — 
Watch! — Constable! — keep him off Brother! — while I run to my Lord- 
Chancellor for Protection! Murder! Murder! Murder. Behind him, on the 
ground, lies a pile of shackles inscribed For the Navy. Two very juvenile 
sailor-boys stand together (1.) watching with delight. On Vancouver's r. 
is the lower part of a shop (r.) showing a door and window in which skins 
are suspended. Round the door are inscriptions: The South-Sea-Fur- 
warehouse from China. Fine Black Otter Skins. No Contraband Goods sold 
here. After the title: Dedicated to the Flag Officers of the British Navy. 

Vancouver returned from his voyage of discovery in 1795 and devoted 
himself to preparing his journals for publication. This, according to the 
Lond. Chron., 5 Oct. 1796, was the reason he gave for not accepting 
the challenge of Lord Camelford whom he had flogged, put in the bilboes 
(cf. No. 7672), and discharged to the shore during his voyage. According 
to the D.N.B. (where the date is incorrect), Vancouver expressed his 
willingness to fight if any flag-officer should decide that he owed Camelford 
satisfaction, while the caning was prevented by bystanders. Here, the 
intervener is Vancouver's brother, probably John, who edited the post- 
humously published Voyage of Discovery . . ., 1798. Gillray appears to 
identify him with the Charles Vancouver who wrote on agriculture, 1794- 
18 13. For Camelford's eccentric and insubordinate career see D.N.B. 
The print may reflect the growing discontent due to harsh naval discipline, 
cf. No. 9021. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 213-14. Wright and Evans, No. 154. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 

/ C [Cruikshank,] 

London Pub by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly October 12 iyg6. 
Engraving (coloured impression). The Prince of Wales, in plain riding- 
dress, very fat, sits on a horse with Lady Jersey behind him; she wears 
a riding-habit and a round hat with a feather. The horse stands facing 
a gate in a high stone wall which the Duke of Richmond, in military 
uniform, holds open, saying. Tell him I am not at home', the Prince has 
let his reins drop in his surprise, and says. Sure — you dont say so!! On 
the gate-post is inscribed Steel traps & Spring Guns Set in these Grounds 
& Fortifications (cf. No. 6921, &c.). A signpost points (1.) To Goodwood. 
In front of the horse : 

Solid men of Brighton take care of your houses 
Solid men of Brighton take care of your Spouses &c 
Behind the horse (r.) is the spiked gateway of another property. Through 
it looks a man (Barwell), saying to the Prince's companion. Tell him I am 
going to set off for London. She says : Curse on their Prudish maxims!! we'll 



teach the rising race of Royalty to rise above such Vulgar Prejudices. A 
notice-board above the gate is inscribed Atiy one found poaching on these 
premises will be prostituted [scored through and replaced by] prosecuted. 
A signpost pointing to the gate is To Barwell Hall, another away from it 
is To Bognor. 

It is suggested that the Prince, after the scandal of his separation from 
the Princess, see No. 8806, &c., was cold-shouldered by the Sussex mag- 
nates.^ Barwell Hall evidently indicates Stanstead, the magnificent estate 
of Richard Barwell, the nabob M.P. for Winchelsea. 'Prostituted* may 
relate to a scandalous story told of Barwell in The Intrigues of a Nabob . . ., 
by H. F. Thompson, 1780. The liaison with Lady Jersey was coming to 
an end, cf. No. 8983. 
8fXi4f in. 


JSf [Sayers.] 

Pub¥ by H Humphrey New Bond Street 14 Octo" lygS 

Engraving. Burke lies back asleep, but scowling, in profile to the 1., his 

arms folded in an arm-chair whose seat is inscribed Otium cum Dignit[ate]. 

The top of his head is on fire, and the smoke rising from it forms the base 

of the upper and larger part of the design. Immediately above his head : 

This royal Throne of Kings, this sceptred Isle 

This Earth of Majesty, this seat of Mars 

This fortress built by Nature for herself 

Against Infection and the hand of War 

This Nurse, this teeming Womb of royal Kings 

This England that was wont to conquer others 

Will make a shameful Conquest of itself 


The British lion stands as if supported on these lines ; from his angry 
mouth issue the words : / protest against Peace with a Regicide Directory 
Went: Fitzw. Their background is a rectangular altar, wreathed with oak 
leaves which forms a centre to the upper part of the design. It supports 
a scroll: Naval \ Victories \ East India \ Conquests \ &c^ &c^. Against its 
base is a scroll headed Basle and signed Wyckham, the intermediate 
(illegible) text being scored through. Above the altar flies a dove, an olive- 
branch in its mouth, clutching a sealed Passport. Behind and above the 
lion. Britannia stands in back view, her discarded spear and shield beside 
her; she plays a fiddle, intent on a large music score: A new Opera \ II 
Trattato \ di Pace \ Overture \ Rule Britan[nia scored through and replaced 
by] I Ca Ira \ God save y' King [scored through and replaced by] The 
Marsellois Hymn. 

The apex of the design is an Austrian grenadier, his cap decorated with 
the Habsburg eagle, playing a flute with melancholy fervour: To Arms 
to Arms my valiant Grenadiers. 

On the 1. of the altar and facing Britannia and the lion stands a sans- 
culotte, standing on a large map, one foot planted on Britain, the other 
on [r\reland. In his r. hand is a pike bearing the head of Louis XVI (see 
No. 8297, &c.), in his 1. a large key labelled Belgium and attached by a 
chain to his belt, in which is a dagger; his coat-pocket is inscribed Forced 

' This is supported by Lord Holland's remarks on the refusals to meet the 
Prince at dinner at Holland House. Memoirs of the Whig Party, ii. 148 n. 



Loan. He says : / will retain what I have got and treat with you on fair Terms 
for what you have got. Behind him and on the extreme 1. stands a creature 
symbolizing the Dutch RepubHc, linked to the sansculotte by a chain 
round its spinal cord. It has the head of a frog wearing a bonnet-rouge, 
thin, spidery arms akimbo, the ribs, &c. of a skeleton (cf. No. 8848), baggy 
breeches, and shrunken legs. It smokes a pipe with an expression of 
resigned despair. After the title : Frontispiece to a Pamphlet which will never 
be [four words scored through but conspicuously legible] published — "i/e 
shall never accuse me of being the Author of a Peace with Regicide'', vide 
ikf Burkes Letter to a noble Lord. 

An anticipation of Burke's pamphlet (see No. 8826), published 19 and 
20 Oct., which was a violent attack on Malmesbury's peace mission, 
see No. 8829, &c. The satire is scarcely consistent with its interpretation 
as a figment of Burke's over-heated brain (cf. No. 7307), though the 
martial ardour of the Austrian may well be intended ironically: the war- 
party in England (mistakenly) vaunted the Emperor's ardour for war. 
Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, ii. 193. The document signed 'Wyckham' 
represents the peace overtures to the Directory made through Wickham, 
British Minister in Switzerland, and rebuffed by the French (see No. 8792). 
The 'passport' (dispatched 30 Sept.) is that eventually obtained from the 
Directory, after a previous rebuff, for a plenipotentiary. For French pro- 
jects of invasion see No. 8826; the invasion of Ireland by Hoche (with a 
diversion against England) had been decided on, its lines were fixed at 
a dinner at Carnot's house on 1 2 July. Guyot, Le Directoire et la Paix de 
V Europe, 191 2, pp. 276-83. For the treatment of the Dutch (now Batavian) 
Republic see No. 8608, &c. The quotation is from the penultimate sentence 
of Burke's Letter (see No. 8788, &c.). The lion echoes Fitzwilliam, who 
had protested against the proposed negotiation. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 607-8. 
14 X loj in. 

PEACE. Vide, The Authority of Edmund Burke. 


Pu¥ OcV 20'* 1796, by H Humphrey, New Bond Street. 

Aquatint. Coloured impression. French troops march with fixed bayonets 
up St. James's Street, the houses receding in perspective to the gate of 
the Palace, which is blazing. In the foreground on the 1. and r. are White's 
and Brookes' s. The former is being raided by French troops ; the Opposi- 
tion is in triumphant possession of the latter. In the centre foreground 
a 'tree of Liberty' (see No. 9214, &c.) has been planted: a pole garlanded 
with flowers and surmounted by a large cap of Libertas. To this pole Pitt, 
stripped to the waist, is tied, while Fox (1.) flogs him ferociously, a birch- 
rod in each hand. Between Fox's feet lies a headsman's axe, blood- 
stained ; on it stands a perky little chicken with the head of M. A. Taylor 
(see No. 6777). On the r. is an ox, his collar, from which a broken cord 
dangles, inscribed Great Bedfordshire Ox (the duke of Bedford); it is 
tossing Burke, goaded on by Thelwall, who holds its tail, and flourishes 
a document inscribed Thelwals Lectures (see No. 8685). Burke flies in the 
air, losing his spectacles, and dropping two pamphlets : Letter to the Duke 
of Bedford, see No. 8788, &c., and Reflections upon a Regicide Peace, see 
No. 8825. 



Behind the ox, Lord Stanhope holds up a pole to which is tied, by a 
ribbon inscribed Vive VEgalite, the beam of a pair of scales ; this is balanced 
by the body of Grenville, suspended by his breeches, and by his head, 
suspended by the hair; both drip blood. Stanhope, in profile to the 1., 
looks up with a pleased smile; Lauderdale stands facing him, raising his 
arm to applaud. Behind is an advancing band of British Jacobins waving 

Sheridan, with furtively triumphant smile, enters the door of Brooks's ; 
a large porter's knot on his head and shoulders supports a sack: Remains 
of the Treasury £; under his arm is another: Requisition from the Bank of 
England. Beside the door (r.) stands a pestle and mortar inscribed J. Hall 
Apothecary to the New Constitution Long Acre ; the mortar is filled with 

On the balcony above the door, Lansdowne, with his enigmatic smile, 
is working a guillotine; his 1. hand is on the windlass, in his r. he holds 
up (towards Erskine) Loughborough's elongated wig ; the purse of the Great 
Seal is attached to a post of the guillotine. On the 1. corner of the balcony 
rests a dish containing the heads of (1. to r.) Lord Sydney, Windham, and 
Pepper Arden, Killed off for the Public Good. Behind stands Erskine, lean- 
ing forward and holding up in triumph a firebrand composed of Magna 
Charta, and a New Code of Laws. On the r. corner of the balcony four 
men stand watching the guillotine with quiet satisfaction: Grafton, in 
profile to the 1. ; Norfolk, clasping his hands, and Derby. Only the hat and 
eyes of the fourth are visible. In the club windows behind, staring faces 
are indicated. The lamp beside the door is crowned with a bonnet-rouge. 
On the door-post a broadside, AIarsoiles[e] [sic] Hymn, is placed above 
Rule Brit[annia] (torn). In the street outside and in the foreground (r.) 
is a basket containing the head of Dundas and a set of bagpipes; it is 
labelled To the care of Citizen Home Tooke. Beside it lies a bundle of 
documents labelled Waste Paper 2'^ p" £6; they are Acts of Parliament, 
Bill of Rights, Statutes. 

The 1. (east) side of the street is filled with goose-stepping republican 
soldiers, headed by a grotesque and ferocious officer, a drawn sword in his 
hand, who strides past the decollated head of Richmond, beside which 
lies a paper: Treatise upon Fortifying the Coast (see No. 6921, &c.). A 
grotesque and dwarfish drummer marches in front (1.) ; on his drum is the 
cap of Liberty and the motto Vive la Liberte. He is immediately outside 
the door of White's, up the steps of which French officers with fixed 
bayonets are pressing; one tramples on a prostrate and bleeding body, 
another transfixes the throat of a member ; behind are the hands of members 
held up to beg for mercy. Other soldiers have reached the balcony and 
are using daggers ; they push over the bleeding body of the Duke of York, 
indicated by his ribbon and the dice-box and dice which fall from him. 
The Prince of Wales falls head first, the Duke of Clarence is about to be 
stabbed. From a projecting lamp-bracket beside the door hang the bodies 
of Canning and Hawkesbury, tied back to back. Their identity is shown by 
a placard: New March to Paris by Betty Canning (an allusion to Elizabeth 
Canning, convicted of perjury, cf. No. 7982) & Jenny Jenkison. The 
(broken) lamp is surmounted by a broken crown. On the club steps and 
in the street lie a broken EO (roulette) board and playing-cards. The street 
is filled with close ranks of French soldiers, except for the small body of 
British Jacobins on the r. 

A satire on the Opposition and the prospects of invasion, on Pitt's peace 



overtures, see No. 8829, &c., and Burke's Thoughts on a Regicide Peace 
(two pamphlets, published 19 and 20 Oct.), see No. 8825. 

The King's speech, 6 Oct., referred to the threat of invasion: 'the enemy 
has openly manifested a threat of attempting a descent on these king- 
doms . . .'. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 1173. This paragraph was debated on 18 Oct. 
(see No. 8836, &c.), when Pitt's measures of defence were proposed and 
the Opposition declared their disbelief in a project of invasion. The pro- 
jects of Hoche were as yet unknown to the English public, Jenkinson was 
much ridiculed over a long period (especially when as Foreign Secretary 
he negotiated the Peace of Amiens, see vol. viii) for saying (10 Apr. 1794) 
'that the marching to Paris was practicable; and he, for one, would recom- 
mend such an expedition'. Pari. Hist. xxxi. 249. (See Nos. 8631, 9046, 
9364.) Canning made a vigorous defence of the Ministry in the same 
debate. See D. yizxshzW, Rise of Canning, 1938, pp. 63-5. Hall, apothecary, 
and Secretary of the Whig Club, was a prominent supporter of Fox at 
Westminster elections, see vol. vi. Home Tooke had violently attacked 
Dundas at the recent Westminster election. Jordan's Complete Collection 
of . . . Speeches, 1796, p. 25. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 204-5 (reproduction). Wright and Evans, No. 155. 
Reprinted, G.W.G., 1830. Reproduced, Bagot, Canning and his Friends, 
1909, i. 118. Broadley, i. 94-6. 
12 X i6f in. 



Pu¥ Oct" 24^ 1796, by H. Humphrey New Bond Sir 

Engraving (coloured impression). A W.L. portrait of the corpulent Prince 
Frederick William Charles of Wiirtemberg, standing chapeau-bras in 
profile to the r., wearing a ribbon; his r. hand on his waistcoat, his 1. on 
the hilt of his sword. He has a very heavy double chin, thick lips, staring 
eye, high narrow head, and an expression of good-natured surprise. 
Beneath: S ketch' d at Wirtemberg. 

The Prince was betrothed in 1796 to the Princess Royal (b. 1766), see 
Diary and Letters of Mme d'Arblay, 1905, v. 295, and No. 9014, &c. For 
the title cf. No. 9007. 
9i^ X 6 in. With border 9^| x 6^| in. 

8827 A A later state with the same inscriptions. The contour of the 
Prince is altered : he is very obese, his head bulges slightly at the back, and 
his legs are thicker. The position of his r. hand is altered. Cf. No. 9081. 

A similar but less obese portrait, evidently copied from No. 8827, is the 
centre figure of a water-colour by Rowlandson in the Print Room, see 
No. 9014. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 214. Wright and Evans, No. 408. Reprinted, G.W.G., 


J'Gyd el fed 

Pu¥ Oct" 28^ 1796. by H. Humphrey 37 New Bond Street 
Engraving (coloured impression). Lord Malmesbury drives in a chaise 



with the royal arms drawn by four wretched hacks, only the hind-quarters 
(r.) of the leaders being visible. Behind the coach stand three stolid English 
footmen. The chaise-doors are open, a fish-wife has entered from each 
side ; both embrace Malmesbury who puts out his hands in dismay. Beside 
him (1.) sits his secretary, a pen behind his ear. Another woman is getting 
into the chaise (1.) and a fourth stands beside it, arms outspread, and grin- 
ning broadly ; two fish are attached to her petticoat. All the spectators are 
cheering wildly. In the foreground are (1. to r.) a dwarfish boy, an officer 
wearing a feathered cocked hat and tattered coat, a ragged man wearing 
jack-boots and a bag-wig, waving a bonnet-rouge; a sansculotte, wearing 
sabots, a dagger in his belt. These are in back view. Beyond and behind 
the chaise bonnets-rouges are being wildly waved by a freely sketched 
crowd. A French postilion in military dress, a horn slung round his neck, 
flourishes a whip. 

News that Malmesbury entered Paris on 22 Oct. reached London 
on 26 Oct. The incident depicted took place outside Paris, where 
Malmesbury was met by a deputation of Vzris poissardes and the 'National 
Music'; the drive through Paris was quiet. Malmesbury, Diaries and 
Correspondence^ iii. 258, 259, 261-2. The newspapers printed accounts of 
the incident as happening in Paris (Lond. Chron., 28 Oct.). Lady Malmes- 
bury (6 Nov.) adds details and mentions this print (or No. 8830): the 
poissardes harangued Malmesbury, embraced him, George Ellis, and Lord 
Granville, and filled the coach with flowers. Bagot, Canning and his Friends, 
i. 128. For the peace negotiations see No. 8829, &c. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 205. Wright and Evans, No. 156. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Corr. of Lord G. L. Gower, 1916, i. 130. 
9fXi3f in. 


[L Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ by S W Fores N" 50 Piccadilly Ocf 2g. iyg6 

Engraving (coloured impression). The English mission advances humbly 
from the 1., led by Malmesbury, who bows low before three of the 
Directors, who are seated haughtily on a dais (r.). Behind them is a canopy 
on the back of which is a picture of Hercules trying in vain to break a 
bundle of rods ; this is enclosed in a motto : Les Francais unis sont invincibles. 
They wear an approximation to the oflicial costume of the Directors 
(designed by David, see No. 9199): long cloaks with deep collars and 
feathered hats, but which deviates from correctness by its greater resem- 
blance to that of a Spanish don: they wear ruflfs over their collars, and 
breeches instead of the long-belted tunic and sash. The central Director 
says, with a scowl. Now you have made your Bow retire till we order you in 
again Va-t-en ; he takes a pinch of snuff from his neighbour's box. The 
other two echo Va-t-en Va-t-en; one (1.) contemptuously uses a tooth- 
pick, the other (r.) takes snuff. 

From Malmesbury's pocket hangs a paper inscribed Finesse. His suite 
hold banners and all bend low except a man just behind him who carries 
on his head heavy bales, resembling folded textiles, but inscribed : A clear 
& explicit explanation of an intended Negotiation to procure an hon[or]able 
Just & Permanent Peace according to existing circumstances. A sailor on the 
extreme 1., erect behind the bowing diplomats, shouts Aye, Aye, as clear 



as mud. He stands in the doorway, which is inscribed Directory. The 
eight banners are respectively inscribed: 60,000 Foot Militia; 200,000 
Fencibles; 60,000 Additional Seamen.', 40000 Horse 100,000 Yeomanry 
Cavalry; Navy Victualling Exchequer Bills Funded; 50 000 Game Keepers 
for Rifle Men; Another Loan of 40.000.000; Fortifications all round the 
Coast. Malmesbury and five of his followers wear ribbons. 

Malmesbury reached Paris on 22 Oct., his negotiations were with 
Charles Delacroix, the Foreign Minister; his mission gave umbrage from 
its numbers and deputed cleverness'. Malmesbury, Diaries and Corr. 
iii. 282. Malmesbury's instructions were in fact vague, and his perpetual 
reference of points to the Cabinet was one of the grounds on which negotia- 
tions were broken off. The inscriptions on the banners indicate defence 
measures ridiculed by the Opposition (see No. 8841, &c.); they convey 
ministerial misconceptions on the efficacy of a successful loan (see No. 8842) 
in inducing France to agree to peace. Grenville to Malmesbury, 10 Dec. 
Dropmore Papers, iii. 282. The satirical inscriptions perhaps reflect Burke's 
Letters on a Regicide Peace ('He is more tempted with our wealth as booty, 
than terrified with it as power', quoted Lon</. Chron., 20 Oct., and Moniteur, 
21 Dec). The three Directors, though not portraits, may be taken as those 
of the five most in the public eye: Barras, Carnot, Rewbell. On 19 Dec. 
Malmesbury was ordered to leave France within 48 hours. For the negotia- 
tions see E. D. Adams, Influence of Grenville on Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1904, 
pp. 45-50; Sorel, U Europe et la Rev. fr. v, 1910, pp. 113-30; R. Guyot, 
Le Directoire et la Paix de VEurope, 1912, pp. 268-305; Camb. Hist, of 
British Foreign Policy, i. 267-72. See Nos. 8792, 8825, 8826, 8828, 8830, 
8832, 8833, 8845. Cf. Nos. 8835, 9556. For the negotiations of 1797 see 
No. 9031, &c. 
iijxi6^ in. 


[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub N 7 iyg6 by S W Fores N° 50 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Lord Malmesbury's coach is drawn (r. 
to 1.) by French poissardes, grotesque and with bare pendent breasts. A 
cheering crowd fills the street; bonnets-rouges are waved and thrown 
into the air. He puts his head through the carriage window to kiss a 
poissarde, waving his cocked hat. Another woman (1.) says, my turn 
next. A sansculotte dances on the roof of the coach, urinating on the 
royal crown which decorates it, waving his bonnet-rouge, and singing 
Caira Cair &c. Two of Malmesbury's footmen are carried on the 
shoulders of poissardes behind the coach ; a boy picks the pocket of one 
of them. Among the ragged crowd a Jew and a man playing a fiddle 
are conspicuous. People cheer from the windows of a house which forms 
a background. 

For the reception of Lord Malmesbury in l^vreux see No. 8828 ; his entry 
into Paris was quiet: the Directory, judging the demonstration untimely, 
took measures to prevent its repetition. Sorel, L' Europe et la, v, 
1910, 116. See No. 8829, &c. 

Hennin, No. 12,294. 




I.C [Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ N 7, iyg6, by S W Fores N. 50, Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). A short fat Dutchman stands full-face ; 
his pipe falls from his mouth, coins drop from his breeches pockets. His 
tall hat, full of coins, is held by an English sailor (1.) who bends towards 
him, directing a squirt of tobacco-juice at his face. On the r. is another 
sailor, who seizes a wretched, ragged Frenchman, holding him by a cloth 
round the neck, and threatening him with a clenched fist. The Dutchman 
says : Between John Bull, & the French Republic poor Mynheer will be Robbed 

of all. D n the Scheldt. The sailor on the r. says : come come Mynheer the 

Republicans must not have all the money, we must have a little Handaway 
d'ye see. The Frenchman, who stands in profile to the 1., knees bent, hands 
clasped, his bonnet-rouge falling from his head, says to his assailant, by Gar 
Mynheer has got all de money. 

On the extreme 1. is a post or scraggy palm-tree in a tub, inscribed 
Tree of Liberty (see No. 9214, &c.); up this a monkey is climbing (as in 
No. 8846), while another, chained to it, tries to reach the coins at the feet 
of the sailor. The background is a low fortification with a cannon in an 

A Dutch force of 2,000 troops, conveyed by six warships, sent to recap- 
ture the Cape of Good Hope, capitulated to Elphinstone's squadron on 
17 Aug. 1796, while sheltering in Saldanha bay, north of Cape Town. 
Navy Records Soc, Keith Papers, ed. W. G. Perrin, 1927, pp. 209-32. 
For the exactions of the French from the Dutch cf. No. 8608, &c. The 
opening of the Scheldt by the French (decree of 16 Nov. 1792) was a serious 
blow to Dutch commerce. Trees of liberty had been planted by the French 
on entering Amsterdam and other Dutch towns. For the monkey, cf. 
No. 5960, on Governor Johnstone's adventure in Saldanha bay in 1781. 

Van Stolk, No. 5385. 
Sj^gX i2| in. 


I.C [Cruikshank.] 

London Pub. Nov^ 10 iyg6 by S W Fores $0 Piccadilly 

Engraving (coloured impression). Malmesbury sits full-face in a bergere 
which he entirely fills, his feet close together, putting both thumbs to his 
mouth. He wears a court suit and ribbon, but no sword. A patterned 
carpet and a panelled wall complete the design. Above his head: 

Q — Are you empowered to treat for yourself only? A. I don't Know 
Q — Can you treat for your Friends? — A — / don't Know. Q — What pro- 
posals have you to make? A — / don't know. Q — Have you been fully 
instructed in this business? A — No. Q — What are you come here for? A — 
/ don't Know Q — Then it seems you know nothing at all about the Matter? 
A No. but ril send back & enquire 

For Malmesbury's peace mission see No. 8829, &c. Extracts from the 
Paris press on the negotiations were printed in the English papers; this 
print may derive from a quotation from Paris papers of 28th Oct. (Lond. 
Chron., i Nov.), in which a dialogue between Malmesbury and Delacroix 



is quoted, Malmesbury saying that he would send a messenger to his court 
for information as to whether he was authorized to conclude a treaty for 
the allies of Great Britain, cf. No. 8833. 
1 2^X71^6 in- 



A Paris, chez Depeuille, rue des Mathurins S^ Jacques, aux deux 
Pilastres d'Or [c. Nov. 1796] 

Stipple. Lord Malmesbury (1.) and Delacroix (r.) face each other in profile 
with insinuating smiles. They have numbers referring to their words which 
are engraved beneath the design. Delacroix, i, stands ckapeau-bras, hold- 
ing a tall tasselled cane, wearing a bag-wig and old-fashioned coat and 
waistcoat. He says, Bon jour My lord! Je suis chartne de vous voir a Paris, 
comment vous portez-vous ; Malmesbury, 2, answers : Je vous suis oblige de 
voire gracieuse demande, mais ne pouvant repondre de moi-menie, je vais 
depecher un courier a Londres; et a son retour, je saurai la reponse queje dois 
vou^faire. He is dressed as an Incroyable. He strides forward, hat in hand, 
his r. hand in his coat-pocket. He wears a striped neck-cloth projecting 
beyond his chin, loose coat, with large low revers, double-breasted waist- 
coat, and deep-topped boots with very pointed toes.^ His hair hangs loose 
round his face, with a long queue. 

For Malmesbury's peace mission see No. 8829, &c. His perpetual 
couriers to London were an excuse for the final rupture, cf. No. 8832. 
See Malmesbury Diaries, 1845, iii. 236 ff".; D. Marshall, Rise of Canning, 
1938, pp. 162 ff. A gross and unrecognizable caricature of Malmesbury's 
handsome profile. 

Hennin, No. 12,261. 



London. Pu¥ Nov^ 12^^ I79^- by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Aquatint (coloured impression). A design in two compartments: 

(1.) Old-England. A scene of naval and conmiercial prosperity across 
the foreground of which runs a line, sloping downwards from 1. to r. where 
it joins the lower r. corner of the design at an angle of (approximately) 
thirty degrees. The r.-angled triangle formed by this line is inscribed 
British Constitution. Its Basis, the Happiness of the People. From its upper 
edge on the 1. rise three columns inscribed respectively King, Lords, and 
Commons.^ They are of equal heights, their summits parallel with the 
slanting base, and connected by a dotted line which is one side of a 
triangle, the upper edge of which issues horizontally from the 1. margin. 
This is inscribed j° Degrees Angle of Security, and (above the columns) 

' His dress closely resembles that of the typical Incroyable in a French print, 
Quel Est le plus Ridicule, satirizing the fashions of 1789, 1796, and 1804. Jaime, ii, 
PI. 222. K. 

^ Burke called King, Lords, and Commons : 'the triple cord, which no man can 
break', a safeguard against Jacobinical levelling. Letter to a Noble Lord, 1796, 
p. 1S4' * 

273 T 


Trini nomine digne Dei. Beneath the columns are the words (1. to r.) Virtue, 
Honor, Loyalty. The first is Corinthian and surmounted by a crown, the 
second Ionic and surmounted by a baron's coronet, the third Doric. 

Above this symboHcal basis appears the sea, with ships in full sail. In 
the foreground, ships with the British flag are at anchor outside a row of 
docks (1.). Between the docks and the sea is a long two-storied building 
with a dome and a cupola. Across the water are cliffs and hills at the base 
of which is a coast-town. The sky, though cloudy, suggests fair weather. 

(r.) New-France. An irregular contour sloping from r. to 1. corresponds 
with the uniform slope of the British Constitution. It is inscribed 
Democracy or French Constitution, Its Basis, Despotism. Its base is under- 
mined, forming an irregular cave in which lie (r.) discarded fragments: 
Religion, Pub^ Credit, Monarchy, Laws, Trade, Honor, Loyalty, Virtue, 
Arts, Science. On its summit, in place of the three columns, are (1. to r.) 
a guillotine inscribed Blood; a naked figure. Terror, sitting with bowed 
head under a sword suspended from the cross-piece of a tall post which 
is surmounted by a cap of Liberty; a naked man, bound to an obelisk, 
symbolizing Oppression. The guillotine is surmounted by a skull; blood 
drips from it down a vertical shaft leading from the hill of the 'Consti- 
tution' to the cave beneath. Behind towers a high, dark cliff, on the top 
of which is a row of gibbets, of different heights in order that their 
horizontal bars may be on the same level. From them hang many tiny 
corpses wearing bonnets-rouges. A horizontal dotted line inscribed Liberty 
and Equality or all on a Level (cf. No. 8639), contrasts with the sloping 
line which links King, Lords, and Commons in 'Old-England'. 

In the background is a bay in which lie small dismantled vessels ; beside 
it are ruined buildings, some of Roman type. Behind are mountains, two 
tiny gibbets, each with a body, on their summits. The sky is covered with 
dark, stormy clouds. 

The dividing line between the two compartments is partly covered by 
the upright of a gibbet whose two arms project symmetrically into each 
design. Across the point of contact is a placard: Roberspierre \ Marat, 
Santerre; the cross-beams are inscribed (1.) Held up to Infamy and | [r, 
Posterity. From the 1. beam dangles a placard: Paines \ Rights \ of | Man 
(see No. 7866, &c.) ; from the r. : Classical Lectures on the Roman History. 

Probably the design (or invention) of an amateur etched by Gillray. , 
For the Constitution as a patriotic slogan see No. 8287, &c. For the 
connotation of democracy cf. No. 8310. 
1 1 1 X 22| in. 


[Gillray.] Drawn from life by Lieu^ Swarts, of the Imperial Reg'^ of 

Barco Hussars. 
Pu¥ Nov'' J5'* ^796, by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Archduke Charles of Austria, 
directing military operations, stands on a bluff in profile to the 1., r. arm 
extended, his 1. hand rests on his sword. He wears laced coat and waist- 
coat, with a star, and spurred jack-boots. He has a long pigtail queue; in 
his enormous cocked hat, one point of which hangs before his face, the 
other over his shoulders, is an olive-branch. In the background clouds 
of smoke rise from an invisible battle. 



The significance of the olive-branch is obscure, but may indicate hope 
that the recent Austrian victories v^^ould lead to peace. Actually the 
successes of the Archduke against Bernadotte and Jourdan in Aug. and 
Sept. 1796 had stiffened Austria against peace negotiations, thus con- 
tributing to the failure of Malmesbury's mission (see No. 8829, &c.). 
Camb. Hist, of British Foreign Policy, i. 269. 

Wright and Evans, No. 411. Reprinted, G.PF.G., 1830. 


f Qy inv. et fed 

Pu¥ Nov^ if^ 1796- by H Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt (r.) stands stiffly in profile to the 
1., holding open a large sack-like wallet inscribed Requisition Budget. He 
addresses John Bull, the central figure, a stout yokel, who holds out his 
breeches in his 1. hand to Pitt, while he touches his hat. The budget and 
the breeches pockets are full of guineas. Pitt says : More Money, John! — 
more Money! to defend you from the Bloody, the Cannibal French — They're 
a coming! — why they'll Strip you to the very Skin — more Money. John! — 
They're a coming — They're a coming. 

Dundas, Grenville, and Burke kneel on the r., bending towards the 
'Budget', each with his 1. hand in an opening in a vertical seam, eagerly 
grabbing guineas. Behind them is the stone archway of the Treasury, with 
its high spiked gate. Dundas, the most prominent, wears Highland dress 
and holds a Scots cap full of coins. Grenville wears a peer's robe ; Burke 
is behind. They echo Pitt : Dundas says Ay! Ay! They're a coming! They're 
a coming! Grenville: Yes! Yes, They're a coming. Burke: Ay They're a 

John says: — a coming? — are they? — nay then, take all I've got, at once, 
Measter Billy! — vor its much better for I to ge ye all I have in the World to 
save my Bacon, — than to stay & be Strip' d stark naked by Charley, & the 
plundering French Invasioners, as you say. His coat and waistcoat are 
sound, but the pockets hang inside out, empty. His lank hair, knotted 
kerchief, and wrinkled gaiters denote the small farmer. 

Behind (1.), on the shore, stands Fox looking across the water towards 
the fortress of Brest flying a tricolour flag. He hails it with upraised arms, 
shouting : What! more Money ? — O the Aristocrat Plunderer! — Vite Citoyens! 
— vite! — vite! depechez vous! — or we shall be too late to come inn for any 
Snacks of the I'argant! — vite Citoyens! vite! vite! 

The threat of invasion had been mentioned in the King's speech, see 
No. 8826; measures of internal defence were proposed on 18 Oct. Pari. 
Hist, xxxii. 1208 ff. On 5 Nov. the Home Secretary sent a circular letter 
to the Lord Lieutenants of maritime counties on measures to be taken 
in view of invasion. Ann. Reg., 1796, p. 129* f. Fox contended that 
the threat was visionary, and denounced the defence measures. Pari. 
Reg. Ixiii. 98 ff". Hoche's pending invasion of Ireland (see No. 8979) 
was unknown to the public, and peace negotiations (see No. 8829, &c.) 
were still proceeding. Pitt's budget speech was on 7 Dec. As in No. 8 141 
(1792) Pitt is accused of alarming and bewildering John Bull, this time to 
justify the burden of taxation and with implications of corruption against 



the Ministry (cf. No. 8654, &c.). A double-edged satire, similar in spirit 
to No. 8691. See also Nos. 8837, 8838, 8840, 8842, 8977, 8980, 8987, 8994, 
9056. Cf. No. 9337. 

Grego, Gillray, p. 206. Wright and Evans, No. 137. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
9^X13! in. 

HIS MONEY [scored through and replaced by] WITS 

[I. Cruikshank.] 

London Pub by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Nov'' 20. ijgO 

Engraving (coloured impression). A design divided into two compart- 
ments by a vertical wooden erection, in the upper part of which is a form 
of (English) telegraph (cf. No. 9232); the lower contains a shoot through 
which coins in mass are poured by persons on the r. Pitt (1.), immediately 
behind the telegraph, pulls the strings which move the letters: they form 
the words they are coming. John Bull, stripped to his shirt, tattered shoes, 
and ungartered stockings, empties the contents of his breeches into the 
shoot ; the coins from them fall in a heap on the ground on the other side, 
where they are collected by Pitt and his friends. Pitt, looking round the 
machine with an agitated expression, exclaims: Make haste John, for if these 
Bloody minded rogues come, they'll strip the very rind of your back, more 
money, more money, beside after I've got all your money I'll make a Soldier 
of you. They're a coming John. John Bull, terrified, says, his 1. hand point- 
ing 1. (to Fox): What are they a coming? then here take all Ive a got left, 
you had my coat & waistcoat before fore Ise waundly afeard of these sans- 
Clouts & that there fellow there is allways hallowing to. um. 

A little boy in a ragged shirt clutches his father's shirt, saying. Oh Dear 
make hast Feather you see they're coming & we shall be stript Naked. 

In the middle distance, on the shore, Sheridan, Lauderdale, and (?) Erskine 
stand together to make a support for Fox, who stands, 1. foot on Sheridan's 
shoulder, r. on Lauderdale's head, hailing a distant fleet which is leaving 

a fortified French port. He says : Make haste Citoyens or by there will 

be no money left for us. From Lauderdale's pocket projects a paper: 
Petition ag^ Earl of Errol [see No. 9024]. 

On the 1. Dundas, in profile to the r., kneels (as in No. 8836) to catch 
guineas in his Scots cap. He wears Highland dress and his plaid is full 
of coins. He says they're a cooming. Burke drags at a cloth filled with coins, 
saying, theyre a coming. Grenville walks oflF in profile to the 1., carrying 
on his back a sack inscribed £100 (ciphers concealed) saying They're a 
coming; Windham drags off his sackful, saying. They're a coming, make 
hast or we will be all Killed off. Pitt's coat-pocket is full of coins. An imita- 
tion of No. 8836. 

Reproduced, Broadley, i. 83. 

8837 a a French copy (reversed, and without inscriptions), M' Pitt 
fabricant de nouvelles telegraphiques, is reproduced, Jaime, ii, PI. 55 G (Blum, 
No. 598). The heads have lost their characterization. 
4^X5! in. B.M.L. 1266. g. 5. 



8837 B Another French copy without inscriptions, Af Pitt fabriquant des 
iiouvelles Pelegraphique [sic] is one of four copies of English prints on the 
same plate, see No, 8916. 



Woodward del. [? I. Cruikshank f.] 

Pub Nov. 21. iyg6hy S. W. Fores N° 50 Piccadilly corner of Sackville 
Street Folios of Caracatures lent out for the Eveni?ig 

Engraving (coloured impression). Twelve standing figures arranged in two 
rows, their words etched above their heads, [i] A fat and prosperous 
citizen smoking a long pipe, smoke puffing from the corners of his mouth 
and his nostrils : / will be bound — with a dozen of our Club and a proper 
allowance of fire, and the best Virginia, to smoke the French Mounseers from. 
Dover to Calais, in the turning of a Tobacco stopper, who's afraid? (cf. 
No. 8220). The others, who make similar boasts of their ability to resist 
an invasion are: [2] A shambling journeyman tailor who speaks in the name 
of all united Taylors. [3] A ragged cobbler, knock-kneed to deformity, 
who is also a preacher, cf. No. 8026. [4] A 'Loyal Gypsy' with an (un- 
necessary) wooden leg. [5] A young woman ( ? Mrs. Concannon) as one 
of the Host of Faro, prepared to batter the enemy, with the remnants of our 
Reputations! [6] A badly maimed officer, on stumps, with amputated r. 
arm. [7] A doctor prepared to use his patent pills on the enemy. [8] A 
Billingsgate virago. [9] A yokel: they had better keep away from our village 
. . . for I believe in my heart, the very Turkies would rise in a mass against 
them, who's afraid. [10] A foppish apprentice: / am a tight dashing fresh 
water Sailor; — keep a funny row to Putney every Sunday — let me catch them 
above Bridge — thats all. who's afraid. [11] An attorney prepared to present 
his bill to the enemy. [12] A stout man wearing a hat stands in back view, 
legs astride, coat-tails raised as if with his back to the fire : Lets teach em 
good manners D mme who 's afraid? 

For the scepticism with which the Opposition treated the invasion alarm, 
see No. 8836, &c. One of a set of prints, see No. 8541, &c. A later issue 
is Vol. 2. PI. 10 (A. de R. v. 128-9). ^^l- ^- ^'- 9 '^s Anticipations or Taxes 
as they will be, i June 1796 (A. de R. v. 132-3). 

Listed by Broadley (Addenda). 


London Pub by W Holland Nov 21 iyg6 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt stands (1.), flogging a top (r.) sur- 
mounted by the head of Fox ; tears gush from the closed eyes. Fox wears a 
bonnet-rouge and registers intense melancholy. Pitt scowls down at him, 
his head turned in profile, 1. arm bent, with closed fist. His r. hand, raised 
above his head, holds a scourge, whose lashes are close to the top which is 
shaped like a pointed and decapitated egg. 

Reproduced, B. Lynch, Hist, of Caricature, 1926, pi. viii. 


' EWTON invf et fecit has been erased but is just legible. 



J' Gy d. etfed 

Pu¥ Nov" 25. iyg6. by H. Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). A grotesque body of tradesmen, &c., 
march in close formation, with fixed bayonets. They wear military coats 
and crossed bandoliers with very unsoldierly foot-gear and appurtenances. 
Their leader (r.) marches in profile to the r., a very short and fat butcher 
in over-sleeves wearing a feathered cocked hat above his butcher's cap, 
a military sash (from which hangs his steel) over an apron. He carries a 
banner on which St. George is killing the dragon. 

The front rank consists of (1. to r.): a cobbler wearing an apron, with the 
twisted shins known as cheese-cutters, and tattered stockings; a brick- 
layer, with thick gouty legs, a trowel thrust through his apron-string; an 
artist, his palette inscribed R.A, very thin and with a grotesquely thin 
neck ; his toes project through a tattered boot of fashionable shape ; a tailor 
with shears and tape-measure, a hairdresser with scissors and combs wear- 
ing a fashionable stock. On the 1. of this front rank a dwarfish drummer, 
an old campaigner with two wooden legs and one eye, beats his drum. 
Behind, the men recede in perspective, densely packed together. 

A satire on Pitt's proposal, made on 18 Oct. 1796 (among other defence 
measures), for a supplementary militia of 60,000, one-sixth to be embodied 
in succession for twenty days' training. Pari. Hist, xxxii. 12 10. This was 
denounced by Fox as *a measure for impressing the subjects of this country 
into the land service'. Pari. Reg. Ixiii. 104-5. C- Abbot, Diary and 
Corr., 1 86 1, i. 69, See No. 8977. For Pitt's defence measures see No. 
8836, &c. The artist is Hoppner, in actual fact handsome, prosperous, 
and popular; he had formerly been poor and in debt (Farington, 
Diary, i. 84). 

Grego, Gillray, p. 206. Wright and Evans, No. 133. Reprinted, G.W.G., 
1830. Reproduced, Ashbee, p. 66. 
9^X13! in. 


Woodward del 

Published Nov'' 28 iyg6 by S W Fores 50 Piccadilly. Folios of Carica- 
turtes [sic] lent out for the Evening? 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt, chapeau-bras, stalks haughtily 
from his coach (1.) towards the door of the House of Commons (r.), his 
head thrown back, 1. hand on his breast, a small empty bag in his r. hand. 
Documents inscribed Taxes protrude from his coat-pocket. Spectators 
cluster in the foreground to see him pass. A very stout constable with a 
long staflF motions them back, shouting, make way there for the Minister 
Take Care of your Pockets. He wears the red waistcoat of the Bow-street 
runner and is probably Townsend (there is a certain resemblance to 
Dighton's portrait). A stout citizen puts his hands in his coat-pockets, 
pulling them together to protect them from Pitt at whom he stares fixedly. 
A young man puts his hand on his shoulder and points at his pocket. A 
young woman looks contemptuously at Pitt, saying, what a bit of a thing 
it is. Behind Pitt a footman folds up the steps of his carriage and is about 



to shut the door. A dog, his collar inscribed Paid for, sniffs at the man and 
befouls his leg. The fat coachman sits impassively on the box. 

Pitt's budget speech was made on 7 Dec. Cf. No. 8836, &c. For the 
dog-tax see No. 8794, &c. 
9|Xi2 in. 


A hint from Gil Bias, 
f Qy d:etfed 
Pu¥ Dec'' 10^^ 1796. by H: Humphrey New Bond Street 

Engraving (coloured impression). John Bull (1.), a stout countryman wear- 
ing jack-boots, rides (r. to 1.) through a wood on a wretched hack, ready 
to fall under his weight. Pitt kneels on the ground (r.) in profile to the 1., 
aiming a blunderbuss (which is supported on crossed sticks) point-blank 
at John; it is inscribed Standing Army. He masquerades as a beggar: his 
dress is tattered, on the ground is his hat, containing coins; he says: 
" Good Sir , for Charity' s sake \ '^ have Pity upon a poor ruin' d Man; — | "drop 
if you please, a few bits of | "Money into the Hat, & you shall \ "be rewarded 
hereafter — From his coat-pocket project a cocked pistol and a paper: Forced 
Loan in reserve. He points to a document on the ground beside him: 
Humble Petition, for Voluntary — Contribution Subscriptions & new Taxes, 
to save the Distres' d from taking worse Courses. 

John Bull has dropped his reins and holds his hat, full of guineas ; he 
looks with melancholy distrust at Pitt, but drops guineas into his hat. His 
horse, disfigured with sores, is evidently the white horse of Hanover, its 
head-band is red and blue, the Windsor uniform (cf. No. 8691, &c.). From 
the bushes behind Pitt emerge the heads and shoulders of (r. to 1.) Dundas, 
Grenville, and Burke, each with a pistol levelled at John Bull. Dundas 
wears Highland dress, Grenville peer's robes and a grenadier's cap with 
the letters H^'"i? (cf. Nos. 7479, 7494, &c.): he looks down reflectively at 
Pitt instead of at his victim, implying that he is his cousin's henchman; 
Burke has a pen in his hat. On the 1. is a signpost pointing (r.) From Con- 
stitution Hill (cf. No. 8287) and (1.) To Slavery Slough by Beggary Corner. 

A satire on the 'Loyalty loan' of ;^ 18,000,000 and on the defence 
measures for which it was raised: a special levy of 15,000 men to reinforce 
the army, 20,000 irregular cavalry, and 60,000 Supplementary Militia (see 
No. 8840) which are pilloried as unconstitutional, see No. 8836, &c. The 
loan was raised by a direct appeal to the public in a letter to the Lord 
Mayor and Directors of the Bank of England on i Dec, at a rate 
(Sf P^r cent.) lower than would have prevailed in the open market. Rose, 
Pitt and the Great War, p. 305 ; Newmarch, On the Loans raised by Mr. 
Pitt, iyg3-i8oi, 1855, pp. 16-18. Cf. C. Abbot, Diary, p. 76: 'The loan 
for 18,000000 1., was this day [i Dec] settled; after all the apprehensions 
of a voluntary subscription with compulsive clauses, 8.000.000 1. were 
subscribed the same day.' These apprehensions derived from a conference 
with the bankers, at which Pitt said that if voluntary subscriptions were 
not forthcoming, *a peremptory mode of drawing forth the resources of 
the kingdom must be adopted ... in the last resort'. Lond. Chron., 
29 Nov. 1796. Sheffield wrote, 3 Dec: 'To threaten those who will not 
subscribe, to oblige them to pay extravagantly, is in the tone of the high- 
wayman or of the rogue who sends a threatening letter: "Deliver your 



money, or, d n you, I'll blow it out of your pockets." ' Auckland Corr. 

iii. 366. See Nos. 8843, 9033. Cf. Nos. 8829, 8836. 

Grego, Gillray, pp. 206-7. Wright and Evans, No. 158. Reprinted, 
G.W.G., 1830. 


R'^ N. [Newton] lygd 

London Pu¥ by W. Holland, Oxford S^ Dec. iyg6 

Engraving (coloured impression). Pitt sits astride a huge pile of bundles 
strapped to the back of a bull (John Bull) ; he is about to enter a high arch- 
way inscribed Trea[sury]. His pose and expression combine jauntiness 
with dignity. His head is in profile to the r., his r. hand on his hip, he 
wears a large bag to his wig, and while pressing his hat under his 1. arm 
holds the (slack) reins of the bull ; his long thin leg hangs considerably 
above the bull's back, owing to the height of the bundles. The sturdy bull, 
though with downcast head and closed eyes, is not weighed down with his 
burden. Dundas (r.), in Highland dress, marches grinning in front of the 
bull, playing the bagpipes which are inscribed Union Pipes and have a 
transparent bag filled with coins. 

The bull's burden consists of ten superimposed bundles, inscribed with 
figures relating to the Loyalty Loan. Some of these are 30 000!, 30 000!, 
East India Company 2 000 000!!!, Duke of Queensbury loo-ooof, 
100 000!, Pit[t] D. dass loooo [partly obscured by Pitt's foot], 50000, 
Duke of Bridgewater 100 000!, Corporation of London 100 000! 

Behind the bull and on the extreme 1. are crowded together four British 
Jacobins, much caricatured, wearmg bonnets-rouges and looking up at 
Pitt with anger and dismay. Their heads rise vertically one behind the 
other ; the foremost and lowest is Fox, clenching his fist, next Sheridan in 
profile ; then Stanhope, the fourth a mere scrawl. 

The Loyalty Loan of ;C 18,000,000, see No. 8842, was a triumph for Pitt ; 
it was completely subscribed within five days (15 hours and 20 minutes 
in all), and many were disappointed. The Duke of Bridgewater handed 
in a draft at sight for ^100,000. Stanhope, Life of Pitt, 1879, ii. 162-4. 
For Pitt as 'William the Conqueror' cf. No. 7494, &c. 
15! Xiof in. 


IC [Cruikshank.] 

London Pu¥ by S W Fores N 50 Piccadilly Dece^ 26 iyg6 

Engraving (coloured impression). The Empress Catherine, at the point of 
death, leans back supporting herself on a chest or seat against the wall (r.) 
of her closet. She shrinks terrified from solid clouds rolling towards her, 
which support many spectres. Death, a skeleton, stands behind and above 
her, his spear about to strike her through the brain. In the upper 1. corner 
the sack of Warsaw is in progress, soldiers are killing women and children, 
others hurling bodies from a battlement. Near these groups of tiny figures 
Kosciusko sits heavily shackled, a pitcher beside him. Next him stands 
Stanislaus II oi Poland, wearing his (lost) crown, his wrists chained. Nearest 
the Empress stands Peter in a shroud and wearing a crown, holding out 



clasped hands towards her. A woman's arm points at him with a rod. The 
other figures are persons in death-agonies : a young man is suspended by 
the bound wrists from a gibbet. A naked man holds up a rope which is 
round his neck; a decapitated man holds out his head; a hand holds a 
sword which has transfixed the naked body of a woman; a naked child 
holds up a goblet. Other heads emerge from the clouds. 

The Empress clutches at her petticoat, revealing two cloven hoofs. 
Behind her head is a bust portrait of Fox, looking with horror at the ghosts 
among the clouds. The end of the chest on which she sits is removed, 
showing within it two grinning demons among flames, holding up an open 
box inscribed for Kates Spirit. 

News that the Empress had died of apoplexy on 17 Nov., while 
alone in her closet, reached London on 19 Dec. Lond. Chron., 20 Dec. 
Her murdered husband (as in No. 8124, &c.), the destruction of Poland, 
and the sack of Warsaw (actually its suburb, Praga, see No. 8607, &c.), 
the imprisoned Kosciusko (released on Catherine's death) are among the 
visions which beset her. The deposed Stanislaus had been pensioned. The 
portrait of Fox indicates his bust (actually discarded), see No. 7902, &c. 
io|x 14-^ in. 


Rue du Theatre-Fratifais, n° 4. 

Engraving (coloured impression). A scene on the coast near Calais. 
Two French soldiers on the extreme 1., making angry gestures and hold- 
ing, one a bayonet, the other a sabre, supervise the departure of Malmes- 
bury. One says : Renvoyes nous done les Barons, Comtes, Marquis, Dues et 
Pairs et les restes des bouehes inutiles et Couteuses que vous gardes [sie] a 
Londres. Malmesbury, in the form of an ass (r.), is surrounded by his 
French supporters. On his 1. are four turkey-cocks, members of his 
mission. On his back is a cross, on his 1. foreleg a bandage inscribed 
Honnisoit quimalypense; on his hind quarters a paper inscribed ultimatum. 
He excretes guineas which a well-dressed Frenchman catches in his hat. 
A Projet de Monarehie issues from the latter's pocket. Another man kneels to 
collect guineas; from his pocket issues a Satire eontre la Repuhlique. A 
third, on the extreme r., wearing clerical bands, runs off with a hatful 
of guineas. Six more Frenchmen obsequiously approach the ass from the 
r. ; he turns his head towards them. They offer him papers, one is J^loge 
de Malmesbury. The most conspicuous are fashionably dressed, their chins 
swathed in cravats ; one looks through a lorgnette. 

In the background is the channel: a jetty on the 1. is inscribed Calais, 
across the water is Douvres : a castle on a hill dominating a small town 
on the sea shore. Five horsemen in the middle distance (emissaries of 
Malmesbury to Pitt) gallop towards a waiting boat. Beneath the design: 
Un Ambassadeur tres-eelebre ; dont Vetimologie du nom anglais signifie 
Mauvaise Bourique, se retire marque du signe de La Croix inefaeable. Les 
Grands du Royaume des Ineroyables supplient tres humblement son exeellence 
et ses Conseillers d'ambassade, d'aceepter graeieusement quelques journaux 
qu'elle a le plus agrees en Franee. U Ambassadeur en eolere leur montre 
les dents et leur dit Vous aves gauchement publie mes instruetions et devoile 
mes intrigues. Si vous ne faites mieux je m'adresserai a d'autres. II laehe 
en meme tems quelques Guinees que des folliculaires tres-eonnus, en se battant 
ramassent. C'est ainsi qu'en se quittant ils se font les adieux. Des Courriers 



precurseurs vont annoncer a Pitt que ses guinees sont prodiguees en pure perte 
et que la Belgique &c &c &c vaut mieux pour la France que Pondicheri et 

5'* Lucie [sic] en attendant, les vainqueurs de Quiberon disent: 

Ce qui est bon a prendre est bon a garder. 

For Malmesbury's mission see No. 8829, &c. He offered restitution 
of (some) overseas conquests but insisted that France should relinquish 
the Netherlands (this was the crucial point). The ultimatum requiring 
him to leave France within forty-eight hours was received on 19 Dec. 
The peace party in France, styled *la faction des anciennes limites' (cf. 
No. 8675), is pilloried as royalist and corrupt. For Malmesbury's supposed 
intrigues in France see Guyot, Le Directoire et la Paix de V Europe, 191 2, 
p. 300. For the gold of Pitt cf. No. 8363, &c. 

Hennin, No. 12361, where it is attributed to Malmesbury's second 
mission, see No. 9031. But opposition to the retention of the Netherlands 
by France was the central point of the 1796 negotiations: in 1797 their 
retention was accepted. The 1797 scheme for obtaining peace through the 
bribery of Barras was no part of Malmesbury's mission and is certainly 
not a subject of this print. 
I2f X19I in. 


Hollandia Regenerata is the title of a set of twenty plates published in 
London in 1796 in book form. These must be the prints of which Sir J. 
Dalrymple writes: 'During the present Revolutions of Holland a Series of 
Engravings was published, which containing a Succession of Events, and 
Consequences from them, formed a Kind of History, whereby Men were 
taught their Duty in public Life by their Fears and their Dangers. Twelve 
thousand Copies were circulated in that Country at a trifling Expense. 
The Antidote however came too late for the Poison.' Consequences of the 
French Invasion, 1798, pp. iv-v (see No. 9180). For the conquest see 
No. 8608, &c. They are after drawings by David Hess, a Swiss officer 
formerly in the service of Holland. They are said to have been etched by 
'Humphries' (identified in Thieme Becker as W. Humphreys), but are in 
the manner of Gillray. Confusion may have arisen from the drawings 
having been sent (as seems probable) to H. Humphrey for engraving and 

There are two bound sets of Hollandia Regenerata in the Print Room, 
one printed in black, the other in red. In the latter, each plate is faced 
by a printed explanation in French (the titles are not translated) and by 
appropriate texts from the Bible in Dutch and in English. The inscrip- 
tions on the plates are partly in French, partly in Dutch, and occasionally 
in English. 

Van Stolk, No. 5346. Muller, No. 5431 a. de Vinck, Nos. 4712-31 (the 
French explanations quoted textually). J. Grand- Carteret, Les Moeurs et 
la Caricature en Allemagne . . ., 1885, pp. 56-60. 

The plates were (closely) copied for an edition published in Venice in 
1799: La Regenerazione \ dell' Olanda \ Specchio \ a Tutti i Popoli Rigenerati, 
with French and Italian text, and additional notes, e.g. 'Possano i mali 
sofferti dair Italia servir d'esempio alle altre Nazioni . . .', p. i. The titles 
and inscriptions are in Italian. Copy in Print Room. 

Six plates were copied with alterations, it is said by Hess ( ? by Gillray, 
cf. No. 8859), reduced to fit the small narrow page of the 1799 Revolutions- 
Almanach, Gottingen (not in B.M.L.). Le Livre, iv, 1883, p. 385. 



SON! &y m 

Engraving. Frontispiece. A Dutch soldier (1.) and his wife (r.), joining 
hands, dance round a tree of Liberty to music supplied by a foppish French 
soldier on the extreme 1. who beats a drum and blows a trumpet, and by 
a stout Dutchman on the extreme r. who plays bagpipes inscribed Vader- 
lands Liefde (Love of Countr